United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
St. George's Caye
St. George's Caye is an island in the Caribbean Sea, eight miles east of Belize City, it is part of the Belize District of Central America. The village on the island is known as St. George's Caye; as of 2000, St. George's Caye had a permanent population of about 20 people. St. George's Caye was known by the Spaniards as "Cayo Cocina", or "Kitchen Cay", it was settled as a town in 1650, was the largest settlement in what was British Honduras in the 17th century and 18th century. St. George's Caye was Belize's first capital in the 1700s. Following Spanish Capture of Cayo Cocina in 1779, from 3 September through 10 September 1798, British settlers fought and defeated a small Spanish fleet sent to drive them from the area; the British Army maintains an adventure training establishment on the island, allowing members of the British Forces stationed at the nearby British Army Training and Support Unit Belize and their families a chance to take part in such activities as diving and sailing. Aside from several private residences, the island has St. George's Caye Resort.
Resort activities focus on diving and snorkeling
Bell UH-1 Iroquois
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois is a utility military helicopter powered by a single turboshaft engine, with two-blade main and tail rotors. The first member of the prolific Huey family, it was developed by Bell Helicopter to meet a United States Army's 1952 requirement for a medical evacuation and utility helicopter, first flew in 1956; the UH-1 was the first turbine-powered helicopter produced for the United States military, more than 16,000 have been built since 1960. The Iroquois was designated HU-1, hence the Huey nickname, which has remained in common use, despite the official redesignation to UH-1 in 1962; the UH-1 first saw service in combat operations during the Vietnam War, with around 7,000 helicopters deployed. The Bell 204 and 205 are Iroquois versions developed for the civil market. In 1952, the U. S. Army identified a requirement for a new helicopter to serve as medical evacuation, instrument trainer, general utility aircraft; the Army determined that current helicopters were too large, underpowered, or too complex to maintain easily.
In November 1953, revised military requirements were submitted to the Department of the Army. Twenty companies submitted designs in their bid for the contract, including Bell Helicopter with the Model 204 and Kaman Aircraft with a turbine-powered version of the H-43. On 23 February 1955, the Army announced its decision, selecting Bell to build three copies of the Model 204 for evaluation with the designation XH-40. Powered by a prototype Lycoming YT53-L-1 engine producing 700 shp, the XH-40 first flew on 20 October 1956 at Fort Worth, with Bell's chief test pilot, Floyd Carlson, at the controls. Two more prototypes were built in 1957, the Army had ordered six YH-40 service test aircraft before the first prototype had flown. In March 1960, the Army awarded Bell a production contract for 100 aircraft, designated as the HU-1A and named Iroquois after the Native American nations; the helicopter developed a nickname derived from its designation of HU-1, which came to be pronounced as "Huey". The reference became so popular that Bell began casting the name on the helicopter's anti-torque pedals.
The official U. S. Army name was never used in practice. After September 1962, the designation for all models was changed to UH-1 under a unified Department of Defense designation system, but the nickname remained. While glowing in praise for the helicopter's advances over piston-engined helicopters, the Army reports from the service tests of the YH-40 found it to be underpowered with the production T53-L-1A powerplant producing a maximum continuous 770 shaft horsepower; the Army indicated the need for improved follow-on models as the first UH-1As were being delivered. In response, Bell proposed the UH-1B, equipped with the Lycoming T53-L-5 engine producing 960 shp and a longer cabin that could accommodate either seven passengers or four stretchers and a medical attendant. Army testing of the UH-1B started in November 1960, with the first production aircraft delivered in March 1961. Bell commenced development of the UH-1C in 1960 in order to correct aerodynamic deficiencies of the armed UH-1B.
Bell fitted the UH-1C with a 1,100 shp T53-L-11 engine to provide the power needed to lift all weapons systems in use or under development. The Army refitted all UH-1B aircraft with the same engine. A new rotor system was developed for the UH-1C to allow higher air speeds and reduce the incidence of retreating blade stall during diving engagements; the improved rotor resulted in a slight speed increase. The increased power and a larger diameter rotor required Bell's engineers to design a new tail boom for the UH-1C; the longer tail boom incorporated a wider chord vertical fin on the tail rotor pylon and larger synchronized elevators. Bell introduced a dual hydraulic control system for redundancy as well as an improved inlet filter system for the dusty conditions found in southeast Asia; the UH-1C fuel capacity was increased to 242 US gallons, gross weight was raised to 9,500 lb, giving a nominal useful load of 4,673 lb. UH-1C production started in June 1966 with a total of 766 aircraft produced, including five for the Royal Australian Navy and five for Norway.
While earlier "short-body" Hueys were a success, the Army wanted a version that could carry more troops. Bell's solution was to stretch the HU-1B fuselage by 41 in and use the extra space to fit four seats next to the transmission, facing out. Seating capacity increased including crew; the enlarged cabin could accommodate six stretchers and a medic, two more than the earlier models. In place of the earlier model's sliding side doors with a single window, larger doors were fitted which had two windows, plus a small hinged panel with an optional window, providing enhanced access to the cabin; the doors and hinged panels were removable, allowing the Huey to be flown in a "doors off" configuration. The Model 205 prototype flew on 16 August 1961. Seven pre-production/prototype aircraft had been delivered for testing at Edwards AFB starting in March 1961; the 205 was equipped with a 44-foot main rotor and a Lycoming T53-L-9 engine with 1,100 shp. The rotor was lengthened to 48 feet with a chord of 21 in.
The tailboom was lengthened, in order to accommodate the longer rotor blades. Altogether, the modifications resulted in a gross weight capacity of 9,500 lb; the Army ordered production of the 205 in 1963, produced with a T53-L-11 engine for its multi-fuel capability. The prototypes were designated as YUH-1D and the production aircraft was designated as the UH-1D. In 1966, Bell instal
Corozal Town is a town in Belize, capital of Corozal District. Corozal Town is located about 84 miles north of Belize City, 9 miles from the border with Mexico; the population of Corozal Town, according to the main results of the 2010 census, is 9,871. Corozal was a private estate before becoming a town in the 1840s settled by Maya Mestizo refugees from the Caste War of Yucatán. Much of the town was built over an ancient Maya city, sometimes known as Santa Rita. Corozal Town was badly damaged by Hurricane Janet in 1955, was rebuilt afterwards. Corozal, the northmost town in Belize, was founded in 1848 by refugees from the Maya Indian uprising against the Spanish in neighbouring Yucatán; this uprising, known as the Caste War of Yucatán, began as a war against the Spaniards, but it became a war against the Mestizos. The Mestizos, half Spanish and half Indian, had proved to be formidable allies of the Spaniards, were thus mortal enemies of the Maya Indians. A massacre at Bacalar, Mexico — a Mestizo stronghold about thirty miles north of Corozal Town — led to the exodus of thousands of Mestizos from Bacalar and the surrounding area.
Between 1848 and 1856 more than 10,000 refugees crossed the Rio Hondo, the river that now serves as a boundary between Belize and Mexico. These immigrants sought refuge in northern Belize, increased the population of Corozal Town to 4500. Mr. James Blake, a magistrate, let them settle on lands in the Corozal District and helped them to establish the new crop — sugar cane; the Mestizo refugees were far from safe in Corozal Town as the Maya Indians from the Mexican base in Santa Cruz Bravo — today Carrillo Puerto — made several incursions in Corozal Town. In defense, Corozal became a garrison town and Fort Barlee was built here in 1870. Today, the brick corner supports of the fort surround the post office complex of the buildings across from the central town square; the immigrants brought with them Maya Mestizo culture: Spanish and Yucatec Maya language and Maya folklore, the use of alcalde, their family structure and way of life. Soon, there emerged a local replication of the society of the Yucatán within the boundaries of a country ruled by English expatriates.
Across the bay from Corozal Town are the mounds of Cerros, the first Maya coastal trading centre. Cerros is considered one of the most important late preclassic Maya sites because it represented the first experiment with kingship in the Maya world; the remains include a number of temples, ballcourts and minor structures. The most interesting artifacts so far discovered are the five jade head pendants. Within Corozal itself can be found another Maya ruin from the fourteenth century AD. Known as Santa Rita, the pyramid site sits atop the remains of a Maya city that dominated the area for more, than 2000 years. Burial sites rich in jewelry and artifacts have been unearthed here. Santa Rita was part of ancient Chactumal, the Maya capital of the area at the time of the first Spanish attempt to conquer the Yucatec Mayas in the early 16th century; the ruins of Santa Rita is located near the town's Hospital and is surrounded by the villages of San Andres, San Antonio, Paraiso, by walking distances. An estimated 90% of the town was destroyed by Hurricane Janet in 1955, most of the present structures post-date that hurricane.
The town is served by Corozal Hospital. According to the 2010 Population and Housing Census the town of Corozal has a total population of 9,871; the total number of households is 2,672 and the average household size is 3.7. Travel Belize – Corozal Corozal.com Corozal Town at Belize.com http://www.simplybelize.org/episode01.html Que Pasa Corozal
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
A commander-in-chief, sometimes called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. A commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or a veteran; such countries follow the principle of civilian control of the military. The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium powers. In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639, it continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is dependent upon the will of the legislature.
Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, sometimes used as a specific term; the term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, as a subordinate to a head of state. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations; this includes heads of states who: Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. Ceremonial heads of state with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making. According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, The President of Afghanistan is the Commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.
According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces. The incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta. Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the President of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation", it states that the President is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, by itself on the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces. Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that: The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor General as the Queen's representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet de facto controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister; the commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972, he relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the President of the Republic. The President of Belarus is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces; the Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons. According to the National Defence Act, t
Dangriga known as Stann Creek Town, is a town in southern Belize, located on the Caribbean coast at the mouth of the North Stann Creek River. It is the capital of Belize's Stann Creek District. Dangriga is served by the Dangriga Airport. Known as the "culture capital of Belize" due to its influence on punta music and other forms of Garifuna culture, Dangriga is the largest settlement in southern Belize. Dangriga was settled before 1832 by Garinagu from Honduras. For years it was the second largest population centre in the country behind Belize City, but in recent years has been surpassed by San Ignacio and Orange Walk Town. Since the early 1980s Garífuna culture has undergone a revival, as part of which the town's name of Dangriga, a Garífuna word meaning "standing waters", became more used; the population is a mixture of Garinagu and Mestizos. According to the Statistical Institute of Belize, Dangriga's population in 2010 was 8,767 – 4,302 males and 4,465 females. Dangriga is home to the Garifuna, a cultural and ethnic group, descendants of shipwrecked slaves and native Caribs.
The Garifuna have adopted the Carib language but kept their African musical and religious traditions, while holding a central place in the history of the Catholic church and Catholic education in Belize. Dangriga is where the Caribbean music, Punta Rock and where some of Belize's folk bands can be found. In November each year there is a week-long festivity leading up to Garifuna Settlement Day, attended by Garifuna people from around the region, it includes a torchlit parade and wreath-laying ceremony at the monument of the patriot and social activist Thomas Vincent Ramos, selection of Miss Garifuna and special church services, The T. V. Ramos Classic Bike Race; the 19 November is Garifuna Settlement Day. Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, located southwest of Dangriga. Mayflower Archeological Reserve, consisting of three ruins, two waterfalls and a view of Hopkins village as well as of the Caribbean Sea. Dangriga is a mainland access point to popular cayes in Southern Belize, including Tobacco Caye and Royal Belize.
The city is served by Southern Regional Hospital. Arlie Petters and astrophysicist Pen Cayetano and musician residing in Germany. Originator of Punta Rock. Maxime Faget, designer of the Mercury capsule, contributed to the Gemini and Apollo spacecraft as well as the Space Shuttle. T. V. Ramos, Garifuna civil rights activist from Puerto Cortez, Honduras. Ada Mari Cayetano-Kax'Oxo / Pan Africanist, Nurse-Midwife and PhD Nursing Professor. Benjamin Nicholas / Artist and Painter. Osmond P. Martin, first native Belizean Catholic bishop. Rebecca Rath and Miss Belize 2016. Rakeem Nuñez-Roches, American football player for the Kansas City Chiefs Official Dangriga website About 100 photos with Garifuna, from early 20th century