Bell UH-1N Twin Huey
The Bell UH-1N Twin Huey is a twin-engine medium military helicopter. A member of the numerous Huey family, it first flew in 1969; the CUH-1N Twin Huey was the original version, first ordered by the Canadian Forces. The UH-1N has a fifteen-seat configuration, with fourteen passengers. In cargo configuration it has an internal capacity of 220 ft³. An external load of up to 5,000 lb can be carried; the UH-1N was developed into the civil Bell 212. Based on the stretched fuselage Bell 205, the Bell 212 was developed for the Canadian Forces under the designation CUH-1N Twin Huey; the CF adopted a new designation system and the aircraft was re-designated CH-135 Twin Huey. The CF approved the development of the aircraft on 1 May 1968 and purchased 50 aircraft, with deliveries commencing in May 1971; the US military came close to not procuring the Twin Huey. The purchase of the aircraft for US military use was opposed by the Chairman of the House Armed Services Committee at the time, L. Mendel Rivers. Rivers took this position because the aircraft powerplant, the Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6T was produced in Canada.
The Liberal Canadian government of the time had not supported US involvement in Vietnam and had opposed US policies in southeast Asia, as well as accepting US draft dodgers. Rivers was concerned that procurement of the engines would result in a trade deficit situation with Canada. Congress only approved the purchase when it was assured that a US source would be found for the PT6T/T400 engines; as a result, the United States military services ordered 294 Bell 212s under the designation UH-1N, with deliveries commencing in 1970. Unlike in the Canadian Forces, in US service, the UH-1N retained the official name "Iroquois" from the single–engine UH-1 variants, although US service personnel refer to the aircraft as a "Huey" or "Twin Huey"; the Bell 412 is a further development of the Bell 212, the major difference being the composite four-blade main rotor. The UH-1N has been developed into the upgraded, four-blade UH-1Y; the UH-1N's main rotor is powered by a PT6T-3/T400 Turbo Twin Pac made up of two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 turboshaft engines that drive a single output shaft.
They are capable of producing up to 1,342 kW. Should one engine fail the remaining engine can deliver 671 kW for 30 minutes or 571 kW enabling the UH-1N to maintain cruise performance at maximum weight; the United States Marine Corps modified a large number of their UH-1Ns with a Stability Control Augmentation System which provides servo inputs to the rotor head to help stabilize the aircraft during flight. This modification removed the gyroscopic "Stabilization Bar" on top of the main rotor head, instead relying on the computer system for stability. From late 1970, the UH-1N re-equipped the USAF 20th Special Operations Squadron in Vietnam, replacing the single-engined UH-1F and UH-1P. Armed with miniguns and rocket pods, painted camouflage with no US markings and only a Green Hornet insignia, the UH-1N supported Special Forces reconnaissance missions from Cam Ranh Bay; the United States Air Force employs UH-1Ns to fulfill its ICBM mission, providing a utility helicopter for transport between bases such as Minot AFB, Francis E. Warren AFB and Malmstrom AFB to missile launch sites in North Dakota, Wyoming and Colorado.
The UH-1N is used by the 36th Rescue Squadron at Fairchild AFB, WA for conducting Search-and-Rescue and medical evacuation missions, as well as the 459th Airlift Squadron based at Yokota Air Base in Japan. During the 1982 Falklands War, the Argentine Air Force deployed two Bell 212s to Goose Green grass airstrip from where they performed general support duties including the recovery of many downed pilots. By the end of the hostilities both aircraft were still intact but were dismantled by the Argentinians. USMC UH-1Ns were used by the USMC during its 2003 invasion of Iraq. UH-1Ns provided reconnaissance, communications support to Marine ground troops, they were called upon to provide close air support during heavy fighting in Nasiriyah. In August 2013, the Air Force said they were close to finalizing a plan to sustain and modernize their UH-1Ns for the next six to ten years; the plan was to sustain the fleet, address flight and safety mandates, investigate modest improvements in capabilities, reduce capability gaps.
While the Huey is one of the oldest platforms in the service, keeping the fleet going was seen as having "minimal risk." Fleet-wide upgrades included night vision compatible cockpit lighting, crash worthy seats for flight engineers, installation of a helicopter terrain awareness warning system and traffic collision avoidance device. The Air Force was in the process of further acquiring ex-Marine Corps UH-1N models; the Marines were working out a strategy to transfer as many as 26 helicopters to the Air Force to either add them to their active fleet or keep them in reserve. The UH-1N has seen combat service in the Colombian armed conflict. On 16 October 2013, an UH-1N helicopter crashed in the northern La Guajira department; the zone of the crash is a hotbed of FARC rebel activity. The U. S. Marine Corps planned to retire the UH-1N Iroquois by September 2014 after 43 years of service. HMLA-773 was the last Marine squadron operating them, with their last deployment occurring in 2013 where two helicopters sailed on a Royal Netherlands Navy ship for an African Partnership Station deployment.
Deliveries began to the Navy and Marine Corps in 1971 totaling 205 UH-1Ns and six VH-1N executive transports for Marine Helicopter Squadron One. The UH-1N was replaced by the upgraded UH-1Y Venom.
The Hellenic Navy is the naval force of Greece, part of the Hellenic Armed Forces. The modern Greek navy has its roots in the naval forces of various Aegean Islands, which fought in the Greek War of Independence. During the periods of monarchy it was known as the Royal Hellenic Navy; the total displacement of the fleet is 150,000 tons and it is the 22nd largest Navy in the world by total number of vessels. The HN operates a number of naval helicopters; the motto of the Hellenic Navy is "Μέγα τὸ τῆς θαλάσσης κράτος" from Thucydides' account of Pericles' oration on the eve of the Peloponnesian War. This has been translated as "The rule of the sea is a great matter"; the Hellenic Navy's emblem consists of an anchor in front of a crossed Christian cross and trident, with the cross symbolizing Greek Orthodoxy, the trident symbolizing Poseidon, the god of the sea in Greek mythology. Pericles' words are written across the top of the emblem. "The navy, as it represents a necessary weapon for Greece, should only be created for war and aim to victory."
The history of the Hellenic Navy begins with the birth of modern Greece, due to the maritime nature of the country, it has always featured prominently in modern Greece's military history. At the beginning of the Greek War of Independence, the naval forces of the Greeks consisted of the merchant fleet of the Saronic islanders from Hydra and Poros and the islanders of Psara and Samos; the fleet was of crucial importance to the success of the revolt. Its goal was to prevent as much as possible the Ottoman Navy from resupplying the isolated Ottoman garrisons and land reinforcements from the Ottoman Empire's Asian provinces. Although Greek crews were experienced seamen, the light Greek ships armed merchantmen, were unable to stand up to the large Turkish ships of the line in direct combat. So the Greeks conducted the equivalent of modern-day naval special operations, resorting to the use of fireships, with great success, it was in the use of such ships that courageous seamen like Constantine Kanaris won international renown.
Under the leadership of capable admirals, most prominently Andreas Miaoulis of Hydra, the Greek fleet achieved early victories, guaranteeing the survival of the revolt in the mainland. However, as Greece became embroiled in a civil war, the Sultan called upon his strongest subject, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, for aid. Plagued by internal strife and financial difficulties in keeping the fleet in constant readiness, the Greeks failed to prevent the capture and destruction of Kasos and Psara in 1824, or the landing of the Egyptian army at Modon. Despite victories at Samos and Gerontas, the Revolution was threatened with collapse until the intervention of the Great Powers in the Battle of Navarino in 1827. There the Egypto-Ottoman fleet was decisively defeated by the combined fleets of the Britain and the Russian Empire securing the independence of Greece; when Ioannis Capodistrias became governor of newly liberated Greece in 1828, the Greek fleet consisted of few remaining ships, which had participated in the war for independence.
The first minister of "Naval affairs" was Constantine Kanaris, the most powerful ship of the fleet at that time, the frigate Hellas, had been constructed in the United States in 1825. The Hellenic Navy established its headquarters at the island of Poros and the building of a new series of ships began at the naval base while old ships were being retired. Furthermore, continuous efforts towards the education of officers were initiated. Young people were trained at the military school of Scholi Evelpidon and afterwards they were transferred to the navy, as there was no such thing as a Naval Academy. In 1831, Greece descended into anarchy with numerous areas, including Hydra, in revolt, it was during this revolt that the flagship Hellas, docked at Poros, was set on fire by Admiral Andreas Miaoulis. Capodistrias was assassinated a few months after; when the new King Otto arrived in the Greek capital, Nafplion, in 1832 aboard the British warship HMS Madagascar, the Greek fleet consisted of 1 corvette, 3 brigs, 6 gollettes, 2 gunboats, 2 steamboats and a few more small vessels.
The first Naval School was founded in 1846 on the Corvette Loudovikos and Leonidas Palaskas was assigned as its director. However the inefficient training of the officers, coupled with conflict between those who pursued modernization and those who were stalwarts of the traditions of the veterans of the struggle for independence, resulted in a restricted and inefficient navy, limited to policing the sea and the pursuit of pirates. During the 1850s, the more progressive elements of the navy won out and the fleet was augmented with more ships. In 1855, the first iron propeller-driven ships were ordered from England; these were the steamships Panopi, Pliksavra and Sfendoni. On October 29, 1863, following an enthronement ceremony in his native Copenhagen and a tour of several of the European capitals, Prince Wilhelm of Denmark arrived aboard the Greek flagship Hellas, to take up the throne as King George I of Greece. During the 1866 Cretan revolt, the ships of the Royal Hellenic Navy were in no condition to support it.
Such failure led to the government awakening to the problem of naval insufficiency and the adoption of a policy stating that: "The navy, as it represents a necessary weapon for Greece, should only be created for war and aim to victory." Because of this, the fleet was supplied with new and bigger ships, reflecting a number of innovations including the use of iron in shipbuilding industry and the invention of the torpedo.
Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6
The Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6 is a turboprop aircraft engine produced by Pratt & Whitney Canada. Its design was started in 1958, it first ran in February 1960, first flew on 30 May 1961, entered service in 1964 and has been continuously updated since, it consists of two basic sections: a gas generator with accessory gearbox and a free power turbine with reduction gearbox, is seemingly mounted backwards in an aircraft in so far as the intake is at the rear and the exhaust at the front. Many variants of the PT6 have been produced, not only as turboprops but for helicopters, land vehicles, boats, as auxiliary power units and for industrial uses. By November 2015, 51,000 had been produced, had logged 400 million flight hours from 1963 to 2016, it is known for its reliability with an in-flight shutdown rate of 1 per 651,126 hours in 2016. The PT6A covers the power range between 580 and 1,940 shp while the PT6B/C are turboshaft variants for helicopters. In 1956, Pratt & Whitney Canada's president, Ronald Riley, ordered engineering manager Dick Guthrie to hire a team of gas turbine specialists to design a small gas turbine engine.
Demand for the Wasp radial engine was still strong and its production was profitable but the aim was to become Canada's prime engine company by focussing on a small gas turbine engine. Riley gave Guthrie a modest budget of C$100,000. Guthrie recruited twelve engineers with experience gained at various places including the National Research Council in Ottawa, Orenda Engines in Ontario, Bristol Aero Engines and Blackburn Aircraft, they completed the detailed design of an engine for Canadair's small jet trainer, the CL-41. It was a 3,000lb thrust turbojet but the design was taken over by P&WA who developed it into the Pratt & Whitney JT12; the team had to wait for market assessments to define their next engine, a 450 shaft horsepower turboprop for twin-engined aircraft, the PT6. The early development of the PT-6, which first ran in December 1963, was beset with engineering problems, cost overruns and lack of sales, it was cancelled. The team lacked the ability to deal with the technical difficulties, i.e. how to develop the engine, because, as one of the team Elvie Smith recalled, they came from research and design backgrounds.
They learned how to run a development program, such as tesing around the clock rather than on one shift, from a PWA team which directed the development for several months. The PT-6 first flew on 30 May 1961, mounted as a third engine in the nose of a Beech 18 aircraft, converted by de Havilland at its Downsview, Ontario facility. Full-scale production started with service entry the following year; the Beech 18 continued as a PT6 and propeller flying test-bed until it was replaced with a Beech King Air in 1980. The King Air test-engine or propeller replaced one of the standard ones. In 1974 the Beech 18 had been unable to fly fast enough and high enough to test the PT6A-50 for the de Havilland Canada Dash 7 so a Vickers Viscount was modified as a PT6 test-bed with a Dash-7 installation in the nose; the first production PT-6 model, the PT6A-6, was certificated in December 1963. The first application was the Beech Queen Air, enticing the U. S. Army to buy a fleet of the U-21 Ute variant; this helped launch the King Air with Beechcraft selling about 7,000 by 2012.
From 1963 to 2016 power-to-weight ratio was improved by 50%, brake specific fuel consumption by 20% and overall pressure ratio reached 14:1. Its development continues and while today its basic configuration is the same as in 1964, updates have included a cooled first-stage turbine vane, additional compressor and turbine stages and single-crystal turbine blades in the early 1990s, its pressure ratio is 13:1 in the AgustaWestland AW609 tiltrotor, the highest that can be used without cooled turbine blades. In response to the General Electric GE93, in 2017 Pratt & Whitney Canada started testing core technology and systems for a proposed 2,000hp engine to replace the most powerful versions of the PT6, it was considered to be a development of the PT6C core, would fit between the 1,750 shp PT6C-67C/E and the 2,300 shp PW100 family. It was expected to be ready to launch by the end of 2017 for an initial helicopter platform with a 10-15% reduction in brake specific fuel consumption; this 2,000 hp engine would target a possible new market such as a Super PC-12, a more powerful TBM, or a bigger King Air.
When de Havilland Canada asked for a much larger engine for the DHC-8 twice the power of the Large PT6, Pratt & Whitney Canada responded with a new design known as the PT7 renamed Pratt & Whitney Canada PW100. The rate at which parts deteriorate in a gas turbine is unbalanced insofar as the hottest parts need replacing or repairing more than the cooler-running parts. If the hotter parts can be removed without disturbing the rest of the engine, for example without removing the complete engine from the aircraft, maintenance costs are reduced, it was achieved with the PT6 by having the hottest parts, the gas generator turbine and combustor, at the propeller end. They are removed without disturbing the rest of the engine with its connections to the aircraft; this arrangement was patented by one of the original PT6 team. An early design improvement, incorporated in the PT6A-20, was the pipe diffuser patented by Vrana, another of the original PT6 team, it replaced the vaned type of diffuser used in centrifugal compressors.
The pipe diffuser became standard design practise for P&WC. Another design change improved the part-speed functioning of the compressor, it is common to bleed air from a compressor to make it work properly at low engine speeds. The PT6 has a bleed arrangement which reuses the bleed air by returning it in a tangential direction at the entry to the com
CHC Helicopter is a large helicopter services company, specializing in the following services: Transportation to offshore oil and gas platforms Civilian search and rescue and air medical evacuation services Helicopter maintenance repair and overhaulCHC Helicopter is headquartered in Richmond, British Columbia and operates more than 250 aircraft in 30 countries around the world. CHC's major international operating units are based in Australia, Ireland, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom; the company is one of several global providers of helicopter transportation services to the offshore oil and gas industry. CHC has capabilities in precision flying technical support. CHC has long-term working relationships with most of gas companies. CHC operates the marine search and rescue service for the Irish Coast Guard at Shannon, Waterford and Dublin airports. CHC provides helicopter services in Australia for the Fire and Emergency Services Authority of Western Australia, Victoria Police and the Ambulance Service of New South Wales.
Commercial helicopter flying began in British Columbia in the summer of 1947. Three ex-RCAF officers, pilots Carl Agar and Barney Bent, engineer Alf Stringer, were operating a fixed-wing charter company, Okanagan Air Services Ltd. from Penticton. In July 1947 they raised enough money to purchase a Bell 47-B3 and pay for their flying and maintenance training. Okanagan Air Services moved to Vancouver in 1949, renamed Okanagan Helicopters Ltd. By 1954, it had become the largest commercial helicopter operator in the world. In 1987, Newfoundland businessman Craig Dobbin headed a group of investors organized under the name Canadian Holding Company and using the initialism CHC. CHC purchased Okanagan Helicopters, Viking Helicopters, Toronto Helicopters and merged their assets with Dobbin's own company, Sealand Helicopters, to form a company named Canadian Helicopters; the parent company was renamed CHC Helicopter Corporation. CHC acquired British International Helicopters in 1994. In 2004, CHC purchased Schreiner Aviation Group who provided offshore helicopter services in the Dutch sector of the North Sea and to the Nigerian offshore industry.
In 2000, CHC entered into an agreement with Fonds de Solidarité FTQ and the management of its two Canadian divisions, Canadian Helicopters Eastern and Canadian Helicopters Western, for the sale of an interest in CHC's Canadian assets in a management buyout to form Canadian Helicopters. As a result, senior management and FSTQ acquired 10% and 45% equity interests in Canadian Helicopters while CHC retained a 45% equity interest. CHC restructuring in 2004 saw the creation of a new corporate headquarters in Richmond, British Columbia and the creation of three main operating segments: CHC Global Operations, based in Richmond, B. C. CHC European Operations, based in Aberdeen and Heli-One, CHC's leasing and repair and overhaul support group, now based in Delta, B. C. In February 2008 all of CHC's shares were purchased by First Reserve, a US private equity company, for CAD$3.7 billion. At the time, the word "Corporation" was dropped from the company's name, now CHC Helicopter. On January 16, 2014 CHC announced an Initial Public Offering of 31,000,000 shares.
On 15th Jan 2016, CHC offered 31,000,000 shares at US$5.17. On 5 May 2016, CHC Helicopters filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy. CHC shares dropped from US$176.10 to US 0.45cents 17 June 2016. A Texas court allowed CHC in July 2016 to shed 65 helicopters from its financial obligations, most of the Super Pumas. CHC reorganized in March 2017. CHC manages its global operations through the following divisions: EEA Helicopter Operations B. V. a Dutch company majority owned by EHO Holdings S.a.r.l. and minority owned by CHC Helicopter S.a.r.l. Provides helicopter services in the North Sea. EEA uses CHC logo under licence, it provides services from 17 bases in the UK, Denmark and the Netherlands. Brazilian Helicopter Services CHC Helicopters Global Operations/Corporate Office CHC Helicopters CHC Helicopters CHC Composites CHC Helicopter serves as the sole provider of Search and Rescue helicopter services to the Irish Coast Guard, where it had operated a fleet of six Sikorsky S-61N helicopters based in Dublin, Shannon and Sligo.
This fleet has now been replaced by 5 Sikorsky S-92 Helibus. The S-61N exited service in December 2013 with a flight from Dublin Airport to Weston Aerodrome, West Dublin; the flight was operated by the oldest S-61N in commercial operation at the time. On March 14, 2017. CHC Sikorsky S92, operating as Rescue 116, crashed into the sea off West of Ireland. 2 fatalities, 2 missing. CHC, as part of the Soteria SAR consortium was selected as the "Preferred Bidder" for a 25-year contract to provide a civilian Search and Rescue service throughout the United Kingdom. However, days before the contract was due to be signed in February 2011, the British Government halted the process after CHC disclosed that it had unauthorised access to commercially sensitive information.. The Soteria SAR was cancelled and the contract was awarded to back to Bristow Helicopters who had operated the coastguard helicopters from Stornoway Airport, Sumburgh Airport, RNAS Lee-on-Solent and RNAS Portland during the time of the Royal Navy and the Royal Air Force operating there Westland Sea King, prior to the Soteria SAR being setup.
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Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama, to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru, it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica, Honduras, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Colombia has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 12,000 BCE, including the Muisca and the Tairona, along with the Inca Empire that expanded to the southwest of the country; the Spanish arrived in 1499 and by the mid-16th century conquered and colonized much of the region, establishing the New Kingdom of Granada, with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. Independence from Spain was achieved in 1819, but by 1830 the "Gran Colombia" Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada.
The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation, the United States of Colombia, before the Republic of Colombia was declared in 1886. Panama seceded in 1903. Beginning in the 1960s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the 1990s. Since 2005, there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia is a middle power and regional actor in Latin America, it is part of the CIVETS group of six leading emerging markets and a member of the UN, the WTO, the OAS, the Pacific Alliance, other international organizations.
Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus, it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World, but to those portions under Spanish rule. The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of 1819, formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in 1858 to the Granadine Confederation. In 1863 the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name – the Republic of Colombia – in 1886. To refer to this country, the Colombian government uses the terms Colombia and República de Colombia. Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.
The oldest archaeological finds are from the Pubenza and El Totumo sites in the Magdalena Valley 100 kilometres southwest of Bogotá. These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to 5000–4000 BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12,500 BCE. Nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes at the El Abra, Tibitó and Tequendama sites near present-day Bogotá traded with one another and with other cultures from the Magdalena River Valley. Between 5000 and 1000 BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. Beginning in the 1st millennium BCE, groups of Amerindians including the Muisca, Zenú, Tairona developed the political system of cacicazgos with a pyramidal structure of power headed by caciques; the Muisca inhabited the area of what is now the Departments of Boyacá and Cundinamarca high plateau where they formed the Muisca Confederation.
They farmed maize, potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. The Tairona inhabited northern Colombia in the isolated mountain range of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta; the Quimbaya inhabited regions of the Cauca River Valley between the Western and Central Ranges of the Colombian Andes. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in 1499. Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas, made the first exploration
The Bell 204 and 205 are the civilian versions of the UH-1 Iroquois single-engine military helicopter of the Huey family of helicopters. They are type-certificated in the transport category and are used in a wide variety of applications, including crop dusting, cargo lifting and aerial firefighting. Bell designed its Model 204 in response to a 1955 United States Army requirement for a utility helicopter; the 204 was a giant step forward in helicopter design, being one of the first to be powered by a turboshaft. The turboshaft engine radically improved the practicality of the helicopter due to its light weight and high power-to-weight ratio, lower fuel consumption, lower maintenance and operating costs; the use of a turboshaft in the 204 allowed it to carry a useful payload over respectable ranges and at reasonable speeds, which resulted in the 204 and subsequent 205 becoming the most successful western helicopter series in terms of numbers built. The civil 204B was first delivered in 1961; the subsequent Model 205A-1 is equivalent to the UH-1H, compared to the 204, is longer and has better performance and a more powerful engine.
Over 60 civil Model 204B helicopters had been delivered by 1967, while further examples were built by Agusta-Bell until 1973. 12,000 Model 205s were built by Agusta-Bell up to the early 1980s. Numerous ex-military 204s and 205s were converted for commercial use. Bell Helicopter's company designation of the UH-1B. Bell 204B – Civil or military utility transport helicopter, derived from the UH-1B. Powered by a T53-09A, max weight was 8,500 lbs, max passengers, ten. Agusta-Bell AB 204 – Civil or military utility transport helicopter. Built under licence in Italy by Agusta. Fuji-Bell 204B-2 – Civil or military utility transport helicopter. Built under licence in Japan by Fuji Heavy Industries. Used by the Japan Ground Self Defense Force under the name Hiyodori. Bell Helicopter's company designation of the UH-1H. Bell 205A – Civil or military utility transport helicopter. Powered by one T53-11A, max weight 8,500 pounds, max passenger, 14. Agusta-Bell 205 – Civil or military utility transport helicopter. Built under licence in Italy by Agusta.
Bell 205A-1 – Civil or military utility transport helicopter version, initial version based on the UH-1H. Powered by one T53-13A, max weight 9,500 pounds, max passengers, 14. Agusta-Bell 205A-1 – Modified version of the AB 205. Fuji-Bell 205A-1 – Civil or military utility transport helicopter. Built under licence in Japan by Fuji. Bell 205B – Bell's early version of the 210 built in the late 1970s. Had 212 nose, uprated T53-17 engine, K-Flex driveshaft, 212 main rotor blades, tail rotor blades. Max weight, 10,500 pounds, max passengers, 14. Bell 210 – Bell Helicopter's designation for a UH-1H, remanufactured and sold as a new aircraft. Powered by one T53-17B, same weight capacities as the 205B. Agusta-Bell 205BG – Prototype fitted with two Gnome H 1200 turboshaft engines. Agusta-Bell 205TA – Prototype fitted with two Turbomeca Astazous turboshaft engines. Bell 208 – In 1965, Bell experimented with a single twin-engine Model 208 "Twin Huey" prototype, a UH-1D fitted with Continental XT67-T-1 twin-pack engine module, consisting of two power turbines driving a common gearbox.
This exercise was performed as an experiment using company funds. 205A-1++ – Field-upgraded 205A utilizing a T53-17 engine and a 212 drivetrain. Similar to the production 205B and 210. Advanced 205B – Proposed upgraded Japanese version. Global Eagle – Pratt & Whitney Canada name for a modified UH-1H with a new PT6C-67D engine, modified tail rotor, other minor changes reported to increase range and fuel efficiency over the Bell 212. Huey 800 – Upgraded commercial version, fitted with an LHTEC T800 turboshaft engine. Bell 211 – The HueyTug, was a commercial version of the UH-1C with an upgraded transmission, longer main rotor, larger tailboom, strengthened fuselage, stability augmentation system, a 2,650 shp T55-L-7 turboshaft engine. Bell 212 – Bell Helicopter's company designation for the UH-1N. Bell 214 Huey Plus – Strengthened development of the Bell 205 airframe with a larger engine. Developed into the larger, twin-engine Bell 214ST. Bell 412 – Bell 212 with a four-blade semi-rigid rotor system.
Panha Shabaviz 2-75 – is an Iranian utility helicopter built by the Iranian Helicopter Support and Renewal Company. It is a reverse engineered version of the Bell 205s which were sold to the government of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi; the first example was built in 1998 and the type was publicly unveiled the following year. It has been manufactured locally in Iran since 2002 and is in active service with the Iranian military and government, it has been claimed that it can be modified to carry light weaponry. For all military operators, regardless of the actual model, see List of UH-1 Iroquois operators CanadaNational Research Council IranLaw Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran ThailandRoyal Thai Police Republic of ChinaNational Airborne Service Corps United States California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection Florida Division of Forestry Kern County Fire Department Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department NASA Orange County Fire Authority San Bernardino County Sheriff's Department San Diego County Sheriff's Department United States Border Patrol Ventura County Sheriff's Department Washington State Department of Natural Resources Data from The International Directory of Civil Aircraft General characteristics Crew: one-two Capacity: 3,000 lb including up to eight-nine passengers, or equivalent cargo Length: 41 ft 8 in Rotor diameter: 48 ft 0 in Height: 14 ft 7 in Disc area: 1,808 ft2 (168.0
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000