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Bell Gardens, California

Bell Gardens is a city in the US state of California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Located in Los Angeles County, the city's population was 42,072 at the 2010 census, down from 44,054 at the 2000 census. Bell Gardens is part of the Gateway Cities Region, a urbanized region located in southeastern Los Angeles County. Bell Gardens is notable for being one of only six Los Angeles County cities to permit casino gambling and for being home of the oldest building in Los Angeles County. Bell Gardens is named after an American businessman; the “Gardens” in its name derives from the many Japanese who, early in Bell Gardens’ existence, established vegetable gardens and rice fields. The adjacent city of Bell is named after James George Bell as well. Bell Gardens has a Native American history dating back thousands of years. In the late 18th century, when the area was associated with a large amount of land situated along the lower basin of the Rio Hondo area in Los Angeles County, Bell Gardens was once a bustling agricultural center for Californios during the Spanish Empire, 1509–1823, the Mexican government, 1823–1848, the United States, after the Mexican-American war concluded in 1848.

Among those early Spanish settlers was one of the Lugos. While stationed at Mission San Antonio de Padua near Salinas, Francisco Lugo's son Antonio Maria Lugo was born in 1783. In 1810 Antonio Lugo, a 35-year-old corporal in the Spanish army, was given the 29,514-acre Rancho San Antonio land grant; the land grant was a reward for his military service during the establishment of the Franciscan Missions in California while being the attendant of colonization for the area. Today, the grant includes the cities of Bell Gardens, Maywood, Huntington Park, Walnut Park, South Gate and Commerce. Antonio Lugo built several adobe homes within the boundaries of the Rancho San Antonio grant, raised cattle. One of the adobe houses, built in 1795, is the oldest house in Los Angeles County and is still standing at 7000 Gage Avenue. Lugo was given a term as Mayor of Los Angeles. According to Dr. Roy Whitehead in his book Lugo, "Don Antonio Maria Lugo…rode around Los Angeles and his Rancho San Antonio in great splendor.

He never still spoke only Spanish. He rode magnificent horses, sitting in his $1,500 silver trimmed saddle erect and stately, with his sword strapped to the saddle beneath his left leg…People knew him far and wide, the Indians sometimes named their children after him, as he was one Spanish Don that they admired." Antonio María Lugo died at the age of 85 in 1860. One of his nine children, Vicente Lugo and built a two-story adobe home in 1850, located at 6360 Gage Avenue. A daughter of Antonio Lugo married Stephen C. Foster, Mayor of Los Angeles in 1854, lived in an adobe house just east of 6820 Foster Bridge Road, now a parking lot. A granddaughter of Antonio Lugo married Wallace Woodworth, an early-day merchant and civic leader in Los Angeles, their eldest son, Joseph Woodworth, built a two-story colonial style house at 6820 Foster Bridge Road in 1924. The land's original adobe dwelling was named Casa de Rancho San Antonio by Lugo; when Henry T. Gage, a lawyer who married Antonia Lugo's granddaughter Frances V. Rains, occupied the residence, he added two wings and redwood siding, installed bronze fireplaces, imported expensive fabric wallpaper from France to serve as background for the Gage coat of arms, which enjoys a place of prominence in every room.

The Bell Gardens’ school system began in 1867 when the San Antonio School was built where Bell Gardens Elementary stands today. Area farmers sent their children to the San Antonio School, one of the earliest educational institutions in the County of Los Angeles; because of the rich soil, many Japanese immigrants are part of Bell Gardens’ early history. Japanese Gardeners farmed to produce quality vegetables for the marketplace. Rice fields mushroomed within the city limits of Bell Gardens. With some of the richest agricultural land in the country, Bell Gardens remained a farming community until the 1930s. Beginning in the 1930s, cheap homes were constructed, filled by defense plant workers. In 1927, Firestone Tire Company bought some of the land at $7,000 an acre. By 1900, Bell Gardens was divided into tracts of 40 to 100 acres; the land adjoining. Both Bell Gardens and Bell are named for James George Bell. In 1930, O. C. Beck purchased property and begins to build affordable homes for those suffering through the depression era.

It was during this period that the area was known as'Billy Goat Acres'. To this day, Bell Gardens is affectionately known by this moniker. World War I and World War II brought defense plants to the area that helped build the economic stability and the population, which led to construction of new homes, more schools, a prosperous business climate; this land used to be floodplains, farmlands split into long, narrow plots by depression-era developers. Tiny houses were sold and rented to Oakies, the Cherokee, the Cree, forced from their homes by dust bowls and Manifest Destiny. By the 1980s, high-wage factories had left, taking with them all of the whites and many of the blacks. In their places—coming from the Mexican states of Michoacan, Jalisco and Zacatecas— were large families of immigrants. Latinos moved here for work and some brought their small businesses. Thousands of Central Americans fleeing civil wars in the 1980s came to the region and created small businesses and worked in the same service industry jobs.

By the 1990s, Colmar Elementary changed its name to Cesar E. Chavez Ele

Chaz Lamar Shepherd

Chaz Lamar Shepherd is an American actor and singer-songwriter. Shepherd is known for his regular role as John Hamilton on 7th Heaven and his recurring role as Trey Wiggs on The Game. From 1994-1995, he is best known for his role as Artis Tower, son of Steve Tower on Me and the Boys for ABC. In addition, he starred as Curtis Taylor, Jr. in a 2009-10 national tour of the musical Dreamgirls, as Raymond "Piranha" Jones in the second season of Luke Cage. Love & Truth Released: October 26, 2010 Label: Chaz Records/Introspect Music Formats: CD, Digital Download Chaz Lamar Shepherd at the Internet Broadway Database Chaz Lamar Shepherd on IMDb

Dawda Ceesay

Dawda Ceesay is a Gambian professional footballer who plays as a central midfielder for Minerva Punjab in the I-League. He played for Gambia U-17 in the 2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup, he has been a part of several Bangladesh Football Premier League clubs since 2014. In 2018 January he joined i-League side Churchill Brothers, he scored his first goal in i-League against Indian Arrows. On 15 July 2019 he joined Minerva Punjab, he was a part of Gambia national under-17 football team. He scored a goal in the 20th minute against Cameroon U17 in the group stage of the tournament, he played all three group stage matches for Gambia in the 2009 FIFA U-17 World Cup. Statistics accurate as of 15 November 2018 Gambia U17 Africa U-17 Cup of Nations winner: 2009

Ferrofluid mirror

A ferrofluid mirror is a type of deformable mirror with a reflective liquid surface used in adaptive optics. It is made of ferrofluid and magnetic iron particles in ethylene glycol, the basis of automotive antifreeze; the ferrofluid mirror changes shape when a magnetic field is applied. As the ferromagnetic particles align with the magnetic field, the liquid becomes magnetized and its surface acquires a shape governed by the equilibrium between the magnetic and surface tension forces. Since any shapes can be produced by changing the magnetic field geometries, wavefront control and correction can be achieved. A ferrofluid mirror is controlled by a number of actuators arranged in a hexagonal array. Pure ferrofluids have low reflectivity, so they must be coated with a reflective layer. Water-based ferrofluids hold the reflective layer but water evaporates so that the mirror could disappear within hours. Depositing a thin silver colloid known as a metal liquid-like film on the ferrofluid surface solves the problem of fast evaporation and low reflectivity of pure ferrofluids.

The combination of fluid and metal results in a liquid optical surface that can be shaped in a magnetic field. Ferrofluid mirror telescopes have been built to obtain astronomical data and used to take images of deep space. Subjects for research include exoplanets. However, the main challenge astronomers and scientists face is image distortions due to wavefront errors caused by the atmosphere; the solution to this problem is to create mirrors with controllable surface shapes, known as deformable mirrors. Ferrofluid mirrors are used as deformable mirrors because when ferrofluids are exposed to a magnetic field, the liquid forms a shape to minimize the energy of the system which involves magnetic and surface tension forces of the liquid. While ferrofluid mirrors are used in telescopes, ferrofluid mirrors can be applied in the field of visual science. Human eyes suffers from many optical imperfections. Ophthalmologists look into the eyes to diagnose diseases by examining the retina. Ferrofluid mirrors could be adjusted to compensate for the large distortions in diseased eyes during eye exams or treatments.

They can generate surfaces having complex shapes thus can be used to determine the shape of the lens of the human eyes, the crystalline lens. This allows the measurement of high-order aberrations of the crystalline lens so that they can be corrected with the appropriate medical procedures; the magnetically shaped reference surface can further be used to verify the correction made to the lens of the eye before, during or after the procedures. Before ferrofluid mirrors were invented, solid deformable mirrors were used to correct atmospheric distortion and keep a steady focus. Deformable solid mirrors use flexible mirrors with complex actuators underneath to correct for atmospheric distortion and keep a steady focus. Shortcomings of traditional deformable solid mirrors include cost and the need for continuous power. In addition, images from these mirrors have an undesirable quilt pattern due to the discrete actuators beneath the mirror surface. Mercury was thought to be used as the main material of deformable liquid mirrors because of its high reflectivity and low melting temperature.

However, as a magnetic liquid, it had problems. It is difficult to obtain a stable metallic based magnetic liquid and the high density of mercury necessitates a larger deforming force and thus a strong magnetic field. Ferrofluid mirrors are cheaper in terms of material cost, are able to make more corrections due to its larger range of motion; the limitations associated with the use of mercury for deformable liquid mirrors can be solved through the use of ferrofluids. Ferrofluids are liquids that contain a suspension of colloidal ferromagnetic particles within a carrier liquid. In the presence of an external magnetic field, the ferromagnetic particles align with the field and the liquid becomes magnetized. Stable ferrofluids have wide ranges of physical properties thus can be produced to suit many practical application needs

Charles Wood (businessman)

Charles R. "Charley" Wood was an American amusement park developer and philanthropist in Upstate New York. Wood was born in Lockport, New York, in 1914. After seeing the amusement park Knott's Berry Farm in southern California he was inspired in 1954 to open his own park in Queensbury, New York, which he named Storytown USA. In order to do this, he needed some loans from local banks. With $500 in his pocket at the time, he walked into a bank, applied for the necessary loans, was denied. To this, he replied to the bank manager "One day sir, I will be able to buy and sell you." Success followed this Mother Goose themed park and in 1959 he opened a second amusement park in the village of Lake George, New York, this one named Gaslight Village, which closed in 1989. Storytown USA changed its name to The Great Escape in 1983 and was sold to new owners winding up under the Six Flags park umbrella. Wood purchased Fantasy Island in 1983 and owned it until 1989, he would own the park again from 1992 through 1994.

Wood became a philanthropist for northern New York state through his Charles R. Wood Foundation, donating money to libraries and providing seed money for a theater in downtown Glens Falls, New York, named for him, as well as Charles R. Wood Park, a nature park and restored wetland area on the site of Gaslight Village. In 1993, Wood co-founded, with actor Paul Newman, the Double "H" Ranch, a SeriousFun Camp for critically ill children. Wood died at age 90 in 2004. Fun World Magazine bio Bio of Wood at site of the theater named for him Obituary


Bressuire is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in France. The town is situated on an eminence overlooking a tributary of the Argenton. Bressuire has two buildings of interest: the church of Notre-Dame, dating chiefly from the 12th and 15th centuries, has an imposing tower of the Renaissance period; the latter is now in ruins, a portion of the site is occupied by a modern château, but an inner and outer line of fortifications are still to be seen. The whole forms the finest assemblage of feudal ruins in Poitou; the name "Bressuire" comes from two elements, being Durum. These two are linked in the name "Berzoriacum" recorded in 1029, "Bercorium" from the start of the crusading era in 1095; the name Bressuire thereby defines a fortress on a hill. Bressuire dates back to Celtic times, was at the meeting point of roads during the Gallo-Roman period; the earliest surviving evidence of the town's existence, around the chapel of Saint Cyprien, dates back to the eleventh century. Medieval Bressuire belonged to the viscounts of Thouars and comprised, in the tenth century, the three parishes of Notre Dame, St John and St Nicholas.

The parish of St Nicholas, which has since disappeared, was located within the walls of the castle and belonged to the Abbey of Saint-Jouin-de-Marnes. Among the disasters suffered at various times by the town, its capture from the English and subsequent pillage by French troops under du Guesclin in 1370 is the most memorable. Bressuire was part of the Ancien Régime Province of Poitou. Bressuire is twinned with: Communes of the Deux-Sèvres department INSEE Official website