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Bell UH-1 Iroquois

The Bell UH-1 Iroquois is a utility military helicopter powered by a single turboshaft engine, with two-bladed main and tail rotors. The first member of the prolific Huey family, it was developed by Bell Helicopter to meet a 1952 US Army requirement for a medical evacuation and utility helicopter, first flew in 1956; the UH-1 was the first turbine-powered helicopter produced for the United States military, more than 16,000 have been built since 1960. The Iroquois was designated HU-1, hence the Huey nickname, which has remained in common use, despite the official redesignation to UH-1 in 1962; the UH-1 first saw service in combat operations during the Vietnam War, with around 7,000 helicopters deployed. The Bell 204 and 205 are Iroquois versions developed for the civil market. In 1952, the U. S. Army identified a requirement for a new helicopter to serve as medical evacuation, instrument trainer, general utility aircraft; the Army determined that current helicopters were too large, underpowered, or too complex to maintain easily.

In November 1953, revised military requirements were submitted to the Department of the Army. Twenty companies submitted designs in their bid for the contract, including Bell Helicopter with the Model 204 and Kaman Aircraft with a turbine-powered version of the H-43. On 23 February 1955, the Army announced its decision, selecting Bell to build three copies of the Model 204 for evaluation with the designation XH-40. Powered by a prototype Lycoming YT53-L-1 engine producing 700 shp, the XH-40 first flew on 20 October 1956 at Fort Worth, with Bell's chief test pilot, Floyd Carlson, at the controls. Two more prototypes were built in 1957, the Army had ordered six YH-40 service test aircraft before the first prototype had flown. In March 1960, the Army awarded Bell a production contract for 100 aircraft, designated "HU-1A" and named Iroquois after the Native American nations; the helicopter developed a nickname derived from its HU-1 designation, which came to be pronounced as "Huey". The reference became so popular that Bell began casting the name on the helicopter's anti-torque pedals.

The official U. S. Army name was never used in practice. After September 1962, the designation for all models was changed to UH-1 under a unified Department of Defense designation system, but the nickname remained. While glowing in praise for the helicopter's advances over piston-engined helicopters, the Army reports from the service tests of the YH-40 found it to be underpowered with the production T53-L-1A powerplant producing a maximum continuous 770 shaft horsepower; the Army indicated the need for improved follow-on models as the first UH-1As were being delivered. In response, Bell proposed the UH-1B, equipped with the Lycoming T53-L-5 engine producing 960 shp and a longer cabin that could accommodate either seven passengers or four stretchers and a medical attendant. Army testing of the UH-1B started in November 1960, with the first production aircraft delivered in March 1961. Bell commenced development of the UH-1C in 1960 in order to correct aerodynamic deficiencies of the armed UH-1B.

Bell fitted the UH-1C with a 1,100 shp T53-L-11 engine to provide the power needed to lift all weapons systems in use or under development. The Army refitted all UH-1B aircraft with the same engine. A new rotor system was developed for the UH-1C to allow higher air speeds and reduce the incidence of retreating blade stall during diving engagements; the improved rotor resulted in a slight speed increase. The increased power and a larger diameter rotor required Bell's engineers to design a new tail boom for the UH-1C; the longer tail boom incorporated a wider chord vertical fin on the tail rotor pylon and larger synchronized elevators. Bell introduced a dual hydraulic control system for redundancy as well as an improved inlet filter system for the dusty conditions found in southeast Asia; the UH-1C fuel capacity was increased to 242 US gallons, gross weight was raised to 9,500 lb, giving a nominal useful load of 4,673 lb. UH-1C production started in June 1966 with a total of 766 aircraft produced, including five for the Royal Australian Navy and five for Norway.

While earlier "short-body" Hueys were a success, the Army wanted a version that could carry more troops. Bell's solution was to stretch the HU-1B fuselage by 41 in and use the extra space to fit four seats next to the transmission, facing out. Seating capacity increased including crew; the enlarged cabin could accommodate six stretchers and a medic, two more than the earlier models. In place of the earlier model's sliding side doors with a single window, larger doors were fitted which had two windows, plus a small hinged panel with an optional window, providing enhanced access to the cabin; the doors and hinged panels were removable, allowing the Huey to be flown in a "doors off" configuration. The Model 205 prototype flew on 16 August 1961. Seven pre-production/prototype aircraft had been delivered for testing at Edwards AFB starting in March 1961; the 205 was equipped with a 44-foot main rotor and a Lycoming T53-L-9 engine with 1,100 shp. The rotor was lengthened to 48 feet with a chord of 21 in.

The tailboom was lengthened, in order to accommodate the longer rotor blades. Altogether, the modifications resulted in a gross weight capacity of 9,500 lb; the Army ordered production of the 205 in 1963, produced with a T53-L-11 engine for its multi-fuel capability. The prototypes were designated as YUH-1D and the production aircraft was designated as the UH-1D. In 1966, Bell installed the 1,400 shp (1

Albian Sands

Albian Sands Energy Inc. is the operator of the Muskeg River Mine and Jack Pine Mine, an oil sands mining project located 75 kilometres north of Fort McMurray, Canada. It is a joint venture between Shell CNRL and Chevron Canada; the company's legal headquarters are located in the Shell Tower in Alberta. Albian Sands got its name from the Albian Boreal Sea which, during the Albian stage of the Cretaceous, moved over the McMurray sands and deposited a blanket of marine shale on its floor which trapped the hydrocarbons of the McMurray Formation; the oil sands resources of the Muskeg River Mine are a legacy of the Albian Sea. At full production, Albian Sands can produce 340,000 barrels per day of crude bitumen, a occurring semi-solid form of crude oil; the mine product, diluted bitumen or dilbit, is sent to be upgraded at the Scotford Upgrader in Fort Saskatchewan. The Muskeg River Mine stands on a Shell Canada lease containing more than 5 billion barrels of mineable bitumen, of which it is expected to recover 1,650 million barrels of bitumen over the next 30 years.

The Muskeg River Mine, Jack Pine Mine and the Scotford Upgrader together comprise the Athabasca Oil Sands Project. A proposed future mine expansion would increase production by 100,000 bbl/day; the 100,000 barrels per day expansion project received regulatory approval in late 2006. At the mine site, the 175 megawatt MRM Cogeneration plant owned 70% by ATCO Power and 30% by SaskPower supplies process steam and electricity to the mine. 50 % of the electricity produced is sold into the Alberta power grid. The Corridor Pipeline which transports diluted bitumen from the Muskeg River Mine to the Scotford Upgrader is owned by Inter Pipeline Ltd.. To accommodate its workforce, the project has built a 2460-room "village" with service and recreation facilities; the project is using satellite based imaging to ensure transparent reporting of its land use

Francis Frederick Reh

Francis Frederick Reh was an American Roman Catholic prelate. He served as Bishop of Charleston, rector of the Pontifical North American College, Bishop of Saginaw. One of two children, Francis Reh was born in New York, to Gustave A. and Elizabeth Reh. His father worked as a truant officer for the New York City Board of Education, he received his early education at the parochial school of Immaculate Conception Church, entered Cathedral College at age thirteen. After graduating from Cathedral College in 1930, he attended St Joseph's Seminary, New York for two years before continuing his studies at the Pontifical North American College in Rome. Reh was ordained to the priesthood on December 8, 1935, he earned a Licentiate of Sacred Theology and a Doctor of Canon Law summa cum laude from the Pontifical Gregorian University. Upon his return to the United States in 1939, he served as assistant chancellor of the Archdiocese of New York and associate pastor at St. Patrick's Cathedral for two years. From 1941-51, he was professor of moral canon law at St Joseph's Seminary.

He served as defender of the bond on the archdiocesan tribunal. He became vice-chancellor in 1951. In 1954, Reh was named a papal chamberlain by Pope Pius XII and vice-rector at his alma mater of the North American College in Rome, he returned to St. Joseph's Seminary in New York in 1958 as its rector; that same year, he accompanied Cardinal Francis Spellman to Rome for the papal conclave that elected Pope John XXIII. On June 6, 1962, Reh was appointed the ninth Bishop of South Carolina, he received his episcopal consecration on the following June 29 from Cardinal Spellman, with Archbishop John Joseph Maguire and Bishop John Michael Fearns serving as co-consecrators. At his consecration, he wore the same vestments worn by Cardinal Spellman and Pope Pius XII at their own consecrations. Between 1962 and 1965, he attended all four sessions of the Second Vatican Council. On September 5, 1964, Reh was named to succeed Bishop Martin John O'Connor as rector of the North American College, he was appointed Titular Bishop of Macriana in Mauretania on the same date.

On December 11, 1968, he was appointed bishop of the Saginaw diocese by Pope Paul VI. He served as bishop until his resignation on April 29, 1980, he was succeeded as bishop of Saginaw by Kenneth Untener

Margaret Kiddle

Margaret Kiddle was an Australian writer and historian. She wrote Moonbeam Stairs, West of Sunset, Caroline Chisholm, The Candle, Men of Yesterday: A Social History of the Western District of Victoria 1834–1890, published posthumously in 1961. Kiddle was born on 10 September 1914 at South Yarra, Australia, she was the eldest of four children of John Beacham Kiddle and Mauna Loa. She attended St Catherine's School, Toorak from 1921 to 1926 and Melbourne Church of England Girls' Grammar School from 1927 to 1933. Kiddle attended the University of Melbourne, receiving her B. A. in 1938 and her M. A. in 1947. After graduation, she worked in the history department, first as a tutor and as a senior tutor, she was a research fellow at the Australian National University. Kiddle died on 3 May 1958 at Melbourne, she spent her last moments working on the manuscript of what would, after her death, be published as Men of Yesterday. This posthumous masterpiece is considered her best memorial; the idea of writing this book came in 1949 from a family friend suggestion for her to write about the Western District.

Kiddle was mesmerised about the idea of answering questions about the settlers' origins and colonial experiences by having access to their diaries and letters. She worked on the manuscript off throughout her life, she planned to write other books. After her death, friends prepared the draft for publication. Margaret Loch Kiddle in The Encyclopedia of Women and Leadership in Twentieth-Century Australia

Hiawatha Township, Michigan

Hiawatha Township is a civil township of Schoolcraft County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,328 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 290.7 square miles, of which 278.5 square miles is land and 12.3 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,328 people, 563 households, 404 families residing in the township; the population density was 4.8 per square mile. There were 935 housing units at an average density of 3.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 93.98% White, 0.08% African American, 3.92% Native American, 0.38% Asian, 0.08% from other races, 1.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.30% of the population. There were 563 households out of which 25.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.8% were married couples living together, 3.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.2% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.81. In the township the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 5.3% from 18 to 24, 23.0% from 25 to 44, 30.8% from 45 to 64, 19.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 105.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.9 males. The median income for a household in the township was $40,156, the median income for a family was $46,406. Males had a median income of $40,294 versus $24,853 for females; the per capita income for the township was $20,385. About 6.0% of families and 6.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.1% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over

Komaru Castle

Komaru Castle was a Japanese castle located in what is now the city of Echizen Fukui Prefecture, in the Hokuriku region of Japan. Built in the Sengoku period by Sassa Narimasa, the ruins are now a Fukui Prefectural Historic Site. Komaru Castle was established in one of Oda Nobunaga's generals. Along Maeda Toshiie and Fuwa Mitsuharu, he was charged with keeping the peace and suppressing the Ikkō-ikki in Echizen Province. Komaru Castle was located on a small hill at the southern edge of the Fukui Plain; the inner bailey is thought to have had a donjon. A second and third bailey protected the inner citadel, the whole was surrounded by moats and marsh. However, in 1581 Sassa Narimasa was awarded additional territories, relocated to Etchū Province, after leaving the unfinished Komaru Castle abandoned. During excavations in 1932, the earthen foundations, part of the gate to the honmaru, the remains of the dry moat, a tower foundation, some fragments of roof tiles were found; the roof tiles were of especial interest to historians, as an account was written on its reverse side about Maeda Toshiie's suppression of the Ikkō-ikki in Echizen by mass executions of followers.

Http:// Schmorleitz, Morton S.. Castles in Japan. Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttle Co. pp. 144–145. ISBN 978-0-8048-1102-6. Motoo, Hinago. Japanese Castles. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 200 pages. ISBN 978-0-87011-766-4. Mitchelhill, Jennifer. Castles of the Samurai: Power and Beauty. Tokyo: Kodansha. P. 112 pages. ISBN 978-4-7700-2954-6. Turnbull, Stephen. Japanese Castles 1540-1640. Osprey Publishing. P. 64 pages. ISBN 978-1-84176-429-0