Belitung shipwreck

The Belitung shipwreck is the wreck of an Arabian dhow which sank en route from Africa to China around 830 CE. The ship completed the outward journey, but sank on the return journey 1 mile off the coast of Belitung Island, Indonesia, it is unclear. Belitung is to the south-east of the Singapore Strait by 380 miles, this secondary route is more normal for ships travelling from the Java Sea, south of Belitung Island; the wreck has given archaeologists two major discoveries: the biggest single collection of Tang dynasty artefacts found in one location, the so-called "Tang Treasure". The treasure has been kept as one collection and, during the excavation, the efforts to preserve the integrity of the site and its cargo have resulted in detailed archaeological evidence; this evidence has given new insight into the construction methods used in shipbuilding, the items and style of artefacts has revealed unknown facts about the trade between the two areas. The wreck was discovered by fishermen in 1998 in the Gelasa Strait in 51 feet of water.

The site location was purchased from local fishermen and a license to engage in excavation was awarded to a local Indonesian company. The dig was subsequently financed and excavated by Tilman Walterfang and his team at Seabed Explorations, under a license of co-operation with the original salvage company, after a request from the Indonesian Government; the excavations spanned two expeditions, one which commenced in August 1998 and the second in 1999. Seabed Explorations provided vessels and financed government naval operations to safeguard the wreck site before and during the monsoon season, it is unclear why the ship was so far from its expected route, as most ships leaving China for Arabia would have sailed through the South China Sea. They would turn north-west after passing southern Vietnam, continuing through the Singapore Strait into the Straits of Malacca between Peninsular Malaysia and Sumatra. Belitung is some distance from this route, it is unclear how the vessel came to be in this area.

Belitung is to the south-east of the Singapore Strait by 380 miles, this secondary route is more normal for ships travelling from the Java Sea, south of Belitung Island, to the Strait of Malacca 380 miles north of the Island. The shipwrecked dhow was 21 feet wide and 58 feet long and is remarkable for two reasons; the wreck timbers were found under a sediment that preserved the remains of the wooden vessel, without which the wreck would have been lost due to marine worms. Wrecks of this age are rare finds and this particular one was in such a good condition that much of the hull was preserved; this has given us an insight into how ships of this period were constructed—something which has not been seen before as no Arabian ship of this type had been found, nor any with their cargo intact. Pieces of the original timbers were preserved enough to allow scientists to analyse them and determine some of the types of wood used, it is possible that the ship was constructed in western Asia and bought by Arabian merchants to be used for the Oman to China route.

The ship was constructed around a 15.3 metres long keel of 14–15-centimetre thickness, believed to have survived intact. The front of the ship had a 61° angle of rake at the bow where the stem post was joined to the keel with mortise and tenon joints and secured with 16-millimetre diameter rope; the hull planks were stitched onto the frames and keel through holes spaced at 5–6-centimetre intervals. The boat had a keelson for added strength. Michael Flecker, the chief excavating archaeologist at the site, compared the wrecked ship to three types of the same period and concluded that the wreck most resembled "lashed-lug" ships of south-east Asia—first used in the 5th century, he said that stitched boats were found from the African coast, Oman, in the Red Sea, on the Indian coast, as far as the Maldives. He notes that Roman references by Procopius in the 6th century tell of boats with planks stitched together in a similar fashion used in "Indian Seas". Though Arabian ships of this type have not been found before, they are mentioned in text including the late-Tang Ling biao lu yi.

According to John Guy, curator of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the book "describes the ships of foreign merchants as being stitched together with the fiber of coir-palms and having their seams caulked rather than using iron nails to secure their planks". Samples of wood from the shipwreck were sent for analysis at the Forest and Forest Products division of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Australia; the analysis was conducted by Jugo Ilic of a wood identification specialist. Many of the samples were too badly deteriorated to be positively identified, as the lack of cellulose remaining in the wood cells prevented successful analysis. Many types of wood have been positively identified: teak was used for the through-beams and is resilient to the teredo worm, the ceilin

Leyenda de Plata (2005)

The Leyenda de Plata was professional wrestling tournament produced by the Mexican wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre that ran from October 28, 2005, over the course of three of CMLL's Friday night shows in Arena México with the finals on November 11, 2005. The annual Leyenda de Plata tournament is held in honor of lucha libre legend El Santo and is one of CMLL's most important annual tournaments; the 2005 Leyenda de Plata is the only tournament to not feature the previous year's champion defending the trophy intentionally, playing off Aguayo's breaking of the trophy the previous year. The lack of defending champion forced CMLL to change the format of the Leyenda de Plata as they held two eight-man torneo cibernetico elimination matches instead of one 16-man, with the winner of each cibernetico facing each other the following week; the two cibernetico format has been the standard tournament format for the Leyenda de Plata since 2005. The first cibernetico took place on October 28, 2005 and featured El Hijo del Santo, Hombre Sin Nombre, La Máscara, Volador Jr. Misterioso Jr. Jado and Negro Casas.

The match came down to Hijo del Santo and Casas and ended in a double pin. After the match was restarted El Hijo del Santo won by submission; the second cibernetico took place on November 4 and saw Atlantis outlast a field that included Místico, Último Dragón, Máxmio, El Sagrado, Hijo de Pierroth and Gedo. On November 11, 2005, Atlantis defeated El Hijo del Santo with help from his corner-man Último Guerrero to win the seventh Leyenda de Plata; the Leyenda de Plata is an annual lucha libre tournament scripted and promoted by the Mexican professional wrestling promotion Consejo Mundial de Lucha Libre. The first Leyenda de Plata was held in 1998 and was in honor of El Santo, nicknamed Enmáscarado de Plata from which the tournament got its name; the trophy given to the winner is a plaque with a metal replica of the mask that El Santo wore in both wrestling and lucha films. The Leyenda de Plata was held annually until 2003, at which point El Santo's son, El Hijo del Santo left CMLL on bad terms; the tournament returned in 2004 and has been held on an annual basis since then.

The original format of the tournament was the Torneo cibernetico elimination match to qualify for a semi-final. The winner of the semi-final would face the winner of the previous year's tournament in the final. Since 2005 CMLL has held two cibernetico matches and the winner of each meet in the semi-final. In 2011, the tournament was modified to eliminate the final stage as the previous winner, Místico, did not work for CMLL at that point in time The 2005 edition of La Leyenda de Plata was the seventh overall tournament held by CMLL; the events featured a total of number of professional wrestling matches with different wrestlers involved in pre-existing scripted feuds and storylines. Wrestlers were portrayed as either heels or faces as they followed a series of tension-building events, which culminated in a wrestling match or series of matches. C

Katarzyna Wo┼║niak

Katarzyna Bronisława Woźniak is a Polish speed skater. She is a bronze medalist of the Olympic Games. Katarzyna Woźniak was born in Poland. In 2005, she graduated the School of Sports Championships in Zakopane, she is studying at the Academy of Physical Education in Kraków. In 2010, she was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of the Rebirth of Poland. Katarzyna's fiancée is Konrad Niedźwiedzki Polish speed skater. At the Olympic Games in Vancouver 2010 she was 28th individual on distance 3000 m and won bronze medal with team Katarzyna Bachleda-Curuś, Natalia Czerwonka and Luiza Złotkowska. At the Olympic Games in Sochi 2014 she won silver medal with the same team and was 15th individual on distance 5000 m. Archive of Katarzyna Woźniak's profile at SCG Archive of Katarzyna Woźniak's profile, from