Church architecture refers to the architecture of buildings of Christian churches. It has evolved over the two thousand years of the Christian religion by innovation and by imitating other architectural styles as well as responding to changing beliefs and local traditions. From the birth of Christianity to the present, the most significant objects of transformation for Christian architecture and design were the great churches of Byzantium, the Romanesque abbey churches, Gothic cathedrals and Renaissance basilicas with its emphasis on harmony; these large ornate and architecturally prestigious buildings were dominant features of the towns and countryside in which they stood. However, far more numerous were the parish churches in Christendom, the focus of Christian devotion in every town and village. While a few are counted as sublime works of architecture to equal the great cathedrals and churches, the majority developed along simpler lines, showing great regional diversity and demonstrating local vernacular technology and decoration.
Buildings were at first from those intended for other purposes but, with the rise of distinctively ecclesiastical architecture, church buildings came to influence secular ones which have imitated religious architecture. In the 20th century, the use of new materials, such as steel and concrete, has had an effect upon the design of churches; the history of church architecture divides itself into periods, into countries or regions and by religious affiliation. The matter is complicated by the fact that buildings put up for one purpose may have been re-used for another, that new building techniques may permit changes in style and size, that changes in liturgical practice may result in the alteration of existing buildings and that a building built by one religious group may be used by a successor group with different purposes; the simplest church building comprises a single meeting space, built of locally available material and using the same skills of construction as the local domestic buildings.
Such churches are rectangular, but in African countries where circular dwellings are the norm, vernacular churches may be circular as well. A simple church may be built of mud brick and daub, split logs or rubble, it may be roofed with thatch, corrugated iron or banana leaves. However, church congregations, from the 4th century onwards, have sought to construct church buildings that were both permanent and aesthetically pleasing; this had led to a tradition in which congregations and local leaders have invested time and personal prestige into the building and decoration of churches. Within any parish, the local church is the oldest building and is larger than any pre-19th-century structure except a barn; the church is built of the most durable material available dressed stone or brick. The requirements of liturgy have demanded that the church should extend beyond a single meeting room to two main spaces, one for the congregation and one in which the priest performs the rituals of the Mass. To the two-room structure is added aisles, a tower and vestries and sometimes transepts and mortuary chapels.
The additional chambers may be part of the original plan, but in the case of a great many old churches, the building has been extended piecemeal, its various parts testifying to its long architectural history. In the first three centuries of the Early Livia Christian Church, the practice of Christianity was illegal and few churches were constructed. In the beginning, Christians worshipped along with Jews in private houses. After the separation of Jews and Christians, the latter continued to worship in people's houses, known as house churches; these were the homes of the wealthier members of the faith. Saint Paul, in his first letter to the Corinthians writes: "The churches of Asia send greetings. Aquila and Prisca, together with the church in their house, greet you warmly in the Lord."Some domestic buildings were adapted to function as churches. One of the earliest of adapted residences is at Dura Europos church, built shortly after 200 AD, where two rooms were made into one, by removing a wall, a dais was set up.
To the right of the entrance a small room was made into a baptistry. Some church buildings were built as church assemblies, such as that opposite the emperor Diocletian's palace in Nicomedia, its destruction was recorded thus: When that day dawned, in the eighth consulship of Diocletian and seventh of Maximian while it was yet hardly light, the perfect, together with chief commanders and officers of the treasury, came to the church in Nicomedia, the gates having been forced open, they searched everywhere for an idol of the Divinity. The books of the Holy Scriptures were found, they were committed to the flames; that church, situated on rising ground, was within view of the palace. The sentiment of Diocletian prevailed, who dreaded lest, so great a fire being once kindled, some part of the city might he burnt; the Pretorian Guards came in battle array, with axes and other iron instruments, having been let loose everywhere, they in a few hours leveled that lofty edifice with the ground. From the first to the early fourth centuries most Christian communities worshipped in private homes secretly.
Some Roman churches, such as the Basilica of San Clemente in Rome, are built directly over the houses where early Christians worshipped. Other early Roman churches are b
A glockenspiel is a percussion instrument composed of a set of tuned keys arranged in the fashion of the keyboard of a piano. In this way, it is similar to the xylophone; the glockenspiel, moreover, is smaller and higher in pitch. In German, a carillon is called a Glockenspiel, while in French, the glockenspiel is called a carillon. In music scores the glockenspiel is sometimes designated by the Italian term campanelli; the glockenspiel is limited to the upper register, covers about two and a half to three octaves, but can reach up to three and a half octaves. The glockenspiel is a transposing instrument; when struck, the bars give a pure, bell-like sound. When used in a marching or military band, the bars are sometimes mounted in a portable case and held vertically, sometimes in a lyre-shaped frame. However, sometimes the bars are held horizontally using a harness similar to that found on a marching snare. In orchestral use, the bars are mounted horizontally. A pair of hard, unwrapped mallets with heads made of plastic or metal, are used to strike the bars, although mallet heads can be made of rubber.
If laid out horizontally, a keyboard glockenspiel may be contrived by adding a keyboard to the instrument to facilitate playing chords. Another method of playing chords is to use two per hand. Glockenspiels are quite popular and appear in all genres of music. Percussionist Neil Peart of the rock band Rush uses the glockenspiel in several of the band's arrangements, most notably in the commercial hit songs "The Spirit of Radio" and "Closer to the Heart", in album tracks "Xanadu" and "Circumstances". A keyboard-operated glockenspiel, as played by Danny Federici on such hit songs as "Born to Run" and "Hungry Heart", is considered part of Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band's signature style; the glockenspiel was featured in Jimi Hendrix's classic ballad "Little Wing", Avenged Sevenfold's song "Nightmare" during the intro, as well as in indie folk music by artists such as Paul Duncan of Warm Ghost. George Martin, The Beatles' producer, plays glockenspiel on the band's song "Being for the Benefit of Mr. Kite!" to help create the atmosphere of the Pablo Fanque circus performance that inspired the song.
John Lennon plays it on "Only a Northern Song". Panic! at the Disco have used glockenspiel in several of their songs, including their hits "I Write Sins Not Tragedies" and "Build God, Then We'll Talk". Radiohead have used glockenspiel on their single "No Surprises" as well as on "The Tourist", "Lull", "Morning Bell/Amnesiac", "Sit Down/Stand Up", "All I Need". Saul, oratorio by George Frideric Handel Symphony No. 4 by Gustav Mahler Finale from act I of the opera The Magic Flute by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Alexander Nevsky, cantata by Serge Prokofiev Piano Concerto No. 1, by Prokofiev Romeo and Juliet, by Prokofiev Scythian Suite by Prokofiev The Carnival of the Animals, by Camille Saint-Saens Waltz, No. 6 from the ballet The Sleeping Beauty by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Capriccio Italien by Tchaikovsky The Nutcracker by Tchaikovsky "Wotan's Farewell" and "Magic Fire Music" from the opera Die Walküre by Wagner "Siegfried's Rhine Journey" from Götterdämmerung by Wagner The Sorcerer's Apprentice by Paul Dukas Other instruments that work on the same struck-bar principle as the glockenspiel include the marimba and the vibraphone.
The Dulcitone has a similar sound to the glockenspiel since its sound is made by hammers striking tuning forks. The dulcitone uses soft hammers which damp the forks, compared to the hard hammers of the glockenspiel, creating a more gentle sound. There are many glockenspiel-like instruments in Indonesian gamelan ensembles. In the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, there is a form of glockenspiel called a bell lyre, bell lyra, or lyra-glockenspiel; the bell lyre is a form of glockenspiel used in marching bands. It is played upright and has an extendable spike, held on a strap; the player plays the instrument upright with a beater. Another variation of the bell lyre exists, held by a strap round the shoulders and back; this variation is played horizontally with two beaters. Since the middle of the 19th century this form of the instrument has been used in military and civil bands in Germany, where it is called a Stahlspiel or Militär-Glockenspiel; the all-percussion Drum and lyre corps in the Philippines uses this as a main instrument.
Balafon Timpani Lamellophone Lithophone Mbila Thongophone "Glockenspiel". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. 1911. Glockenspiel at the Vienna Symphonic Library Royalschoolsources Percussion Pages—Online sources for the prescribed music of the Royal Schools of Music practical exams
The bell gable is an architectural element crowning at the upper end of the wall of church buildings in lieu of a church tower. It consists of a gable end in stone, with small hollow semi-circular arches where the church bells are placed, it is a characteristic example of the simplicity of Romanesque architecture. Bell-gables or espadañas are a feature of Romanesque architecture in Spain. Since they were easier and cheaper to build than a church tower or bell tower, they are common in small village churches throughout the Iberian Peninsula; this simple and sober architectural element would be brought to the Americas and the Philippines by Iberian colonizers. The bell gable rises over the front façade wall, but in some churches it may be located on top of any other wall or on top of the toral arch in the midst of the roof. In Catalonia and the Valencian Community bell-gables are known as campanar de paret or campanar de cadireta; because it reminds one of the back of a chair. In Écija the bell tower of the church of Santa Bárbara fell destroyed by a lightning strike in 1892 and was replaced by an espadaña, a more expedient solution than rebuilding the tower.
Zvonnitsa Bell tower Bamboo or Brick: The travails of building churches in Spanish Colonial Philippines by Jose Regalado Trota, Ayala Museum
The Eucharist is a Christian rite, considered a sacrament in most churches, as an ordinance in others. According to the New Testament, the rite was instituted by Jesus Christ during the Last Supper. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember both Christ's sacrifice of himself on the cross and his commission of the apostles at the Last Supper; the elements of the Eucharist, sacramental bread and sacramental wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants, those who consume the elements, may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", as well as "celebrating the Eucharist". Christians recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about how and when Christ is present. While all agree that there is no perceptible change in the elements, Roman Catholics believe that their substances become the body and blood of Christ. Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are present "in, under" the forms of the bread and wine. Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.
Others, such as the Plymouth Brethren and the Christadelphians, take the act to be only a symbolic reenactment of the Last Supper and a memorial. In spite of differences among Christians about various aspects of the Eucharist, there is, according to the Encyclopædia Britannica, "more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated"; the Greek noun εὐχαριστία, meaning "thanksgiving", appears fifteen times in the New Testament but is not used as an official name for the rite. Do this in remembrance of me"; the term "Eucharist" is that by which the rite is referred to by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, "the Eucharist" is the name still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholics, Anglicans and Lutherans. Other Protestant or Evangelical denominations use this term, preferring either "Communion", "the Lord's Supper", "Memorial", "Remembrance", or "the Breaking of Bread".
Latter-day Saints call it "Sacrament". The Lord's Supper, in Greek Κυριακὸν δεῖπνον, was in use in the early 50s of the 1st century, as witnessed by the First Epistle to the Corinthians: When you come together, it is not the Lord's Supper you eat, for as you eat, each of you goes ahead without waiting for anybody else. One remains hungry, another gets drunk; those who use the term "Eucharist" use the expression "the Lord's Supper", but it is the predominant term among Evangelical and Pentecostal churches, who avoid using the term "Communion". They refer to the observance as an "ordinance"; those Protestant churches avoid the term "sacrament".'Holy Communion' are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. Others, such as the Catholic Church, do not use this term for the rite, but instead mean by it the act of partaking of the consecrated elements; the term "Communion" is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10:16: The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?
The bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ? The phrase appears in various related forms five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some, may refer to the celebration of the Eucharist, in either closer or symbolically more distant reference to the Last Supper, it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The "Blessed Sacrament" and the "Blessed Sacrament of the Altar" are common terms used by Catholics and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements when reserved in a tabernacle. "Sacrament of the Altar" is in common use among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term "The Sacrament" is used of the rite. Mass is used in the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Churches, by many Anglicans, in some other forms of Western Christianity. At least in the Catholic Church, the Mass is a longer rite which always consists of two main parts: the Liturgy of the Word and the Liturgy of the Eucharist, in that order; the Liturgy of the Word consists of readings from scripture (the
A ship's bell is a bell on a ship, used for the indication of time as well as other traditional functions. The bell itself is made of brass or bronze, has the ship's name engraved or cast on it. Unlike civil clock bells, the strikes of a ship's bell do not accord to the number of the hour. Instead, there are one for each half-hour of a four-hour watch. In the age of sailing, watches were timed with a 30-minute hourglass. Bells would be struck every time the glass was turned, in a pattern of pairs for easier counting, with any odd bells at the end of the sequence; the classical, or traditional, system was: Most of the crew of a ship would be divided into two to four groups, called watches. Each watch would take its turn with the essential activities of manning the helm, trimming sails, keeping a lookout; the hours between 16:00 and 20:00 are so arranged. The odd number of watches aimed to give each man a different watch each day; some "ship's bell" clocks use a simpler system: Ship's bells are used for safety in foggy conditions, their most important modern use.
On US naval vessels, bells additionally are rung as "boat gongs" for officers and dignitaries coming aboard or leaving the ship, in a number equivalent to the number of sideboys to which the visitor is entitled. At midnight on New Year's Eve, 16 bells would be struck – eight bells for the old year and eight bells for the new; when a sailor has died he or she can be honoured with the sounding of eight bells. The term "eight bells" can be used in an obituary, as a nautical euphemism for finished; the ship's name is traditionally engraved or cast onto the surface of the bell with the year the ship was launched, as well. The earliest ship's bell was recovered from the wreck-site of a Portuguese armada ship off the coast of Oman; the bell was dated 1498. The bell will carry the name of the shipyard that built the ship. If a ship's name is changed, maritime tradition is that the original bell carrying the original name will remain with the vessel. A ship's bell is a prized possession when a ship is broken up and provides the only positive means of identification in the case of a shipwreck.
Most United States Navy ships of the post–World War II era have carried two ship's bells: the official bell on deck and a smaller one in the pilot house and at the quarterdeck at the 1MC station, used when the ship is underway. According to seafaring legend, the ship's cooks and boatswain's mates had a duty arrangement to give the cooks more sleep; the boatswain's mates, who worked 24 hours a day on watches, would build the fire in the stove, so the cook could get up a little while and the fire would be going so he could begin preparing breakfast. In return, between meals, the cooks would shine the bell, traditionally the boatswain's mates' responsibility, it is a naval tradition to baptize children using the ship's bell as a baptismal font and to engrave the names of the children on the bell afterwards. Christening information from the bells held by the Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt Museum has been entered into a searchable data archive. Watch system Watchstanding When Eight Bells Toll Media related to Ships' bells at Wikimedia Commons "Discovery of a ship's bell by underwater archaeologists on a colonial shipwreck lost off St. Augustine, Florida in the late 1700s".
In campanology, a peal is the special name given to a specific type of performance of change ringing which meets certain exacting conditions for duration and quality. The definition of a peal has changed over the years and its standardisation was one of the motivating factors in the formation of the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers in 1891. For a performance to be recognised as a peal by the Central Council it must consist of sufficient numerical sequences, or "changes", meet a number of other criteria, be published in The Ringing World. On typical tower bells a peal takes around three hours to ring. In addition to ordinary peals, ringers ring quarter-peals, which are a quarter of the length of a full peal, making them easier to ring as most quarter-peals take around 45 minutes to complete. A set of English-style full-circle bells is sometimes erroneously called a peal of bells, the correct term being a ring of bells. A peal referred to a sequence of changes of any length, now referred to as a touch.
A touch being more than a plain course, but not a quarter or full peal. However, the original meaning is still in use today in call-change ringing; the most famous and rung call-change peal, associated with the Devon Association of ringers, is named 60 on 3rds. Following the invention of the ringing method known as Grandsire Doubles, the term peal or "full peal" was applied to the ringing of sequences including each possible permutation of the set of bells once. On five bells, there are 120 permutations taking about four minutes to ring on tower bells; this is arrived at by the calculation 1 × 2 × 3 × 4 × 5 = 120 unique permutations. These figures increase as more bells are added; the term "extent" is now preferred to peal in this context, excepting performances on seven bells where the terms peal and extent are now synonymous. The extent on eight bells comprises 40,320 changes, would be referred to today as a long length peal. Despite this, it has been rung as a continuous performance both on tower and on hand bells, 17 hours in duration on tower bells.
Method Ringing peals today consist of a minimum length of between 5000 and 5280 changes, or permutations, depending on the method, the number of bells. The first method ringing peal in this modern sense took place at St Peter Mancroft Church in Norwich, in 1715, was in the method "Grandsire Bob Triples", equivalent to the modern Plain Bob Triples; this is the earliest known record of a "full peal", "true" – that is, did not have any repeated changes – and was over 5,000 changes. There is a long list of rules which been developed since 1890. To be classified as a peal, a performance must be in accordances with rules and decisions of the Central Council of Church Bell Ringers, allowing them to be recorded in that organisation’s peal records, they must be published in The Ringing World. The Central Council has two committees which are arbiters of the standards that peals must achieve: Methods committee Peal records committeeSome key conditions required for all peals are: A peal shall start and end with rounds, shall be rung without interval.
No row shall be struck more than once. Every bell must sound at every row throughout the peal; each bell must be rung continuously by persons. For handbells the bells shall be retained in hand. For tower bells the bells shall be audible outside the building. No assistance of any kind shall be given to any ringer by any person not ringing in the peal; the use of physical aids to memory in conducting and ringing is not permitted. No error in calling shall be corrected than during the change at which the call or change of method or non-method block would properly take effect. Any shift or error in ringing shall be corrected immediately. Peals on tower bells can take anywhere from two and a half to over four hours to ring, depending on the weight of the bells. Handbell peals are shorter for equivalent changes, they are both a physical and mental challenge, as concentration has to be maintained for a long period of time, each individual ringer has to ring their bell without a break, depending on ringing style and bell weight can cause physical tiredness.
Composition of peals is a specialised and complicated area of change ringing, as it involves composing a peal according to the rules. The "Conductor" of the peal has to: Control and ring their own bell in the correct sequence Correct other ringers if they go wrong Call the "bobs" and "singles" which are the "composition" – the equivalent of a musical score – that ensures the correct changes are rung in the correct sequence. A peal can fail at any point. According to the best available knowledge in 2017, 6,929 peals of Grandsire Caters were rung in the 300 years following 11 January 1711. Grandsire Caters was the leading 10-bell method in each decade from 1711 to 1890, but Stedman Caters has proved more popular and on 9 July 2010 its cumulative peal total from 1711 pulled ahead of the running Grandsire total. Another area of peal ringing is that of long length peals; these involve ringing for far longer than an ordinary peal, up to 17 hours. The difficulties of ringing ordinary peals are magnified in these performances, as are the difficulties of composing them.
The belfry is a structure enclosing bells for ringing as part of a building as part of a bell tower or steeple. It can refer to the entire tower or building in continental Europe for such a tower attached to a city hall or other civic building. A belfry encloses the room in which the bells are housed; the openings may be left uncovered but are filled with louvers to prevent rain and snow from entering. There may be a separate room below the bell chamber to house the ringers; the word belfry comes from Old French berfrei or beffroi, derived from Proto-Germanic *bergan "to protect" and *frithuz "peace". In larger towns, watchmen in these towers were on the lookout for fires. Though flags were used by the watchmen for communication, these towers contained an alarm bell or bells built into a Bell-Cot, thus Middle English speakers thought berfrei had something to do with bells: they altered it to belfry, an interesting example of the process of folk etymology. Today's Dutch belfort combines the term "bell" with the term "stronghold".
It was a watchtower that a city was permitted to build in its defence, while the Dutch term "klokkenstoel" refers only to the construction of the hanging system, or the way the bell or bells are installed within the tower. Bats in the belfry Belfries of Belgium and France