General Post Office, Brisbane
The General Post Office in Brisbane, Queensland, in Australia is a heritage-listed post office located at 261 Queen Street in 1872 and extended through to Elizabeth Street in 1908. It is still in use by Australia Post. Opposite the GPO building is Post Office Square; the first full-time postmaster in Brisbane was J. E. Barney in 1852. In 1862, the first Postmaster-General for the state of Queensland Thomas Lodge Murray Prior was appointed. A small convict era building was used as for postal services but was too far from the telegraph office; the Postmaster-General choose a half hectare site, centrally located. The building located at the Queen Street site which once hosted women convicts was demolished in 1871. Freestone and bricks were sourced from local materials; the GPO was opened on 28 September 1872. In 1873, the Queensland Museum was housed in the General Post Office building, but moved in 1879 to the William Street building. In the same year a second wing, constructed by John Petrie was completed which allowed the telegraph office to move to the building, pleasing business customers.
The building features high ceilings. A clock mounted in the pediment positioned above the main entrance was once illuminated by a gas powered light, it was replaced by a smaller, electric clock. The first typewriter to be used in any post office in any Australian city was used at the GPO in 1892. Stamps and money orders were once available to customers outside the building via windows are now closed; the building has been listed on the Brisbane City Council Heritage Register. Other General Post Offices Further historical details
Ipswich is an urban region in south-east Queensland, located in the south-west of the Brisbane metropolitan area. Situated on the Bremer River, it is 40 kilometres west of the Brisbane CBD. A local government area, the City of Ipswich has a population of 200,000; the city is renowned for its architectural and cultural heritage. Ipswich preserves and operates from many of its historical buildings, with more than 6000 heritage-listed sites and over 500 parks. Ipswich began in 1827 as a mining settlement. Prior to the arrival of European settlers, what is now called Ipswich was home to many indigenous language groups, including the Warpai tribe and Ugarapul Indigenous Australian groups; the area was first explored by European colonists in 1826, when Captain Patrick Logan, Commandant of the Moreton Bay penal colony, sailed up the Brisbane River and discovered large deposits of limestone and other minerals. The town began in 1827 as a limestone mining settlement and grew as a major inland port. Ipswich was named "The Limestone Hills" and shortened to "Limestone", however in 1843 it was renamed after the town of Ipswich in England.
The population was 932 in 1851 and had risen to 2459 by 1856. It became a municipality in 1858. Ipswich was a prime candidate for becoming the capital of Queensland, but Brisbane was instead chosen in 1859, it was proclaimed a city in 1904. The city became a major coal-mining area in the early 19th Century, contributing to the development of railways in the region as a means of transport; the first recorded coal mines in the central Ipswich area started at Woodend in 1848. From the 1840s onward, Ipswich was becoming an important river port for growing local industries such as coal and wool from the Darling Downs and a regular paddlesteamer service from Brisbane Town, The Experiment, was established in 1846. This, other steamer services, remained the primary form of mass/bulk transport between the two cities until 1876, when the construction of the original Albert Bridge, spanning the Brisbane River at Indooroopilly, completed the railway line begun between Ipswich and Brisbane in 1873. Ipswich was proclaimed a municipality on 2 March 1860 and became a city in 1904.
Several members of the British Royal Family have visited Ipswich. 1868 – Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh1920 – Prince of Wales 1927 – Duke and Duchess of York 1958 – Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother1962 – Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone2011 – Prince William 2014 – Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Damaging flooding has occurred on numerous occasions in Ipswich, the largest being the 1893 Brisbane flood peaking at 24.5 m, more during the 1974 Brisbane Flood, 2010–11 Queensland floods on 12 January 2011. Around 35 people died in the floods in the 1893 Brisbane flood; the Brisbane River burst its banks on three occasions in February of that year and a fourth event several months later. 7 workers were killed at a colliery in north Ipswich. 14 people died in flooding during the Australia Day weekend. Two people were killed in Ipswich. At least 6,700 homes flooded across the region. Thousands of homes in Ipswich and Brisbane could not be recovered; the Bremer River at Ipswich reached a height of 19.5 metres on 12 January, inundating the central business district and thousands of houses.
38 people died as a result of the floods. At Minden, on the border of Ipswich City, a four-year-old boy was swept away by floodwaters when he fell from a rescue boat. A man in his fifties died when he accidentally drove into floodwaters in the Ipswich suburb of Wulkuraka; the worst affected areas of Ipswich were the suburbs of Gailes. The flooding allowed bull sharks to reach the centre of Goodna. A multibillion-dollar class action lawsuit is underway against dam operators Seqwater, SunWater and the State of Queensland. Law firm Maurice Blackburn have lodged the suit on behalf of 5,500 Ipswich and Brisbane residents who lost their homes or businesses during the floods. Modelling released in 2013 claimed flooding of Ipswich CBD would not have been as extreme if Wivenhoe Dam operators had operated the dam correctly; the Ipswich Central Library building opened in 1994. The Ipswich Historical Society was established in 1966 and is located at Cooneana Heritage Centre, 11041 Redbank Plains Rd, New Chum, Ipswich.
The Ipswich branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 84 Limestone Street. Ipswich experiences a humid subtropical climate with hot and humid summers, mild to warm winters with cool overnight temperatures and heavy summer storms, it is cooler than the Brisbane CBD in terms of overnight temperatures, in winter, whilst being warmer in summer. Ipswich was a major mining centre coal mining; the city is the'cradle of coal mining in Queensland'. Other secondary manufacturing industries included earthenware works, sawmills and foundries, while the region is rich agriculturally. Ipswich remains a strong manufacturing region, with more than 14% of workers employed in the manufacturing industry, compared to just 7.6% for regional Queensland. Extensive growth is predicted in Ipswich and the Western Corridor region in years to come, the economy is projected to be worth $12.7 billion by 2026. Global giant General Electric moved its Queensland headquarters into a $72 million building in Springfield in 2015.
Ipswich is the site of RAAF Base Amberley, the Royal Australian Air Force's largest operatio
Electoral district of Moggill
Moggill is an electoral district in the Legislative Assembly of Queensland in the state of Queensland, Australia. The electorate is held by the former state president of the Australian Medical Association, Dr Christian Rowan, for the Liberal National Party of Queensland. Moggill encompasses the suburbs on the south-western fringe of Brisbane, is named for the suburb of Moggill, it includes Chapel Hill, Brookfield, Karana Downs, Mount Crosby. It had long been the most conservative seat in Brisbane. Indeed, during the Labor landslides of 2001 and 2004, it was the only non-Labor seat in Brisbane However, in recent years, it has become somewhat more marginal. At its height in 2012, the LNP sat on a majority of 23.9 percent, pared back to 8.2 percent in 2015 and five percent in 2017. Most of the seat is located within the conservative federal seat of Ryan; the electoral district of Moggill was created in the 1986 redistribution combining part of the electoral district of Mount Coot-tha with parts of the electoral district of Ipswich West.
In 1991, a small portion east of the Centenary Highway was removed. Electorate Profile
Ferry transport in Queensland
Ferry transport in Queensland provides both historical and current information relating to scheduled public passenger ferry services in Queensland. The first ferry started on 1 January 1843 at Russell Street with a service across the Brisbane River. Crossings in the Brisbane central business district and at Bulimba, Dutton Park and Moggill were needed for road transport to develop in a growing town. Before the Story and Gateway Bridges were constructed ferries transported vehicles across the river at these locations; some of the more significant services vital to various communities, include the Daintree River Ferry, services to Thursday Island, Magnetic Island, Fraser Island, North Stradbroke Island and other islands in Moreton Bay. Ferry services in Queensland are regulated by the Department of Main Roads. Services in Brisbane, including the CityCat are operated by Transdev Brisbane Ferries under a contract with Brisbane City Council; the Department of Transport and Main Roads is the entity responsible for overseeing ferry services in Queensland.
The TMR contracts with ferry operators and is responsible for the provision of services between: Palm Island and Townsville Magnetic Island and Townsville Seisia and Thursday Island Coochiemudlo Island and Victoria Point North Stradbroke Island and Toondah Harbour Cleveland Redland Bay and the Southern Moreton Bay IslandsBrisbane City Council has contracted Transdev Brisbane Ferries to operate on the Brisbane River. The legislative framework that enables the TMR to administer the statewide transport system that includes the ferry services is the Transport Operations Act 1994, Transport Operations Regulation 2005 and Transport Operations Standard 2010; the TMR employ terms that are contained within the Transport Operations Act 1994: a ferry can be a ship, barge or hovercraft. The TMR is divided into the following administrative regions which, where content is available, form the basis of the remaining information: Central West, Darling Downs, Far North, Mackay/Whitsunday, North Coast, North West, South Coast, South West and Wide Bay–Burnett.
TMR Regions Map The Daintree River Ferry is a cable ferry across the Daintree River in Cape Tribulation. The ferry is the only cable ferry operating within tropical Australia and its daily hours of operation are between 06:00 and midnight. In July 2003, the Shire of Douglas overturned a motion to investigate the construction of a low-lying single lane bridge with a boom gate and a second ferry across the Daintree. Residents feared. Where as tourist operators stated a bridge would have boosted the local economy. Over the 2011 Easter long weekend, during a period when the ferry was free, tourists using the ferry increased and resorts were booked out. After Easter local tourism operators expressed a desire for the ferry to be free year-round but their suggestion was ignored; as of 1 July 2011, the cost of a return ticket for private use motor cars and utilities was $22. Limited annual quantities of Daintree ferry concessional travel policy applies to the following people: Cairns Regional Council ratepayers, business operators and employees who work north of the Daintree River and are within the former Douglas Shire area.
Torres Strait ferry services are focused on Thursday Island. Peddell's Ferry has a service from Seisia to Thursday Island. Torres Strait Tours and McDonald Charter Boats both operate ferry services between Thursday Island and Horn Island. From Cairns, Fitzroy Island, 25 km offshore from Cairns, can be reached by Raging Thunder Ferry Services and Sunlover Reef Cruises Green Island National Park, 27 km offshore from Cairns, can be reached by Big Cat Green Island Reef Cruises. Curtis Ferry Services provide a passenger ferry from Gladstone Marina to Curtis Island and Facing Island. A brief description of former passenger and vehicular ferries that serviced the Brisbane River is provided. Proceeded by details of current operational services and networks. In 1838, Brisbane was opened up to free settlers, one of the biggest obstacle to its expansion at the time was the Brisbane River. In February 1842, the first real wave of settlers up the river followed the proclamation of the free settlement of Moreton Bay District.
Only a fitful rowboat ferry connected North Brisbane to the more industrial settlement of Kangaroo Point, another to South Brisbane, which became known for its wayfaring inns. Early settlers crossing the river by row boats had their horse swimming behind. In 1844, a service started operating between Kangaroo Point. By the 1860s, services operated from Brisbane to Kangaroo Point, Alice Street to Naval Stores
Australian rules football
Australian rules football known as Australian football, or called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field a modified cricket ground. Points are scored by kicking the oval-shaped ball between behind posts. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field and use any part of their bodies to move the ball; the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled: for example, players running with the ball must intermittently bounce or touch it on the ground. Throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch the ball from a kick are awarded possession. Possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when mark is paid. Players can use their whole body to obstruct opponents. Dangerous physical contact, interference when marking and deliberately slowing the play are discouraged with free kicks, distance penalties or suspension for a certain number of matches, depending on the seriousness of the infringement.
The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of both players and the ball and high scoring. The sport's origins can be traced to football matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858, inspired by English public school football games. Seeking to develop a game more suited to adults and Australian conditions, the Melbourne Football Club published the first laws of Australian football in May 1859, making it the oldest of the world's major football codes. Australian football has the highest spectator attendance and television viewership of all sports in Australia, while the Australian Football League, the sport's only professional competition, is the nation's wealthiest sporting body; the AFL Grand Final, held annually at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, is the highest attended club championship event in the world. The sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations, its rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFL's Laws of the Game Committee.
Australian rules football is known by several nicknames, including Aussie rules and footy. In some regions, it is marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League. There is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. Compared to cricket and horse racing, football was viewed as a minor "amusement" at the time, while little is known about these early one-off games, it is clear they share no causal link with Australian football. In 1858, in a move that would help to shape Australian football in its formative years, "public" schools in Melbourne, Victoria began organising football games inspired by precedents at English public schools; the earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. On 10 July 1858, the Melbourne-based Bell's Life in Victoria and Sporting Chronicle published a letter by Tom Wills, captain of the Victoria cricket team, calling for the formation of a "foot-ball club" with a "code of laws" to keep cricketers fit during winter.
Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England, returned to his homeland a star athlete and cricketer. His letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks Wills' friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a scratch match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground; this was the first of several "kickabouts" held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley and J. B. Thompson. Trees were used as goalposts and play lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed upon code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles, "others by no rules at all". Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock; this 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and continued over two subsequent Saturdays, ending in a draw with each side kicking one goal.
It is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, the two schools have competed annually since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the world's oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has been suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football, not codified until 1885. There is no archival evidence in favour of a Gaelic influence, the style of play shared between the two modern codes was evident in Australia long before the Irish game evolved in a similar direction. Another theory, first proposed in 1983, posits that Wills, having grown up amongst Aborigines in Victoria, may have seen or played the Aboriginal game of Marn Grook, incorporated some of its features into early Australian football; the evidence for this is only circumstantial, according to biographer Greg de Moore's research, Wills was "almost influenced by his experience at Rugby School". A loosely organised Melbourne side, captained by Wills, played against other football enthusiasts in the winter and spring of 1858.
The following year, on 14 May, the Melbourne Football Club came into being, making it one of the
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent or between two teams of two players each. Each player uses a tennis racket, strung with cord to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over or around a net and into the opponent's court; the object of the game is to maneuver the ball in such a way that the opponent is not able to play a valid return. The player, unable to return the ball will not gain a point, while the opposite player will. Tennis is played at all levels of society and at all ages; the sport can be played by anyone. The modern game of tennis originated in Birmingham, England, in the late 19th century as lawn tennis, it had close connections both to various field games such as croquet and bowls as well as to the older racket sport today called real tennis. During most of the 19th century, in fact, the term tennis referred to real tennis, not lawn tennis; the rules of modern tennis have changed little since the 1890s. Two exceptions are that from 1908 to 1961 the server had to keep one foot on the ground at all times, the adoption of the tiebreak in the 1970s.
A recent addition to professional tennis has been the adoption of electronic review technology coupled with a point-challenge system, which allows a player to contest the line call of a point, a system known as Hawk-Eye. Tennis is played by millions of recreational players and is a popular worldwide spectator sport; the four Grand Slam tournaments are popular: the Australian Open played on hard courts, the French Open played on red clay courts, Wimbledon played on grass courts, the US Open played on hard courts. Historians believe that the game's ancient origin lay in 12th century northern France, where a ball was struck with the palm of the hand. Louis X of France was a keen player of jeu de paume, which evolved into real tennis, became notable as the first person to construct indoor tennis courts in the modern style. Louis was unhappy with playing tennis outdoors and accordingly had indoor, enclosed courts made in Paris "around the end of the 13th century". In due course this design spread across royal palaces all over Europe.
In June 1316 at Vincennes, Val-de-Marne and following a exhausting game, Louis drank a large quantity of cooled wine and subsequently died of either pneumonia or pleurisy, although there was suspicion of poisoning. Because of the contemporary accounts of his death, Louis X is history's first tennis player known by name. Another of the early enthusiasts of the game was King Charles V of France, who had a court set up at the Louvre Palace, it wasn't until the 16th century that rackets came into use, the game began to be called "tennis", from the French term tenez, which can be translated as "hold!", "receive!" or "take!", an interjection used as a call from the server to his opponent. It was popular in England and France, although the game was only played indoors where the ball could be hit off the wall. Henry VIII of England was a big fan of this game, now known as real tennis. During the 18th and early 19th centuries, as real tennis declined, new racket sports emerged in England. Further, the patenting of the first lawn mower in 1830, in Britain, is believed to have been the catalyst, for the preparation of modern-style grass courts, sporting ovals, playing fields, greens, etc.
This in turn led to the codification of modern rules for many sports, including lawn tennis, most football codes, lawn bowls and others. Between 1859 and 1865 Harry Gem, a solicitor and his friend Augurio Perera developed a game that combined elements of racquets and the Basque ball game pelota, which they played on Perera's croquet lawn in Birmingham, United Kingdom. In 1872, along with two local doctors, they founded the world's first tennis club on Avenue Road, Leamington Spa; this is. After Leamington, the second club to take up the game of lawn tennis appears to have been the Edgbaston Archery and Croquet Society in Birmingham. In Tennis: A Cultural History, Heiner Gillmeister reveals that on December 8, 1874, British army officer Walter Clopton Wingfield wrote to Harry Gem, commenting that he had been experimenting with his version of lawn tennis “for a year and a half”. In December 1873, Wingfield designed and patented a game which he called sphairistikè, was soon known as "sticky" – for the amusement of guests at a garden party on his friend's estate of Nantclwyd Hall, in Llanelidan, Wales.
According to R. D. C. Evans, turfgrass agronomist, "Sports historians all agree that deserves much of the credit for the development of modern tennis." According to Honor Godfrey, museum curator at Wimbledon, Wingfield "popularized this game enormously. He produced a boxed set which included a net, rackets, balls for playing the game – and most you had his rules, he was terrific at marketing and he sent his game all over the world. He had good connections with the clergy, the law profession, the aristocracy and he sent thousands of sets out in the first year or so, in 1874." The world's oldest annual tennis tournament took place at Leamington Lawn Tennis Club in Birmingham in 1874. This was three years before the All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club would hold its first championships at Wimbledon, in 1877; the first Championships culminated a significant debate on. In the U. S. in 1874 Mary Ewing Outerbridge, a young socialite, returned from Bermuda with a sphairistikè set. She became fascin
Electorates of the Australian states and territories
A State Electoral District is an electorate within the Lower House or Legislative Assembly of Australian states and territories. Most state electoral districts send a single member to a state or territory's parliament using the preferential method of voting; the area of a state electoral district is dependent upon the Electoral Acts in the various states and vary in area between them. At present, there are 409 state electoral districts in Australia. State electoral districts do not apply to the Upper House, or Legislative Council, in those states that have one. In New South Wales and South Australia, MLCs represent the entire state, in Tasmania they represent single-member districts, in Victoria and Western Australia they represent a region formed by grouping electoral districts together. There are five electorates for the Legislative Assembly, each with five members each, making up 25 members in total. There are 93 electoral districts in New South Wales. There are 25 single-member electoral divisions in the Northern Territory, 17 former divisions.
There are 93 electoral districts in Queensland, for the Legislative Assembly of Queensland. Information about the QLD electoral districts for the 2006 elections can be obtained from the Electoral Commission of Queensland website. There are 47 single-member electoral districts in South Australia, for the South Australian House of Assembly. There are 15 electoral divisions in Tasmania for the upper house Legislative Council. In the lower house the five federal divisions are used, but electing 5 members each There are 88 electoral districts in Victoria, for the Victorian Legislative Assembly. There are 59 single-member electoral districts in Western Australia for the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. 42 are in the Perth metropolitan area and 17 are in the rest of the state. Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives Local government in Australia Parliaments of the Australian states and territories