Bell Canada

Bell Canada is a Canadian telecommunications company headquartered in Montreal, Canada. It is the incumbent local exchange carrier for telephone and DSL Internet services in most of Canada east of Saskatchewan and in the northern territories, it is a major competitive local exchange carrier for enterprise customers in the western provinces. Its subsidiary Bell Aliant provides services in the Atlantic provinces, it provides mobile service through its Bell Mobility subsidiary, television through its Bell TV and Bell Fibe TV subsidiaries. Bell Canada's principal competitors are Rogers Communications in Ontario and Shaw Communications in Western Canada, Quebecor and Telus in Quebec; the company serves over 13 million phone lines and is headquartered at the Campus Bell complex in Montreal. Bell Canada is one of the main assets of the holding company BCE Inc. known as Bell Canada Enterprises. In addition to the Bell Canada telecommunications properties, BCE owns Bell Media and holds significant interests in the Montreal Canadiens ice hockey club and Maple Leaf Sports & Entertainment, owner of several Toronto professional sports franchises.

BCE ranked number 262 on the 2011 edition of the Forbes Global 2000 list. Bell Canada has been one of Canada's most important and most powerful companies and, in 1975, was listed as the fifth largest in the country; the company is named after the inventor of the telephone, Alexander Graham Bell, who co-founded Bell Telephone Company in Boston, Massachusetts. Bell Canada operated as the Canadian subsidiary of the Bell System from 1880 to 1975. However, unlike the other regional Bell operating companies, Bell Canada had its own research and development labs. In the mid-1870s Alexander Graham Bell, Scottish-born but lived in Canada, invented an analogue electromagnetic telecommunication device that could transmit and receive human speech. In March 1876 he patented his invention in the United States under the title of "Improvement In Telegraphy", his device adopted the name now used worldwide, the telephone. Bell patented it in Canada and transferred 75% of the Canadian patent rights to his father, Alexander Melville Bell, with the remaining 25% being awarded to Boston telephone manufacturer Charles Williams Jr. in exchange for 1,000 telephones to be provided to the Canadian market.

This order could not be fulfilled due to surging demand in the United States. For a few years, the senior Bell and his friend and business associate Reverend Thomas Philip Henderson collected royalties from the lease of telephones to customers in the limited late-1870s Canadian market, who either operated their own private telephone lines or subscribed to a third party telecommunications service provider. In 1879 Bell's father sold his Canadian rights to the National Bell Telephone Company, formed in Boston, Massachusetts earlier that year by the merger of the Bell Telephone Company and the New England Telephone and Telegraph Company, which in 1880 reorganized as the American Bell Telephone Company, initiating the Bell System; that same year the Canadian division was renamed to "The Bell Telephone Company of Canada Ltd." to be headed by U. S. executive Charles Fleetford Sise from Chicago who served as its first general manager. The first supplier of telephones to Bell was a company established by Thomas C.

Cowherd and his son James H. Cowherd, in a three-storey brick building in Brantford, creating Canada's first telephone factory. Thomas and James had been good friends of Alexander Graham Bell, providing stovepipe wire with which Bell conducted his early telephone experiments from his father's home in Tutelo Heights and building some 2,398 telephones to Bell's specifications for the Canadian market until James Cowherd's untimely death from tuberculosis in 1881. With a government-granted monopoly on Canadian long-distance telephone service, The Bell Telephone Company of Canada was serving 237,000 subscribers by 1914. Since its early years The Bell Telephone Company of Canada, Ltd. had been known colloquially as "The Bell" or "Bell Telephone". On March 7, 1968, Canadian federal legislation renamed The Bell Telephone Company of Canada, Ltd. to Bell Canada. Bell Canada extended lines from Nova Scotia to the foot of the Rocky Mountains in what is now Alberta. However, most of the attention given to meeting demand for service focused on major cities in Ontario and the Maritime Provinces.

During the late 19th century, Bell sold its Atlantic operations in the three Maritime provinces, where many small independent companies operated and came under the ownership of three provincial companies. Newfoundland and Labrador joined Canada with several private companies, a government operation, transferred to the control of Canadian National Railways. Bell acquired interests in all Atlantic companies during the early 1960s, starting with Newfoundland Telephones on July 24, 1962. Bell acquired controlling interest in Maritime Telephone and Telegraph Company known as MT&T, which owned PEI-based Island Telephone, in Bruncorp, the parent company of NBTel in 1966; the purchase of MT&T was made despite efforts of the Nova Scotia legislature on September 10, 1966, to limit the voting power of any shareholder to 1000 votes. Bell-owned MT&T absorbed some 120 independent companies. Bell-owned NewTel purchased the CNR-owned Terra Nova Tel in 1988. Newtel, Bruncorp, MT&T and Island Tel merge


Annacotty is a suburban town on the outskirts of Limerick, Ireland, 7 km from the centre of the city. It is situated where the old N7 main road between Limerick and Dublin crosses the Mulkear River, 1 km upstream of where it flows into the River Shannon; the village grew up around the grain mills which harnessed the water power of the River Mulkear. Clonkeen Church was established as a monastic site c. AD 600. One was beside the bridge itself and has now been restored as bar and restaurant and the second was 1 km upstream at Ballyclough. Annacotty Co-Operative Society was founded in the 1890s and butter was made at the creamery up to the 1960s when it was taken over by Black Abbey Co-operative of Adare; the creamery had been transformed into a Co-Operative hardware store which closed in August 2009. The building is operating as Irish-owned store Mr. Price. With the expansion of Limerick from 1990, Annacotty has been swallowed up into the growing suburb of Castletroy; the N7, which ran through the main street, by passed the village as it was in 1980 when a new bridge was built over the Mulkear 100m downstream.

That, in turn, was superseded by the building of the Limerick Southern Ring Road which crossed the river 1 km upstream at Ballyclough. Annacotty became part of Limerick City following the May 2014 local government elections with local Councillors elected as part of the Limerick City Metropolitan District. Prior to this local Councillors were elected to Limerick County Council, a separate authority to the old City Council. Annacotty Industrial Estate was built on the former site of the Ferenka factory. Opened in March 1972 by the AKZO Group to manufacture steelcord, it achieved notoriety when its Dutch managing director Tiede Herrema was kidnapped by IRA Volunteers Eddie Gallagher and Marion Coyle in October 1975 and freed four weeks following a protracted siege in Monasterevin, County Kildare. After sustaining continuing losses and experiencing numerous industrial disputes from the day it opened, the factory closed down in December 1977 with the loss of over 1,400 full-time jobs. Annacotty is the home of two clubs.

Aisling Annacotty is the local football club and UL Bohemian's is the local Rugby club located on Mulkear Drive. Annacotty is the birthplace of the Limerick inter-county hurler Jackie Power and a statue of him stands on the main street. Former Irish rugby international Peter Clohessy comes from the town. Annacotty railway station opened on 8 August 1858, but closed on 9 September 1963. List of towns and villages in Ireland

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is a public airport located in Cleveland, Ohio, 9 miles southwest of the downtown area and adjacent to the Glenn Research Center, one of NASA's ten major field centers. It is the primary airport serving Greater Cleveland and Northeast Ohio, the largest and busiest airport in Ohio, the 43rd busiest airport in the United States by passenger numbers. Cleveland Hopkins offers non-stop passenger service to 54 destinations with 174 average daily departures. Cleveland Hopkins is operated by the Cleveland Department of Port Control, which includes Burke Lakefront Airport located downtown. In 2018, Airports Council International ranked Cleveland Hopkins the most improved North American airport in the 2017 Airport Service Quality Survey. Cleveland Hopkins is of particular importance to the history of commercial air travel due to a number of first-in-the-world innovations that would become the global standard. Founded in 1925, it was the first municipality-owned facility of its kind in the United States.

It was the site of the first air traffic control tower, the first ground-to-air radio control system, the first airfield lighting system, all in 1930. S. airport to be directly connected to a local or regional rail transit system, in 1968. It was the first airport to employ a two-level terminal design separating arrivals from departures; the airport was named after its founder, former city manager William R. Hopkins, on his 82nd birthday in 1951. United Airlines established its eastern-most domestic hub in Cleveland after World War II, which it maintained until the mid-1980s, when it closed its Cleveland hub and moved capacity to a new hub at Washington–Dulles. Following the closure of the United hub, Continental Airlines responded by adding capacity to Cleveland, as did USAir, the dominant carrier at the airport from 1987 until the early 1990s. While USAir soon reduced its schedule from Cleveland, Continental increased its hub capacity, becoming the airport's largest tenant and accounting for upwards of 60 percent of passenger traffic.

Continental and the airport both made substantial operational and capital investments in the airport's infrastructure. In 1992, the airport completed a $50 million renovation of Concourse C, which housed all of Continental's flights; the renovation included the installation of a continuous skylight, a Continental President's Club lounge, a new Baggage Claim area. In 1999, the airport completed an $80 million expansion that included the construction of the new Concourse D, built to accommodate Continental Express and Continental Connection flights. In 2010, Continental and United Airlines announced; the merger prompted concerns that a post-merger United would reduce or close its hub in Cleveland and instead route passengers through the new United's nearby hubs at O'Hare Airport in Chicago and Dulles Airport in Washington. On November 10, 2010, Continental CEO Jeff Smisek stated in a speech in Cleveland that "Cleveland needs to earn its hub status every day" and added that overall profitability would be the determining factor in whether the new United kept or closed the Cleveland hub.

United continued to reduce its capacity in Cleveland following the merger, reduced in the wake of the 2008 financial crisis. On February 1, 2014, United announced that the airline would shut down its Cleveland hub, stating as justification that the airline's hub at Cleveland "hasn't been profitable for over a decade." By June 5, 2014, United Airlines terminated its hub operation at the airport, reducing its daily departures by more than 60%. United closed Concourse D and consolidated all of its remaining operations in Concourse C, although it is required to continue to pay the airport $1,112,482 a month in rent for the facility until 2027; the airport experienced a sharp decline in passenger counts following the closure of United's hub in 2014. Several other airlines, increased their service to Cleveland in subsequent years. Frontier Airlines increased its service to the airport and declared Cleveland a focus city. Other low-cost airlines such as Spirit Airlines and Allegiant Air began new service to the airport as well, existing airlines such as American and Southwest increased their number of daily flights and destinations.

As a result, by 2017 the airport's passenger count exceeded levels achieved during the last full year that United maintained a hub in Cleveland. Despite the closure of its hub, as of 2017 United still maintained 1,200 employees in Greater Cleveland, including a flight attendant and pilot base as well as maintenance facilities. United remains the largest carrier at Hopkins, serving 17 destinations with close to 60 peak day departures. ExpressJet Airlines which operates on behalf of United Express maintains an operating base in Cleveland, where more than 50 Embraer ERJ-145s are based. Regional airline CommutAir, which flies on behalf of United Express, is headquartered in nearby North Olmsted. Cleveland Hopkins consists of one two-level passenger terminal, completed in 1978, renovated in 2016. There are four concourses, three of which are in use. Concourse A houses Allegiant Air, Spirit and all international arrivals. Delta Air Lines uses it for overflow parking and sports charters, it houses the airport's Federal Inspection Services customs and border protection facility.

Known as "North Concourse", it was opened in 1957 and rebuilt in 1978-79. Concourse B houses D