Believe Tour

The Believe Tour was the second concert tour by Canadian pop star Justin Bieber. It was launched in support of Believe. Beginning in September 2012, the tour played over 150 shows in the Americas, Asia and Australasia. In 2012, the tour placed 23rd on Pollstar's "Top 50 Worldwide Tours"; the tour earned $40.2 million from 35 shows. For 2013, it ranked 5th on Pollstar's "Top 100 Worldwide Tours—Mid Year"; the tour was announced on 2012, during Bieber's appearance on The Ellen DeGeneres Show. Dates were revealed for shows in the United States and Canada in the day. Bieber stated. Shows in the United Kingdom were reported in July 2012, with the tour expected to reach Asia, South America, along with South Africa and the Middle East sometime in 2013. Rehearsals began in late July 2012 at the Long Beach Arena in California. Bieber and his crew would conduct 10-hour rehearsal days, he stated. The tour was an early success in the United States, with many dates selling out in one hour; the two shows at Madison Square Garden were sold out in 30 seconds.

In August, the singer conducted an online search for dancers on the tour. The tour kicked off in Arizona at the Arena. The premiere made headlines for Bieber feeling ill during the show, his performances of "Out of Town Girl" and "Beauty and a Beat" were interrupted as the singer vomited on and off stage. Justin Bieber reported further troubles during the concert at the Tacoma Dome in Washington. After the show, Bieber tweeted camera were stolen during the show. Many fans lashed out against the arena. Three days following the show, Vevo premiered the video for the singer's third single with an opening message: "In October 2012, three hours of personal footage was stolen from musician Justin Bieber; the following footage was illegally uploaded by an anonymous blogger." Many media outlets reported. However, the singer's management still affirm; when reflecting on the Believe Tour, Bieber's favorite moment was his introduction when he would come down from the top of the stage in wings, remain above the audience for about 30 seconds.

Bieber explained, "It's going to be such a memorable moment from any tour. I think. Coming down right from the beginning of the show, it's the wings for about 30 seconds. It's such a big moment. People are just captivated and there's nothing else going on, so that moment is going to bleed into their memory." For the tour premiere, Christina Fuoco-Karasinski felt his fans still suffered from Bieber Fever until she realized the vast amount of differences among ages. "Bieber, a native of Stratford, Canada, provided a show that made the cavernous arena seem intimate. Massive amounts of lasers sliced through the 15,000-seat venue, breaking Arena into several sections."For the show in Los Angeles, Matt Kivel called the show epic yet strangely incoherent. He writes, "Without the pomp and glitz, his talent is unquestionable and the acoustic tracks allowed for a welcome respite from the sensory overload that characterized the evening, his ambition has never been in question, but a greater thematic focus would go a long way toward helping Bieber reach the level of maturity for which he strives."For the same show, Sophie A. Schillaci says the show is absurd for those outside of Bieber's fanbase.

She continues, "Vocally, Bieber shined the most with an acoustic performance of'Fall', during which he strummed a guitar while propped up high above the stage. Through the rest of his set, which included a high-energy if way too brief montage of'One Time','Eenie Meenie' and'Somebody to Love', the singing appeared to take a back seat to the dance moves and pyrotechnics, but audience interaction kept his fans coming back for more."Peter Hartlaub praised the stage design during the concert at the Oracle Arena. However, the critic relayed the scripted nature of the production, stating, "Every decision on the night seemed like a calculated part of Bieber's attempt to execute a full Timberlake, move from preteen deity to full-blown cross-generational pop star." For the concert at the Scotiabank Saddledome, Mike Bell called the show a sensory catnip for tweens. He says, "The two-hour concert was so synthetic and filled with fake moments that it was difficult to discern what was being sung live and what was Memorex, with most of the songs such as'All Around the World','One Time' and'Beauty and the Beat' being so stripped of all humanity that they were one more element to the flash and bang taking place around it.

Only on the odd occasion—songs such as'Die In Your Arms', the acoustic'Be Alright' and'Beautiful', his duet with opener Carly Rae Jepsen—did he show off any real, albeit underwhelming, vocal talent, then it was difficult not to look at him and wonder if behind the screens and the curtain, there wasn't a tinman pushing the buttons and counting his money as the clock ticked down" This set list is representative of the show on June 28, 2013. It does not represent all concerts for the duration of the tour. Justin Bieber's Official Website

Multiplicative cascade

In mathematics, a multiplicative cascade is a fractal/multifractal distribution of points produced via an iterative and multiplicative random process. Model I: = Model II: = Model III: = The plots above are examples of multiplicative cascade multifractals. To create these distributions there are a few steps to take. Firstly, we must create a lattice of cells. Secondly, an iterative process is followed to create multiple levels of the lattice: at each iteration the cells are split into four equal parts; each new cell is assigned a probability randomly from the set without replacement, where p i ∈. This process is continued to the Nth level. For example, in constructing such a model down to level 8 we produce a 48 array of cells. Thirdly, the cells are filled as follows: We take the probability of a cell being occupied as the product of the cell's own pi and those of all its parents. A Monte Carlo rejection scheme is used until the desired cell population is obtained, as follows: x and y cell coordinates are chosen randomly, a random number between 0 and 1 is assigned.

To produce the plots above we filled the probability density field with 5,000 points in a space of 256 × 256. An example of the probability density field: The fractals are not scale-invariant and therefore cannot be considered standard fractals, they can however be considered multifractals. The Rényi dimensions can be theoretically predicted, it can be shown that as N → ∞, D q = log 2 ⁡ 1 − q, where N is the level of the grid refinement and, f i = p i ∑ i p i. Fractal dimension Hausdorff dimension Scale invariance


Deflexula is a genus of tooth fungi in the family Pterulaceae. The genus was circumscribed by British botanist E. J. H. Corner in his 1950 work "Clavaria and Allied Genera"; the type species, Deflexula fascicularis, was described in 1901 as Pterula fascicularis by Giacomo Bresadola and Narcisse Théophile Patouillard. The fruit bodies are small, up to 25 mm long. Spores are white in deposit, spherical to ellipsoidal, with large oil droplets; the basidia are large and four-spored. The hyphal system is dimitic, the skeletal hyphae have clamp connections. List of Agaricales genera