United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
United States Forest Service
The United States Forest Service is an agency of the U. S. Department of Agriculture that administers the nations 154 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 million acres. Major divisions of the include the National Forest System and Private Forestry, Business Operations. Managing approximately 25% of federal lands, it is the major national land agency that is outside the U. S. Department of the Interior. The concept of the National Forests was born from Theodore Roosevelt’s conservation group and Crockett Club, in 1876, Congress created the office of Special Agent in the Department of Agriculture to assess the quality and conditions of forests in the United States. Hough was appointed the head of the office, in 1881, the office was expanded into the newly formed Division of Forestry. The Forest Reserve Act of 1891 authorized withdrawing land from the domain as forest reserves. In 1901, the Division of Forestry was renamed the Bureau of Forestry, gifford Pinchot was the first United States Chief Forester in the Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt.
As of 2009, the Forest Service has a budget authority of $5.5 billion. The Forest Service employs 34,250 employees in 750 locations, including 10,050 firefighters,737 law enforcement personnel, and 500 scientists. The mission of the Forest Service is To sustain the health and its motto is Caring for the land and serving people. As the lead agency in natural resource conservation, the US Forest Service provides leadership in the protection and use of the nations forest, rangeland. The agencys ecosystem approach to management integrates ecological and social factors to maintain and enhance the quality of the environment to meet current, the everyday work of the Forest Service balances resource extraction, resource protection, and providing recreation.5 billion trees per year. Further, the Forest Service fought fires on 2,996,000 acres of land in 2007, the Forest Service organization includes ranger districts, national forests, research stations and research work units and the Northeastern Area Office for State and Private Forestry.
Each level has responsibility for a variety of functions, the Chief of the Forest Service is a career federal employee who oversees the entire agency. The Chief reports to the Under Secretary for Natural Resources and Environment in the U. S. Department of Agriculture, there are five deputy chiefs for the following areas, National Forest System and Private Forestry and Development, Business Operations, and Finance. The Forest Service Research and Development deputy area includes five stations, the Forest Products Laboratory. Station directors, like regional foresters, report to the Chief, Research stations include Northern, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, Rocky Mountain, and Southern. There are 92 research work units located at 67 sites throughout the United States, there are 80 Experimental Forests and Ranges that have been established progressively since 1908, many sites are more than 50 years old
Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge
Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge is a 10, 795-acre National Wildlife Refuge established in 1937 and located in Chariton County, Missouri,2 miles south of the town of Sumner. It is located near the confluence of the Grand and Missouri Rivers, following the purchase of the land, the Civilian Conservation Corps began work on the refuge creating wetlands, constructing roads and buildings, and initiating the refuge farming program. The primary purpose of the refuge is to provide nesting, resting, an important secondary purpose was to preserve a remnant flock of prairie chickens. Unfortunately, adequate grassland habitat to maintain a population of the birds was not available. Since establishment of the refuge, the emphasis on waterfowl species has been expanded to include the Eastern Prairie Population of Canada geese. Canada geese were first observed using the refuge in the early 1940s, although these populations have steadily declined, Swan Lake is still considered a primary wintering area for Canada geese.
Refuge website This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Fish and Wildlife Service
National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is the system of lands and waters set aside to conserve Americas fish, wildlife. National Wildlife Refuges manage a range of habitat types, including wetlands, prairies and marine areas. Among these hundreds of national refuges are home to some 700 species of birds,220 species of mammals,250 reptile and amphibian species and more than 1000 species of fish. Endangered species are a priority of National Wildlife Refuges in that nearly 60 refuges have been established with the purpose of conserving 280 threatened or endangered species. National Wildlife Refuges are places where visitors can participate in a variety of outdoor recreational activities. The National Wildlife Refuge System welcomes nearly 50 million visitors each year, hunters visit more than 350 hunting programs on refuges and on about 36,000 Waterfowl Production Areas.
Opportunities for fresh or saltwater fishing are available at more than 340 refuges, there is at least one wildlife refuge in each of the fifty states. The agency has created Comprehensive Conservation Plans for each refuge, developed through consultation with private and these began a review process by stakeholders beginning in 2013. The CCCPs must be consistent with the Fish and Wildlife Service goals for conservation, the CCPs outline conservation goals for each refuge for fifteen years into the future, with the intent that they will be revised every fifteen years thereafter. Additionally, NEPA requires FWS planners and refuge staff to engage the public in planning process to assist them with identifying the most appropriate alternative. Completed CCPs are available to the public and can be found on the FWS website, equally important is an intimate understanding of the social and economic drivers that impact and are impacted by management decisions and can facilitate or impede implementation success.
Consideration of these contributes to the success of the Service’s mission to protect wildlife. The Refuge System works collaboratively internally and externally to leverage resources, according to the Services 2013 Banking on Nature Report, visitors to refuges positively impact the local economies. Prevention and control of fires is a very active part of refuge management. Completion of controlled burns to reduce fuel loading, and participation in the wildland fire suppression efforts, are vital for management of refuge lands. A considerable infrastructure of physical structures is essential to management of refuge lands. As of September 30,2015 there were 13,030 roads and trails,5,284 buildings,8,007 water management structures, the overall facility infrastructure is valued at nearly $30 billion
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site
Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site is a 9. 65-acre United States National Historic Site located 10 miles southwest of Downtown St. Louis, Missouri within the municipality of Grantwood Village. The site, known as White Haven, commemorates the life, military career, five historic structures are preserved at the site including the childhood home of Julia Dent Grant, wife of Ulysses S. Grant. White Haven was a plantation worked by slaves at the time Grant was married to his wife in 1848, after his marriage to Julia, Grant was stationed in Michigan and New York. Julia traveled with him to posts, returning to White Haven in 1850 for the birth of their first child, Fred. When Ulysses was sent west in 1852, Julia was not able to go with him and she returned to her parents home after stopping at Ulysses parents home in Ohio, where Ulysses Jr. was born. Grants army pay was insufficient to bring his family out to the West Coast, suffering from depression and loneliness after being separated for two years, Grant finally resigned from the army in 1854 and returned to White Haven.
Grant farmed the White Haven property for his father-in-law, working with the slaves owned by Julias father, two more children were born, born on July 4,1855, and Jesse, in February 1858. Due to a panic in 1857, along with bad weather that destroyed many farmers crops, Ulysses worked for a short time in the city of St. Louis in real estate. In 1860, Ulysses and their four children moved to Galena, Ulysses worked with his brothers selling leather goods made in their fathers tannery. Many visitors to Ulysses S. Grant National Historic Site are surprised to learn that slaves lived and worked on the nineteenth century known as White Haven. During the years 1854 to 1859 Grant lived here with his wife, Julia, at that time no one suspected that Grant would rise from obscurity to achieve the success he gained during the Civil war. The interpretation of slavery at White Haven is therefore an important part of the mission of historic site. Most slaveholders in Missouri owned few slaves, those who owned ten were considered wealthy, in the southeastern Bootheel area and along the fertile Missouri River valley known as little Dixie, single-crop plantations predominated, with an intensive use of slave labor.
Elsewhere in the state, large farms produced a variety of staples, including hemp, oats, hay, on many of these estates the owner worked alongside his slaves to harvest the greatest economic benefit from the land. Slavery was less entrenched in the city of St. Louis, slaves were often hired out by their masters in return for an agreed upon wage. A portion of the wage was paid to slaves, allowing a measure of self-determination. Each of the early residents owned slaves during their tenure on the Gravois property. When Theodore and Anne Lucas Hunt purchased William Lindsay Longs home in 1818, the work of Walace, Lydia and Adie would be an important part of the Hunts farming venture
Mingo National Wildlife Refuge
The Mingo National Wildlife Refuge is a 21, 676-acre National Wildlife Refuge located in northwestern Stoddard and southeastern Wayne counties in Missouri. Its southwesternmost portion lies on the shores of Lake Wappapello, the refuge is maintained with a 9-person staff, with a fiscal year 2004 budget of $1.2 million. In 1804, the United States acquired this territory in the Louisiana Purchase, at that time, the population of the entire Bootheel was sparse, and the swamp area was considered inaccessible. Settlers first came to the swamp because of the vast cypress, the giant cypress trees were the first to be used for railroad ties and building lumber. Moss Tie Company was a large Bootheel lumbering operation, with its headquarters in Puxico, moss was the largest tie contractor in the state, and many of their ties were cut from trees taken from the swamp. A large mill was operated just north of Puxico on land now within Mingo NWR, local sources claim that, at one time, the mill was the largest bandsaw mill in America.
The lumber industry reached peak production in the Bootheel between 1900 and 1910, during its peak, the Bootheel was consistently the leading lumber-producing area of Missouri. However, by 1935, most of the operations had ceased. The giant trees were cut and it was necessary to find lumber in other places, the powerful and wealthy lumber companies had not lost interest in the Bootheel yet. If the land could be drained, it would become an important source of revenue. The size of the projects remained small because of the expanse involved, the Missouri State Legislature passed an act that allowed the formation of drainage districts, financed by long-term bonds. For the first time, drainage projects could be adequately financed, in 1914, more than 20 drainage districts existed in Stoddard County. One of them was the Mingo Drainage District, a district in the Advance Lowlands near Puxico. More than $1 million were spent to make Mingo Swamp suitable for farming, a system of seven major north-south ditches was constructed to drain water from the swamp into the St.
Francis River, about 10 mi south of Puxico. Except for the southern extension of the district south of Puxico, the districts boundary. The ditches constructed by the district are used today by the refuge for water control, during the Great Depression, land values plummeted and many of the large landholders defaulted on payment of taxes rather than continue to maintain unprofitable investments in the land. Mingo District was one of these, Drainage attempts at Mingo had not been completely successful, at least in part because of the overflow from the St. Francis River. Also, the soil was not as productive as in areas of the Bootheel
Federal government of the United States
The Federal Government of the United States is the national government of the United States, a republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D. C. and several territories. The federal government is composed of three branches, legislative and judicial, whose powers are vested by the U. S. Constitution in the Congress, the President, and the courts, including the Supreme Court. The powers and duties of these branches are defined by acts of Congress. The full name of the republic is United States of America, no other name appears in the Constitution, and this is the name that appears on money, in treaties, and in legal cases to which it is a party. The terms Government of the United States of America or United States Government are often used in documents to represent the federal government as distinct from the states collectively. In casual conversation or writing, the term Federal Government is often used, the terms Federal and National in government agency or program names generally indicate affiliation with the federal government.
Because the seat of government is in Washington, D. C, Washington is commonly used as a metonym for the federal government. The outline of the government of the United States is laid out in the Constitution, the government was formed in 1789, making the United States one of the worlds first, if not the first, modern national constitutional republics. The United States government is based on the principles of federalism and republicanism, some make the case for expansive federal powers while others argue for a more limited role for the central government in relation to individuals, the states or other recognized entities. For example, while the legislative has the power to create law, the President nominates judges to the nations highest judiciary authority, but those nominees must be approved by Congress. The Supreme Court, in its turn, has the power to invalidate as unconstitutional any law passed by the Congress and these and other examples are examined in more detail in the text below. The United States Congress is the branch of the federal government.
It is bicameral, comprising the House of Representatives and the Senate, the House currently consists of 435 voting members, each of whom represents a congressional district. The number of each state has in the House is based on each states population as determined in the most recent United States Census. All 435 representatives serve a two-year term, each state receives a minimum of one representative in the House. There is no limit on the number of terms a representative may serve, in addition to the 435 voting members, there are six non-voting members, consisting of five delegates and one resident commissioner. In contrast, the Senate is made up of two senators from each state, regardless of population, there are currently 100 senators, who each serve six-year terms
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1821. With over six million residents, it is the eighteenth most populous state, the largest urban areas are St. Louis, Kansas City and Columbia. The capitol is in Jefferson City on the Missouri River, the state is the twenty-first most extensive by area and is geographically diverse. The Northern Plains were once covered by glaciers, tallgrass prairie, in the South are the Ozarks, a forested highland, providing timber and recreation. The Mississippi River forms the border of the state, eventually flowing into the swampy Missouri Bootheel. Humans have inhabited the land now known as Missouri for at least 12,000 years, the Mississippian culture built cities and mounds, before declining in the 1300s. When European explorers arrived in the 1600s they encountered the Osage, the French established Louisiana, a part of New France, and founded Ste. Genevieve in 1735 and St. Louis in 1764, after a brief period of Spanish rule, the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803.
Americans from the Upland South, including enslaved African Americans, rushed into the new Missouri Territory, many from Virginia and Tennessee settled in the Boonslick area of Mid-Missouri. Soon after, heavy German immigration formed the Missouri Rhineland, Missouri played a central role in the westward expansion of the United States, as memorialized by the Gateway Arch. The Pony Express, Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, as a border state, Missouris role in the American Civil War was complex and there were many conflicts within. After the war, both Greater St. Louis and the Kansas City metropolitan area became centers of industrialization and business, the state is divided into 114 counties and the independent city of St. Louis. Missouris culture blends elements from the Midwestern and Southern United States, the musical styles of ragtime, Kansas City jazz, and St. Louis Blues, developed in Missouri. The well-known Kansas City-style barbecue, and lesser known St. Louis-style barbecue can be found across the state, St.
Louis is a major center of beer brewing, Anheuser-Busch is the largest producer in the world. Missouri wine is produced in the nearby Missouri Rhineland and Ozarks, Missouris alcohol laws are among the most permissive in the United States. Outside of the large cities popular tourist destinations include the Lake of the Ozarks, U. S. President Harry S. Truman is from Missouri. Other well known Missourians include Mark Twain, Walt Disney, Chuck Berry, some of the largest companies based in the state include Express Scripts, Emerson Electric, Edward Jones, and OReilly Auto Parts. Missouri has been called the Mother of the West and the Cave State, Missouris most famous nickname is the Show Me State, the state is named for the Missouri River, which was named after the indigenous Missouri Indians, a Siouan-language tribe
Potosi is a city in Washington County, United States. Potosi is about 10 miles north of Belgrade, the population was 2,660 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Washington County, the city was founded sometime between 1760 and 1780 as Mine à Breton or Mine au Breton, and renamed by Moses Austin for the Bolivian silver-mining city of Potosí. Potosi is located at 37°56′16″N 90°46′55″W, according to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.33 square miles, all of it land. A lead mining settlement at this spot, Mine à Breton or Mine au Breton, was founded between 1760 and 1780 by Francis Azor, of Brittany, Moses Austin came here in 1798 with his family, including his son Stephen F. Austin. Moses obtained a grant of 7,153 arpents of land from the Spanish Empire and started mining operations. Moses named the town after Potosí in Bolivia, which was famous for its vast silver mines, austins tomb and the foundation of his home Durham Hall can still be seen. Another mining entrepreneur in Potosi at the time of Moses Austin was James Bryan, the Desloge lead mining business Desloge Lead Company and Desloge Consolidated Lead Company was relocated to Bonne Terre, MO and Desloge, MO by his son Firmin V.
Desloge. Potosi was designated county seat in 1814, the Potosi Correctional Center, which opened in 1989, housed Missouris death row and the states executions were handled at the prison until 2005. Woodcut artist Tom Huck grew up in Potosi, where he has taken inspiration from many of the local legends. In 1998, Huck released 2 Weeks in August,14 Rural Absurdities, the George Cresswell Furnace, Palmer Historic Mining District, Washington County Courthouse, and Washington State Park CCC Historic District are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,660 people,1,114 households, the population density was 1,141.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,230 housing units at a density of 527.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95. 2% White,2. 2% African American,0. 4% Native American,0. 4% Asian,0. 3% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 1. 6% of the population. 36. 4% of all households were made up of individuals and 14. 9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.23 and the average family size was 2.86.
The median age in the city was 39.1 years. 24. 2% of residents were under the age of 18,8. 8% were between the ages of 18 and 24,23. 9% were from 25 to 44,24. 3% were from 45 to 64, and 18. 7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 44. 1% male and 55. 9% female, as of the census of 2000, there were 2,662 people,1,103 households, and 677 families residing in the city
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
Harry S. Truman National Historic Site
The site was designated a National Historic Site on May 23,1983. Bess Trumans maternal grandfather, George Porterfield Gates, built the house over a period of years from 1867 to 1885. After Besss father, David Willock Wallace, committed suicide in 1903, she and her mother and brothers moved into the house with Besss grandparents and Elizabeth Gates. After Trumans haberdashery failed in 1922, he and his continued to live in the house to save money while he paid his debts. After being elected to the Senate in 1935, he moved to Washington, D. C. with his wife, whenever they came back to Missouri, the house at 219 N. Delaware was their home. After he retired in 1953, until the Truman Library was opened on July 6,1957, bess lived in the home until her death in 1982, and she bequeathed the property to the National Park Service. The home was closed for 8 months in 2009-10 for a $1.1 million renovation that improved fire safety, visitor comfort, the Trumans only child, Mary Margaret, was born in the home on February 17,1924.
The site includes the two adjacent homes of Mrs. Trumans brothers, across Delaware Street, the Noland Home, the site operates a visitors center, located inside an historic firehouse, in downtown Independence. NPS park ranger-interpreters lead guided tours of the home on a regular basis, though Margaret died in 2008, the NPS has maintained the closure in order to best preserve the home. A photo tour of the rooms, including Harry and Besss bedroom, is available. The fireplace is framed with tiles depicting a fanciful Middle Eastern desert landscape with tents and minarets, likely inspired by One Thousand, Truman is one of the few Presidents who never owned his own home prior to his time in office. The house is now located in the Harry S. Truman Historic District, the Harry S. Truman Farm Home is located 15 miles away from Independence in Grandview, Missouri. Truman worked the farm as a man, from 1906–1917. It was here, said his mother, that Harry got his common sense, there is no visitor center on the site, but the grounds are open year-round for self-guided tours, and an audio tour is available.
Guided tours were conducted during the summer, but were cancelled in 2013 due to sequestration-related budget cuts. After Truman returned to life he sold portions of the farm for the Truman Corners Shopping Center as well as other Kansas City suburban development. Official Park Service site Harry Truman and Independence, This is Where I Belong, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan
National Wild and Scenic Rivers System
The National Wild and Scenic River is a designation for certain protected areas in the United States. The National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act was an outgrowth of the recommendations of a Presidential commission, among other things, the commission recommended that the nation protect wild rivers and scenic rivers from development that would substantially change their wild or scenic nature. The act was sponsored by Sen. Frank Church and signed into law by President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 2,1968, a river or river section may be designated by the U. S. Congress or the Secretary of the Interior. In 1968, as part of the act, eight rivers were designated as National Wild. As of July 2011,203 rivers, totaling 12,598 miles of river in 38 states and Puerto Rico, have wild and scenic status. By comparison, more than 75,000 large dams across the country have modified at least 600,000 miles, or about 17%, of American rivers. Selected rivers in the United States are preserved for possessing outstandingly remarkable scenic, geologic and wildlife, cultural, Rivers, or sections of rivers, so designated are preserved in their free-flowing condition and are not dammed or otherwise impeded.
National wild and scenic designation essentially vetoes the licensing of new projects on or directly affecting the river. Designation as a wild and scenic river is not the same as a national park designation, however and scenic designation protects the free-flowing nature of rivers in non-federal areas, something the Wilderness Act and other federal designations cannot do. Designation does not alter property rights, federally administered National Wild and Scenic rivers are managed by one or more of the four principal land-managing agencies of the federal government. Of the 156 National Wild and Scenic Rivers, the most are managed by the U. S. Forest Service, thirty-eight are managed under the Bureau of Land Managements National Landscape Conservation System while the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service manages several rivers in Alaska. State-managed wild and scenic rivers are subject to the same protections as federally administered rivers and these state rivers are added to the National System by the Secretary of the Interior following an application by the governor of the state the river flows through.
Wild and scenic rivers are assigned one or more classifications, wild and these classifications are based on the developmental character of the river on the date of designation. Wild rivers are the most remote and undeveloped while recreational rivers often have access points, railroads. A rivers classification is not related to the value that made it worthy of designation, for instance, recreation may not be an outstanding value on a river with a recreational classification nor scenery on a river classified as scenic. Notably and scenic rivers receive the standard of protection regardless of classification. Nashua River Wild and Scenic River Study Act – proposed a study of the Nashua River in Massachusetts for possible inclusion in the system, list of National Wild and Scenic Rivers Protected areas of the United States National Wild and Scenic Rivers System Wild and Scenic Rivers Act