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Bell AH-1 Cobra

The Bell AH-1 Cobra is a two-blade rotor, single-engine attack helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It was developed using the engine and rotor system of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois. A member of the prolific Huey family, the AH-1 is referred to as the HueyCobra or Snake; the AH-1 was the backbone of the United States Army's attack helicopter fleet, but has been replaced by the AH-64 Apache in Army service. Upgraded versions continue to fly with the militaries of several other nations; the AH-1 twin-engine versions remain in service with United States Marine Corps as the service's primary attack helicopter. Surplus AH-1 helicopters have been converted for fighting forest fires. Related to the development of the Bell AH-1 is the story of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois—an icon of the Vietnam War and one of the most numerous helicopter types built; the UH-1 made the theory of air cavalry practical, as the new tactics called for US forces to be mobile across a wide area. Unlike before, they would not stand and fight long battles, they would not stay and hold positions.

Instead, the plan was that the troops carried by fleets of UH-1 "Hueys" would range across the country, to fight the enemy at times and places of their own choice. It soon became clear that the unarmed troop helicopters were vulnerable against ground fire from Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops as they came down to drop their troops in a landing zone. Without friendly support from artillery or ground forces, the only way to pacify a landing zone was from the air, preferably with an aircraft that could escort the transport helicopters, loiter over the landing zone as the battle progressed. By 1962 a small number of armed UH-1As were used as escorts, armed with multiple machine guns and rocket mounts; the massive expansion of American military presence in Vietnam opened a new era of war from the air. The linchpin of US Army tactics was the helicopters, the protection of those helicopters became a vital role. Bell had been investigating helicopter gunships since the late 1950s, had created a mockup of its D-255 helicopter gunship concept, named "Iroquois Warrior".

In June 1962, Bell displayed the mockup to Army officials, hoping to solicit funding for further development. The Iroquois Warrior was planned to be a purpose-built attack aircraft based on UH-1B components with a new, slender airframe and a two-seat, tandem cockpit, it featured a grenade launcher in a ball turret on the nose, a 20 mm belly-mounted gun pod, stub wings for mounting rockets or SS.10 anti-tank missiles. The Army was interested and awarded Bell a proof-of-concept contract in December 1962. Bell modified a Model 47 into the Model 207 Sioux Scout which first flew in July 1963; the Sioux Scout had all the key features of a modern attack helicopter: a tandem cockpit, stub wings for weapons, a chin-mounted gun turret. After evaluating the Sioux Scout in early 1964, the Army was impressed, but felt the Sioux Scout was undersized and not suited for practical use; the army's solution to the shortcomings of the Sioux Scout was to launch the Advanced Aerial Fire Support System competition.

The AAFSS requirement gave birth to the Lockheed AH-56 Cheyenne, a heavy attack helicopter with high speed capability. It proved to be too sophisticated, was canceled in 1972, after ten years of development; the Army sought greater survivability in a conventional attack helicopter. At the same time, despite the Army's preference for the AAFSS—for which Bell Helicopter was not selected to compete—Bell stuck with their own idea of a smaller and lighter gunship. In January 1965 Bell invested $1 million to proceed with a new design. Mating the proven transmission, the "540" rotor system of the UH-1C augmented by a Stability Control Augmentation System, the T53 turboshaft engine of the UH-1 with the design philosophy of the Sioux Scout, Bell produced the Model 209. Bell's Model 209 resembled the "Iroquois Warrior" mockup. In Vietnam, events were advancing in favor of the Model 209. Attacks on US forces were increasing, by the end of June 1965 there were 50,000 US ground troops in Vietnam. 1965 was the deadline for AAFSS selection, but the program would become stuck in technical difficulties and political bickering.

The U. S. Army needed an interim gunship for Vietnam and it asked five companies to provide a quick solution. Submissions came in for armed variants of the Boeing-Vertol ACH-47A, Kaman HH-2C Tomahawk, Piasecki 16H Pathfinder, Sikorsky S-61, the Bell 209. On 3 September 1965 Bell rolled out its Model 209 prototype, four days it made its maiden flight, only eight months after the go-ahead. In April 1966, the model won an evaluation against the other rival helicopters; the Army signed the first production contract for 110 aircraft. Bell added "Cobra" to the UH-1's Huey nickname to produce its HueyCobra name for the 209; the Army applied the Cobra name to its AH-1G designation for the helicopter. The Bell 209 demonstrator was used for the next six years to fit of equipment, it had been modified to match the AH-1 production standard by the early 1970s. The demonstrator was retired to the Patton Museum at Fort Knox and converted to its original appearance; the Bell 209 design was modified for production.

The retractable skids were replaced by simpler fixed skids. A new wide-chord rotor blade was featured. For production, a plexiglass canopy replaced the 209's armored glass canopy, heavy enough to harm performance. Other changes were incorporated after entering service; the main one of these was moving the tail rotor from the helicopter's left side to the right for improved effectiveness of the rotor. The U. S. Marine Corps was interested in the Cobra and ord

Richard Taylor (Royalist)

Richard Taylor was an English politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1661 to 1667. He supported the Royalist cause in the English Civil War. Taylor was the son of Richard Taylor, counsellor at law, of Grymsbury, Bolnhurst and his wife Elizabeth Boteler daughter of William Boteler of Biddenham, Bedfordshire, he was baptised on 20 March 1620. He matriculated at Magdalen College, Oxford on 17 June 1636 aged 16 was a student of Lincoln’s Inn in 1637, he succeeded to a share in his father's estate at Clapham, Bedfordshire in 1641. He served in the Royalist army in the Civil War under Sir Ralph Hopton without any military rank, his share of the Clapham estate was sequestered and in 1647 he was fined £450 for delinquency. In 1655 was assessed at £90 for decimation. At the Restoration it was written that he had "continued faithful in the late war to the surrender of Oxford, hath been several times since imprisoned for his fidelity to your Majesty", he was one of those proposed for the order of Knight of the Royal Oak with an estate of £1,000 a year.

Taylor was a J. P. for Bedfordshire from July 1660, Deputy Lieutenant for Bedfordshire and commissioner for assessment for Bedfordshire from August 1660, holding these positions until his death. He was a J. P. for Bedford in September 1660. In 1661, he was elected Member of Parliament for Bedford in the Cavalier Parliament. There was a double return, he was J. P. for Bedford in 1661 and became commissioner for assessment Bedford in 1661. He was J. P. for Bedford again in 1662 and commissioner for loyal and indigent officers for Bedfordshire. Taylor was buried at Clapham. Taylor married by licence dated 17 May 1648, Catherine Bosdon, daughter of Edward Bosdon of the Middle Temple and had five sons and three daughters


Mira-Bhaindar is a municipality in the Thane district in the state of Maharashtra, India located in the northern part of Salsette Island, shares a border with North Mumbai. Mira-Bhaindar is administered by Mira-Bhaindar Municipal Corporation, with a population at the 2011 Census of 814,655. Mira-Bhaindar is the part of Mumbai Metropolitan Region. In times of the British Raj in India, the residents of the Mira-Bhayandar area participated in the Salt Satyagraha; the Mira Bhayandar Municipal council was formed on 12 June 1985 by incorporating all the village Gram Panchayats. MBMC got an administrative officer and a chief officer to look after the affairs of the area. MBMC is run by the Bharatiya Janata Party; the 2011 India census recorded a population of 814,655 in Mira-Bhayandar. According to the Indian Census data, the majority of the population are Hindus followed by Muslims and Christians. Economic growth is led by the manufacturing sector. Bhayandar is divided into two parts by the Mumbai suburban rail line - West.

Mira Road has seen development only in the East part, while the West part, on the other side of the railway line is covered with salt pans and mangroves. Mira Road East is a predominantly residential area, its calm, quiet surroundings and low pollution make it a desirable residential oasis. Bhayandar West was traditionally residential, the East predominantly an industrial area in the field of steel utensils manufacturing. Recent population growth and a flurry of construction has blurred the boundaries between Bhayandar and neighbouring Mira Road on the East side of the rail tracks, turning it into a populous suburb. Government-owned Salt Pans and marshland in West Mira Road have restricted the southward spread of Bhayandar. There is a lot of scope for development of this land as it has the potential to house a large industrial complex. Among minority languages, Gujarati is spoken by 8.13% of the population and Hindi by 23.90%. Ancient History of Thane Mira-Bhayandar Municipal Corporation official site

Harry L. Martin

First Lieutenant Harry Linn Martin was a United States Marine Corps officer who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for his actions on Iwo Jima on March 26, 1945. Harry Linn Martin was a member of the Ohio National Guard and graduated from Bucyrus High School and from Michigan State College in East Lansing, where he majored in business administration. At State, he did some boxing and skiing, he was a member of Sigma Alpha fraternity and served two years in the Cavalry unit of the ROTC. Following graduation in 1936, he worked in Honolulu, Hawaii, as an office manager for the Hawaiian Construction Tunnel Company. On August 25, 1943, he was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Marine Corps Reserve. Following schooling at Quantico, Virginia, 2dLt Martin completed the Engineers School at New River, North Carolina, was designated an Engineer Officer on March 13, 1944. Assigned to 2nd Battalion, 16th Marines, engineer regiment of the 5th Marine Division, he joined Company C when the designation of the battalion was changed to 5th Pioneer Battalion.

Second Lieutenant Martin went overseas with his unit in the summer of 1944 and went into training at Hawaii. On February 19, 1945, he landed on Iwo Jima in the Volcano Islands and before the day ended he had sustained a slight wound, he was promoted to first lieutenant on March 1945, twenty-five days before his death. A few minutes before dawn on the morning of March 26, the day the Iwo campaign closed, the Japanese launched a concentrated attack and penetrated the Marine lines in the area where 1st Lt Martin's platoon was bivouacked, he organized a firing line among the men in the foxholes closest to his own, temporarily stopped the headlong rush of the enemy. Several of his men were lying wounded in positions overrun by the enemy and the lieutenant was determined to rescue them. In the action which followed, he was wounded twice but continued to resist the enemy until he fell mortally wounded by a grenade; the Medal of Honor and citation were presented to his parents by Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal at a ceremony in the Navy Department on May 6, 1946.

First Lieutenant Martin was buried in the 5th Division Cemetery at Iwo Jima. At the request of his mother, his remains were returned to Ohio in 1948 for private burial in Oakwood Cemetery, Ohio; the President of the United States takes pride in presenting the MEDAL OF HONOR posthumously to FIRST LIEUTENANT HARRY L. MARTIN UNITED STATES MARINE CORPS RESERVE for service as set forth in the following CITATION: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty as Platoon Leader attached to Company C, Fifth Pioneer Battalion, Fifth Marine Division, in action against enemy Japanese forces on Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 26 March 1945. With his sector of the Fifth Pioneer Battalion bivouac area penetrated by a concentrated enemy attack launched a few minutes before dawn, First Lieutenant Martin organized a firing line with the Marines nearest his foxhole and succeeded, in checking momentarily the headlong rush of the Japanese. Determined to rescue several of his men trapped in positions overrun by the enemy, he defied intense hostile fire to work his way through the Japanese to the surrounded Marines.

Although sustaining two severe wounds, he blasted the Japanese who attempted to intercept him, located his beleaguered men and directed them to their own lines. When four of the infiltrating enemy took possession of an abandoned machine-gun pit and subjected his sector to a barrage of hand grenades, First Lieutenant Martin alone and armed only with a pistol, boldly charged the hostile position and killed all its occupants. Realizing that his remaining comrades could not repulse another organized attack, he called to his men to follow and charged into the midst of the strong enemy force, firing his weapon and scattering them until he fell, mortally wounded by a grenade. By his outstanding valor, indomitable fighting spirit and tenacious determination in the face of overwhelming odds, First Lieutenant Martin permanently disrupted a coordinated Japanese attack and prevented a greater loss of life in his own and adjacent platoons and his inspiring leadership and unswerving devotion to duty reflect the highest credit upon himself and the United States Naval Service.

He gallantly gave his life in service of his country. /S/ HARRY S. TRUMAN The United States Navy Maritime prepositioning ship USS 1st Lt. Harry L. Martin, is named in his honor. List of Medal of Honor recipients for World War II List of Medal of Honor recipients for the Battle of Iwo Jima This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Marine Corps."First Lieutenant Harry Linn Marti, USMCR, Who's Who in Marine Corps History, History Division, United States Marine Corps". Archived from the original on February 5, 2012. Retrieved September 29, 2010. "Medal of Honor citation". Archived from the original on July 13, 2007. Retrieved September 29, 2010. "Harry L. Martin". Claim to Fame: Medal of Honor recipients. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-02

Alexander I of Epirus

Alexander I of Epirus known as Alexander Molossus, was a king of Epirus of the Aeacid dynasty. As the son of Neoptolemus I and brother of Olympias, Alexander I was an uncle of Alexander the Great, he was an uncle of Pyrrhus of Epirus. Neoptolemus I ruled jointly with his brother Arybbas; when Neoptolemus died in c. 357 BC, his son Alexander was only a child and Arrybas became the sole king. In c. 350 BC, Alexander was brought to the court of Philip II of Macedon. In 342/3 in his late 20s, Philip made him king of Epirus, after dethroning his uncle Arybbas; when Olympias was repudiated by her husband in 337 BC, she went to her brother, endeavoured to induce him to make war on Philip. Alexander, declined the contest, formed a second alliance with Philip by agreeing to marry the daughter of Philip Cleopatra. During the wedding in 336 BC, Philip was assassinated by Pausanias of Orestis. In 334 BC, Alexander I, at the request of the Greek colony of Taras, crossed over into Italy, to aid them in battle against several Italic tribes, including the Lucanians and Bruttii.

After a victory over the Samnites and Lucanians near Paestum in 332 BC, he made a treaty with the Romans. He took Heraclea from the Lucanians, Terina and Sipontum from the Bruttii. Through the treachery of some Lucanian exiles, he was compelled to engage under unfavourable circumstances in the Battle of Pandosia and was killed by a Lucanian, he left a son, a daughter, Cadmea. In a famous passage, Livy speculates on what would have been the outcome of a military showdown between Alexander the Great and the Roman Republic, he reports that as Alexander of Epirus lay mortally wounded on the battlefield at Pandosia he compared his fortunes to those of his famous nephew and said that the latter "waged war against women". Lendering, Jona. "Alexander of Molossis"., 2004. Birth and kingship dates are incorrect)

Nasewaupee, Wisconsin

Nasewaupee is a town in Door County, United States. The population was 2,061 at the 2010 census; the unincorporated community of Idlewild is located in the town, as is Sherwood Point Light and Potawatomi State Park. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 71.1 square miles, of which, 43.1 square miles of it is land and 28.1 square miles of it is water. Ice Age Trail in Potawatomi state park Wisconsin Highway 42 As of the census of 2000, there were 1,873 people, 778 households, 581 families residing in the town; the population density was 43.5 people per square mile. There were 1,320 housing units at an average density of 30.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.49% White, 1.28% Native American, 0.21% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 0.53% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.53% of the population. There were 778 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.2% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.2% were non-families.

21.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.78. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.0% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 26.8% from 25 to 44, 29.8% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 100.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,292, the median income for a family was $50,900. Males had a median income of $33,917 versus $21,935 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,815. About 2.4% of families and 3.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.3% of those under the age of 18 and 4.5% of those 65 and older