Middlesboro is a home rule-class city in Bell County, United States. The population was 10,334 at the 2010 U. S. census, while its micropolitan area had a population of 69,060. It is the largest city in southeastern Kentucky, it is located between Pine Mountain and the Cumberland Mountains in the Middlesboro Basin, an enormous meteorite crater. The city claims to be the only one in the United States built inside such a crater, as well as the home of ragtime music and the oldest continuously-played golf course in the country. Funded by English businessmen, the town opened its first post office on September 14, 1888, under the name Middlesborough in honor of the English town of the same name; the city was formally incorporated under that spelling on March 14 two years but the post office switched to "Middlesboro" in 1894 and that spelling has since been adopted by the city itself, the Kentucky Land Office, the U. S. Board on Geographic Names; some still contend, however. The area was inhabited by American Indians such as the Shawnee.
The first European known to have visited the area was Gabriel Arthur in 1674. He was followed by Thomas Walker in 1750 and Daniel Boone in 1769. John Turner of Virginia established the settlement of Yellow Creek nearby in 1810, but the town did not begin to develop until the Scottish-born and Canadian-raised engineer and entrepreneur Alexander Arthur took an interest in the Yellow Creek Valley. Having settled in Knoxville, Tennessee, he arranged development projects in the area as part of the post-war New South. Taking an interest in the iron deposits around the Cumberland Gap around 1886, Arthur was able to convince some of the wealthy scions of Gilded-Age Asheville, North Carolina, to talk to their families about funding a "Pittsburgh of the South", but sufficient financing was not forthcoming, he traveled to England, where he was able to find interested backers for his "Magic City" of 250,000 residents enjoying running water, electricity, a large sporting commons, electric trams in the middle of Appalachia.
He funded and began construction on the Powell's Valley Railroad, with the aim of connecting the Cumberland Gap region to Knoxville. By 1888, the new town was platted and named "Middlesborough" after the English town, either after a local contest selected it as the best entry or after the hometown of the brothers who owned the local English Hotel; the Middlesboro Country Club was founded as part of Arthur's original development. Its nine-hole course is one of the oldest in the United States and it claims to be the oldest continuously-played course in the country. Pianist Ben Harney is claimed to have originated ragtime music in Middlesboro, where he played in local saloons in the early 1890s. Just south of the Cumberland Gap in the area of the present-day Lincoln Memorial University, a $1-million Four Seasons Hotel was built in 1892 with 500 rooms, a 200-room spa, a sanitarium. Arthur's project failed by 1893; the Cumberland Gap had turned out to be too steep for locomotives and, in order to connect Middlesboro to the Tennessee line, an expensive tunnel needed to be constructed from 1888 to 1889 necessitating the dissolution of the Powell Valley Railroad and its recapitalization as the Knoxville, Cumberland Gap, & Louisville.
Rebuilding from a devastating fire in 1890 used up more capital and time and the poor quality of local ore meant that revenue from Arthur's steel mills was insufficient to weather the Panic of 1893 on Wall Street. Arthur's development of the area finished, the post office was renamed the following year after the already-prevalent local spelling "Middlesboro"; the Knoxville, Cumberland Pass, & Louisville was bought out by the L&N in 1896. The local newspaper, the Middlesboro Daily News, was established in 1911. Despite being the largest city in the county, the development of Middlesboro came too late to avoid Pineville's being the seat of the local courthouse; the two cities have remained friendly rivals since Middlesboro's founding. Middlesboro installed the first electric street cars west of Washington, D. C. to help locals and tourists visiting the city which became known as "Little Las Vegas" in the 1930s. By this time, Middlesboro was full of slot machines and brothels. During this period, shootouts in the streets were part of daily life.
The town, under rule of the infamous Ball brothers, was featured in newspapers across the country as one of the deadliest, wildest cities in the United States. By the 1950s, Middlesboro had a population of 15,000 residents, their strong support for the arts led to the city being called "the Athens of the Mountains". It was one of the few cities in the Eastern Coal Fields to boast a grand opera house and it hosted one of the finest school districts in the state; the first shopping mall was built in the city during the 1960s. The city was named an "All Kentucky City" in 1964,'65,'66,'67, and'69, a huge honor for such a small city; the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park was established during this time. During the 1970s, the area's coal industry revived and the city prospered again. A grand centennial celebration was held in 1990 that included a ball, air show, beauty pageant, as well as the dedication of a new city park; the Cumberland Gap Tunnel was opened in 1996. Middlesboro is investing in downtown revitalization to help create new business and give the city a better image.
In 2004, Discover Downtown Middlesboro, Inc. was formed to promote and lead the revamping of the historic downtown area. Since its inception, Discover Downtown Middlesboro has helped numerous bus
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Leslie County, Kentucky
Leslie County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,310, its county seat is Hyden. Leslie is dry county. Leslie County was founded in 1878, it was named for Governor of Kentucky. The Hurricane Creek mine disaster in a Leslie County coal mine in 1970 killed 38 people. After resigning the presidency, Richard Nixon made his first public appearance at the Leslie County dedication of a recreation facility named for him. County Judge-Executive C. Allen Muncy claimed the Nixon invitation prompted the U. S. Department of Justice to obtain indictments of him and his associates on vote-fraud charges. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 404 square miles, of which 401 square miles is land and 3.6 square miles is water. Perry County Harlan County Bell County Clay County As of the census of 2000, there were 12,401 people, 4,885 households, 3,668 families residing in the county; the population density was 31 per square mile.
There were 5,502 housing units at an average density of 14 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.18% White, 0.07% Black or African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races. There were 4,885 households out of which 35.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.30% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.90% were non-families. 22.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 9.20% from 18 to 24, 30.90% from 25 to 44, 23.90% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.20 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $18,546, the median income for a family was $22,225. Males had a median income of $28,708 versus $18,080 for females; the per capita income for the county was $10,429. About 30.20% of families and 32.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.80% of those under age 18 and 27.00% of those age 65 or over. James River Coal Company Public transportation is provided by LKLP Community Action Partnership with demand-response service and scheduled service from Hyden to Hazard. Leslie County is one of forty-four United States counties to have never voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate since its creation in 1878. In 1892, 1908, 1916 it was the most Republican county in the nation. Leslie’s fierce Unionist sympathies, so strong that areas surrounding it contributed more troops to the Union Army relative to population than any other part of the United States, meant that between 1896 and 1928 no Democrat could receive ten percent of the county’s vote, none received so much as twenty-five percent until Lyndon Johnson flukishly managed over 47 percent in his landslide national triumph against Barry Goldwater in 1964.
Despite Goldwater’s poor performance, every Republican candidate since the county’s formation has obtained an absolute majority in Leslie County, only William Howard Taft in the divided 1912 election, George Bush senior in 1992, Bob Dole in 1996 have received under seventy percent for the GOP. Dry counties National Register of Historic Places listings in Leslie County, Kentucky The Kentucky Highlands Project LeslieCounty. Net - oldest and largest site dealing with Leslie County
Alcoholic beverage control state
Alcoholic beverage control states called control states, are 17 states in the United States that, as of 2016, have state monopoly over the wholesaling or retailing of some or all categories of alcoholic beverages, such as beer and distilled spirits. At the beginning of the temperance movement in the United States, many states controlled where and when alcohol could be sold. Before this time, most alcoholic beverages for off-premises consumption were sold just like any other item of commerce in stores or bars; because of heavy lobbying by temperance groups in various states, most required off-premises beverages to be sold in dedicated stores with controls over their location. To further enhance oversight of beverage sales, some states such as South Carolina operated state-run dispensaries. Following repeal of national prohibition in the U. S. in 1933, some states decided to continue their own prohibition against the production and sale of alcoholic beverages within their borders. Other states decided to leave the issue to local jurisdictions, including counties and cities, a practice called local option.
States were able to restrict the importation of "intoxicating liquors" into their territory under the provisions of the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution which, while ending the Federal role in alcohol control, exempted liquor from the constitutional rule reserving the regulation of interstate commerce to the federal government. Thus states which wished to continue prohibition could do so. Among those states which chose not to maintain complete prohibition over alcoholic beverages one-third established government monopolies while the remaining two-thirds established private license systems. In its simplest terms, the license system allows private enterprises to buy and sell alcohol at state discretion. In actual effect, the license operates as a device of restraint and not a grant of privilege or freedom. In a constitutional sense, the license confers no property right and the exercise of its privilege is continuously contingent upon the holder’s compliance with required conditions and the general discretion of the licensing authority.
The remaining states adopted the monopoly system of regulation, the more cautious of the two regulatory frameworks. As alluded to above, under the monopoly plan the government takes over the wholesale trade and conducts the retail sale of heavier alcoholic beverages through its own stores; that is, the state itself engages in the distribution of alcoholic beverages. Most of these states have an "Alcoholic Beverage Control" board and run liquor stores called ABC stores. In all monopoly states a parallel license system is used to regulate the sale and distribution of lighter alcoholic beverages such as beer and wine. Beginning in the 1960s onward, many control states loosened their monopoly of beverage sales. States like West Virginia and Washington sold all of their state liquor stores to private owners, while others like Vermont permit private store owners to sell alcohol on behalf of the state for a commission; the 17 control or monopoly states as of February 2015 are: Alabama – Liquor stores are state-run or on-premises establishments with a special off-premises license, per the provisions of Title 28, Code of Ala.
1975, carried out by the Alabama Alcoholic Beverage Control Board. Idaho – Maintains a monopoly over sales of beverages with greater than 16% ABV. Iowa – All spirits are sold to owned retailers by the Iowa Alcoholic Beverages Division. Beer and wine can be sold by private license-holders. Maine – State-contracted to private businesses for commission. Michigan – Does not operate retail outlets, but maintains a monopoly over wholesaling of distilled spirits only. Mississippi – State contracted liquor stores. Montana – State contracted liquor stores, modeled after the Alberta Gaming and Liquor Commission. New Hampshire – Beer and wine can be sold at supermarkets and convenience stores. Liquor is sold only in state-run liquor stores and a small number of stores with a private Liquor Agency License. North Carolina – Beer and wine can be sold in supermarkets and convenience stores. Other spirits must be sold in liquor stores owned by local ABC boards; the State ABC Commission oversees local ABC boards. Prices for bottles of liquor are specified by the North Carolina ABC Commission and are the same throughout the state.
The price list is updated quarterly. Sales on certain liquors are held monthly, all ABC outlets in the state use the same special pricing. Holiday or gift packages released by distillers around Thanksgiving and Christmas, are sold at the same price as standard bottles of the enclosed liquor, regardless of the included accessories Ohio – Contracts with private businesses to sell spirituous liquor on consignment. Contract Liquor Agencies may sell beer, mixed alcoholic beverages, "low proof" alcohol, along with businesses that have been issued an annual permit to sell. Privileges and hours during which sales are allowed are dependent on the terms of the permit. Oregon – Beer and wine can be sold in supermarkets and convenience stores. Other spirits must be sold in liquor stores operated and managed by state-appointed liquor agents who act as independent contractors under the supervision of the Oregon Liquor Control Commission. Pennsylvania – All spirits are sold in Pennsylvania Liquor Control Board stores, known since the early 2010s as "Fine
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf