click links in text for more info

Bell OH-58 Kiowa

The Bell OH-58 Kiowa is a family of single-engine, single-rotor, military helicopters used for observation and direct fire support. Bell Helicopter manufactured the OH-58 for the United States Army based on its Model 206A JetRanger helicopter; the OH-58 was in continuous U. S. Army service from 1969 to 2017; the latest model, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, is operated in an armed reconnaissance role in support of ground troops. The OH-58 has been exported to Austria, Croatia, the Dominican Republic, Saudi Arabia, Greece, it has been produced under license in Australia. On 14 October 1960, the United States Navy asked 25 helicopter manufacturers on behalf of the Army for proposals for a Light Observation Helicopter. Bell Helicopter entered the competition along with 12 other manufacturers, including Hiller Aircraft and Hughes Tool Co. Aircraft Division. Bell submitted the D-250 design, which would be designated as the YHO-4. On 19 May 1961, Hiller were announced as winners of the design competition. Bell developed the D-250 design into the Model 206 aircraft, with the HO-4 designation being changed to YOH-4A in 1962, produced five prototype aircraft for the Army's test and evaluation phase.

The first prototype flew on 8 December 1962. The YOH-4A became known as the Ugly Duckling in comparison to the other contending aircraft. Following a flyoff of the Bell and Fairchild-Hiller prototypes, the Hughes OH-6 Cayuse was selected in May 1965; when the YOH-4A was rejected by the Army, Bell went about solving the problem of marketing the aircraft. In addition to the image problem, the helicopter lacked cargo space and only provided cramped quarters for the planned three passengers in the back; the solution was a fuselage redesigned to be more sleek and aesthetic, adding 16 cubic feet of cargo space in the process. The redesigned aircraft was designated as the Model 206A, Bell President Edwin J. Ducayet named it the JetRanger denoting an evolution from the popular Model 47J Ranger. In 1967, the Army reopened the LOH competition for bids because Hughes Tool Co. Aircraft Division could not meet the contractual production demands. Bell resubmitted for the program using the Bell 206A. Fairchild-Hiller failed to resubmit their bid with the YOH-5A, which they had marketed as the FH-1100.

In the end, Bell underbid Hughes to win the contract and the Bell 206A was designated as the OH-58A. Following the U. S. Army's naming convention for helicopters, the OH-58A was named Kiowa in honor of the Native American tribe. In the 1970s, the U. S. Army began evaluating the need to improve the capabilities of their scout aircraft. Anticipating the AH-64A's replacement of the venerable AH-1, the Army began shopping the idea of an Aerial Scout Program to stimulate the development of advanced technological capabilities for night vision and precision navigation equipment; the stated goals of the program included prototypes that would: "...possess an extended target acquisition range capability by means of a long-range stabilized optical subsystem for the observer, improved position location through use of a computerized navigation system, improved survivability by reducing aural, visual and infrared signatures, an improved flight performance capability derived from a larger engine to provide compatibility with attack helicopters".

The Army created a special task force at Fort Knox to develop the system requirements in early March 1974, by 1975 the task force had devised the requirements for an Advanced Scout Helicopter program. The requirements were formulated around an aircraft capable of performing in day and adverse weather, compatible with all the advanced weapons systems planned for development and fielding into the 1980s; the program was approved by the System Acquisition Review Council and the Army prepared for competitive development to begin the next year. However, as the Army tried to get the program off the ground, Congress declined to provide funding for it in the fiscal year 1977 budget and the ASH Project Manager's Office was closed on 30 September 1976. While no development occurred during the next few years, the program survived as a requirement without funding. On 30 November 1979, the decision was made to defer development of an advanced scout helicopter in favor of pursuing modification of existing airframes in the inventory as a near term scout helicopter option.

The development of a mast-mounted sight would be the primary focus to improve the aircraft's ability to perform reconnaissance and target acquisition missions while remaining hidden behind trees and terrain. Both the UH-1 and the OH-58 were evaluated as NTSH candidates, but the UH-1 was dropped from consideration due to its larger size and ease of detection; the OH-58, on the other hand demonstrated a dramatic reduction in detectability with a Mast-Mounted Sight. On 10 July 1980, the Army decided that the NTSH would be a competitive modification program based on developments in the commercial helicopter industry Hughes Helicopters development of the Hughes 500D which provided significant improvements over the OH-6; the Army's decision to acquire the NTSH resulted in the "Army Helicopter Improvement Program". Both Bell Helicopter and Hughes Helicopters redesigned their scout aircraft to compete for the contract. Bell offered a more robust version of the OH-58 in their model 406 aircraft, Hughes offered an upgraded version of the OH-6.

On 21 September 1981, Bell Helicopter Textron was awarded a development contract. The first prototype flew on 6 October 1983, the aircraft entered service in 1985 as the OH-58D. Intended for attack and artillery roles, the Army o

IWRG Guerra del Golfo

Guerra del Golfo is both the name of a major show series promoted by the Mexican Lucha Libre, or professional wrestling promotion International Wrestling Revolution Group as well as the name of the tournament match, the focal point of the show. The tournament consists of two first-round steel cage matches where the last person in the cage advances to the final match of the night. In the finals the two losers face off in a cage match where the loser of that match is either unmasked or forced to have their hair shaved off under Luchas de Apuestas rules. There have been a total of 10 shows since the first show in 2005. So far three wrestlers have lost their masks and seven have been shaved bald. Starting as far back as at least 2000, the Mexican wrestling promotion International Wrestling Revolution Group has held several annual events where the main event was a multi-man steel cage match where the last wrestler left in the cage would be forced to either remove their wrestling mask or have their hair shaved off under Luchas de Apuestas, or "bet match", rules.

From 2005 IWRG has promoted a spring time show promoting the steel cage match concept under the name Guerra del Golfo, or "Gulf War", referring to the Gulf of Mexico, not the Gulf War in the middle east. The Gurerra del Golfo shows always featured two "qualifying" steel cage matches where the loser would be forced to face off against each other in the main event of the show, a final cage match where the loser would be forced to either unmask or have his/her hair shaved off; the use of the steel cage in three matches distinguishes the Guerra del Golfo event from other Steel cage matches held throughout the year such as the IWRG El Castillo del Terror, IWRG Guerra de Sexos or IWRG Prison Fatal shows. The Guerra del Golfo shows, as well as the majority of the IWRG shows in general, are held in "Arena Naucalpan", owned by the promoters of IWRG and their main arena. Starting in 2008 IWRG has held at least one Guerra del Golfo match each year, with the 2015 edition being the tenth over all show.

A total of 69 wrestlers have participated in one or more Guerra del Golfo cage matches including two women, Ludark Shartain and Sexy Lady. Oficial AK-47 and Veneno are tied for six each. No one has won the Guerra del Golfo twice, but Chicho Che has been on the losing side twice, losing his hair in both 2010 and 2013. Ultra Mega was the first to lose his mask in the Guerra del Golfo match and participated in several additional matches under the name Oficial Fierro, including winning the 2008 tournament. Guillermo Martinez Ci has worked the Guerra del Golfo tournament under three different ring names; the winner of the first tournament, Némesis became better known as El Hijo del Pirata Morgan and Arlequín Rojo would return as Oficial Spartan. The finals of 2008, set to be Oficial 911 against Oficial Factor, but during the match Oficial AK-47, Oficial Fierro, Oficial Spartan and Oficial Rayan climbed in the cage and became official participants. In the end Oficial AK-47 lost the match though he was not a finalist

Historian's fallacy

The historian's fallacy is an informal fallacy that occurs when one assumes that decision makers of the past viewed events from the same perspective and having the same information as those subsequently analyzing the decision. It is not to be confused with presentism, a mode of historical analysis in which present-day ideas are projected into the past; the idea was first articulated by British literary critic Matthew Arnold. The idea that a critic can make erroneous interpretations of past works because of knowledge of subsequent events was first articulated by Matthew Arnold in his 1880 essay The Study of Poetry, he wrote: The course of development of a nation’s language and poetry, is profoundly interesting. So arises in our poetic judgments the fallacy caused by the estimate which we may call historic; the concept of the historian's fallacy was named and outlined in 1970 by David Hackett Fischer, who suggested it was analogous to William James's psychologist's fallacy. Fischer did not suggest that historians should refrain from retrospective analysis in their work, but he reminded historians that their subjects were not able to see into the future.

As an example, he cited the well-known argument that Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor should have been predictable in the United States because of the many indications that an attack was imminent. What this argument overlooks, says Fischer, citing the work of Roberta Wohlstetter, is that there were innumerable conflicting signs which suggested possibilities other than an attack on Pearl Harbor. Only in retrospect do. In the field of military history, historians sometimes use what is known as the "fog of war technique" in hopes of avoiding the historian's fallacy. In this approach, the actions and decisions of the historical subject are evaluated on the basis of what that person knew at the time, not on future developments that the person could not have known. According to Fischer, this technique was pioneered by the American historian Douglas Southall Freeman in his influential biographies of Robert E. Lee and George Washington. Appeal to novelty Chronological snobbery Cognitive bias – Systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment Hindsight bias – Tendency to perceive past events as more predictable than they were at the time List of cognitive biases – Systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment Fischer, David Hackett.

Historians' Fallacies: Toward a Logic of Historical Thought. New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1970, pp. 209–13. Historian's Fallacy Fallacious, the Ultimate Collection of 300 Logical Fallacies

Audry PĂ©rez

Audris Joel Pérez is a Dominican professional baseball catcher, a free agent. He played for the St. Louis Cardinals in Major League Baseball in 2013 and 2014. Pérez was called up to the majors for the first time on September 3, 2013. On November 19, 2014, Perez signed a minor league deal with the Colorado Rockies. On March 31, 2015, Perez was traded to the Baltimore Orioles, he elected free agency on November 6, 2017. He resigned a minor league deal on February 1, 2018, he elected free agency on November 3, 2018. Career statistics and player information from MLB, or ESPN, or Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference Audry Perez on Twitter Audry Perez on Instagram

Are You My Mummy?

"Are You My Mummy?" is the twelfth broadcast episode of the animated television series Phineas and Ferb. The episode sees stepbrothers Phineas and Ferb going to an Egyptian-themed theater where they become inspired to befriend a mummy they believe is being kept in the theater basement, they confuse the mummy for their sister Candace, accidentally wrapped up in toilet paper. Meanwhile, Dr. Doofenshmirtz tries to blow up a beaver dam in order to make his property beachfront. "Are You My Mummy?" was written by series co-creators Dan Povenmire and Jeff "Swampy" Marsh, along with Bobby Gaylor and Martin Olson, directed by Povenmire. It aired on Disney Channel in the United States on February 15, 2008, as part of the month-long marathon event "Phineas and Ferb-urary." Critical reception for the episode was favorable. The featured song, "My Undead Mummy and Me," was well received and became available on the official Phineas and Ferb soundtrack in 2009. Stepbrothers Phineas and Ferb, along with their father Lawrence and sister Candace, go to an Egyptian-themed movie theater where they see a movie about two archeologists who discover an undead mummy.

Phineas and Ferb are inspired to find their own mummy and go out to the basement of the theater, where there is rumored to be a mummy. Candace sees them going off to do this and follows them, hoping to get them in trouble with their father. However, as Phineas and Ferb go searching for the mummy through the basement hallways wearing archeologist hats, they run into what they believe are booby traps, she becomes caught up in raggy toilet paper and cannot talk properly, which leads to the boys mistaking her for the mummy and capturing her. Meanwhile, the boys' pet platypus who leads a double life as a secret agent, goes off to a lake near a beaver dam which his nemesis Dr. Heinz Doofenshmirtz plans on destroying. Once Perry arrives, Doofenshmirtz traps him an indestructible bubble made of "pure evil" and space age polymers and explains that he hopes to disassemble the dam using the Woodenator, in order to raise water levels, making his estate beachfront property. Perry destroys the bubble and begins to fight Doofenshmirtz, until the dam is destroyed and they are sent with the water as it washes into the pipe system.

Doofenshmirtz and the lake water reach the pipe lines next to the theater's basement where the boys and Candace are. Perry defeats Doofenshmirtz without catching the attention of the three and the water washes away Candace's toilet paper; when they get outside to meet up with their father, Phineas is dumbfounded as to where their mummy went, but Lawrence thinks he is referring to their mother and they get into the car. As they ride off, Ferb explains the process of mummification and Candace says that only the "lucky " get the full process. "Are You My Mummy?" was written by Phineas and Ferb co-creators Dan Povenmire and Jeff "Swampy" Marsh, along with Bobby Gaylor and Martin Olson. It was storyboarded by artists Kyle Baker and Mike Roth, directed by Povenmire, it was broadcast in the United States on Disney Channel on February 15, 2008 as part of the special month-long marathon event "Phineas and Ferb-urary."Plot elements for the episode date back to the original pitch to The Walt Disney Company for the series produced by Povenmire and Marsh.

The pitch was constructed of storyboard reels which were recorded and dubbed over by Povenmire for voices and sound effects. The initial theme song featured an illustration of Phineas and Ferb, wearing their archeologist hats, discovering Candace, dressed in raggy toilet paper."Are You My Mummy" is available on the 2008 DVD compilation Phineas and Ferb: The Fast and the Phineas, along with fellow first season episodes of the series "One Good Scare Ought to Do It!" "The Fast and the Phineas," "Lawn Gnome Beach Party of Terror," "Flop Starz," "Raging Bully," "Lights! Candace! Action!" and "It's About Time!" The song "My Undead Mummy and Me,", based on the theme song for The Courtship of Eddie's Father, became available in 2009 on the official Phineas and Ferb soundtrack. "Are You My Mummy?" received favorable reviews from television critics. Reviewers praised the musical number "My Undead Mummy and Me." DVD Verdict reviewer Jim Thomas called it "truly twisted" in his review of The Phineas. Ed Liu of Toon Zone was critical of the episode and several other early ones from the series, citing them as "way too manic for their own good," but considered the song to be an "amusing video sequence."

A Wired magazine review for the series' soundtrack dubbed the song "whimsical," considering it to be a quick improvement from the CD's previous track, "Disco Miniature Golfing Queen," from the episode "Put That Putter Away." "Are You My Mummy?" at "Are You My Mummy?" at the Internet Movie Database

Desertas Islands

The Desertas Islands are a small archipelago, in the Macaronesia region of the Atlantic Ocean. They are within the Portuguese Autonomous Region of Madeira, part of the larger Madeira Archipelago; the archipelago is located off the coast of Morocco. Deserta Grande Island is located about 25 kilometres southeast of the eastern tip of Madeira Island, Ponta de São Lourenço; the archipelago of the Desertas Islands is a chain of three long and narrow islands that stretch over a north/south distance of 22.3 kilometres. The Desertas Islands, from north to south with approximate area figures, are: Administratively, the islands are part of the Municipality of Santa Cruz in Madeira, in the Santa Cruz civil parish; the islands are a designated Portuguese nature reserve. A licence is needed to land there. Though close to the main island of Madeira, where the islands can be seen on the horizon, the geology of the Ilhas Desertas is starkly different; the high and rocky islands of the group are barren of topsoil, the only wildlife consists of about sixteen species of birds, including eight species of seabirds, a scarce population of feral goats and rodents, brought from Portugal by the mariners who first touched the rocky shores.

The Deserta Grande wolf spider and Madeiran wall lizard exist in the fragile and arid ecosystem. The only inhabitable island, with its own water source, is Deserta Grande; this water is however murky and scarce, all historical attempts to colonise the island failed due to the impracticability of communal agriculture. A tiny colony of Mediterranean monk seals inhabit the beaches, since 1990 the islands have been constituted as a nature reserve for their protection. Although in 1998 the colony numbered only eight, the population numbers forty seals; the only human presence is the permanent wardens, occasional boaters, the few research stations on the islands. Islands of the Autonomous Region of Madeira List of islands of Portugal Media related to Desertas Islands at Wikimedia Commons Topographic map of the Desertas Islands