A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift
The Paleozoic Era is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon, from 541 to 252.17 million years ago. It is the longest of the Phanerozoic eras, and is subdivided into six periods, the Cambrian, Silurian, Carboniferous. The Paleozoic comes after the Neoproterozoic era of the Proterozoic and is followed by the Mesozoic, the Paleozoic was a time of dramatic geological and evolutionary change. The Cambrian witnessed the most rapid and widespread diversification of life in Earths history, known as the Cambrian explosion, arthropods, anapsids, synapsids and diapsids all evolved during the Paleozoic. Life began in the ocean but eventually transitioned onto land, and by the late Paleozoic, Great forests of primitive plants covered the continents, many of which formed the coal beds of Europe and eastern North America. Towards the end of the era, sophisticated diapsids and synapsids were dominant, the Paleozoic Era ended with the largest extinction event in the history of Earth, the Permian–Triassic extinction event.
The effects of this catastrophe were so devastating that it took life on land 30 million years into the Mesozoic Era to recover, recovery of life in the sea may have been much faster. The Paleozoic era began and ended with supercontinents and in between were the rise of mountains along the margins, and flooding and draining of shallow seas between. At its start, the supercontinent Pannotia broke up, paleoclimatic studies and evidence of glaciers indicate that central Africa was most likely in the polar regions during the early Paleozoic. During the early Paleozoic, the huge continent Gondwana formed or was forming, by mid-Paleozoic, the collision of North America and Europe produced the Acadian-Caledonian uplifts, and a subduction plate uplifted eastern Australia. There are six periods in the Paleozoic Era, Ordovician, Devonian, the Cambrian spans from 541 million years to 485 million years and is the first period of the Paleozoic era of the Phanerozoic. The Cambrian marked a boom in evolution in an event known as the Cambrian explosion in which the largest number of creatures evolved in any period of the history of the Earth.
Creatures like algae evolved, but the most ubiquitous of that period were the armored arthropods, almost all marine phyla evolved in this period. During this time, the supercontinent Pannotia begins to break up, the Ordovician spanned from 485 million years to 443 million years ago. The Ordovician is a time in Earths history in many of the biological classes still prevalent today evolved, such as primitive fish, cephalopods. The most common forms of life, were trilobites, more importantly, the first arthropods went ashore to colonize the empty continent of Gondwana. By the end of the Ordovican, Gondwana was at the pole, early North America had collided with Europe. Glaciation of Africa resulted in a drop in sea level
A summit is a point on a surface that is higher in elevation than all points immediately adjacent to it. Mathematically, a summit is a maximum in elevation. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous, the UIAA definition is that a summit is independent if it has a prominence of 30 metres or more, it is a mountain if it has a prominence of at least 300 metres. This can be summarised as follows, A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top, Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route. In many parts of the western United States, the term refers to the highest point along a road, highway. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit while the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit, geoid Hill List of highest mountains Maxima and minima Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère, the city advertises itself as the Capital of the Alps, due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenobles history goes back more than 2,000 years, to a time when it was a small Gallic village, industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble, through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries. The city has grown to be one of Europes most important research, the population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832. The residents of the city are called Grenoblois, the many communes that make up the metropolitan area include three suburbs with populations exceeding 20,000, Saint-Martin-dHères, Échirolles, and Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble, the first references to Grenoble date back to 43 BC.
Cularo was at time a little Gallic village founded by the Allobroges tribe near a bridge across the Isère River. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the peoples welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381, Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, and the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city, until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the bishops and princes of Grenoble. Arletian rule was interrupted between 942 and 970 due to Arabic rule based in Fraxinet, Grenoble grew significantly in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region, the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority.
When they took the title of Dauphins, Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné, despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble. One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh, under his rule, the citys bridge was rebuilt, and both a regular hospital and a leper one were built. The inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights and that charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal and he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Aging and heirless, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the only Dauphin who really governed his province was Louis XI, whose reign lasted from 1447 to 1456
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
Hornbeams are hardwood trees in the flowering plant genus Carpinus in the birch family Betulaceae. The 30–40 species occur across much of the regions of the northern hemisphere. The common English name hornbeam derives from the hardness of the woods and the Old English beam, the botanic name for the genus, Carpinus, is the original Latin name for the European species. Though some botanists grouped them with the hazels and hop-hornbeams in a family, Corylaceae. Hornbeams are small to medium-sized trees, Carpinus betulus reaching a height of 32 m, the leaves are deciduous and simple with a serrated margin, and typically vary from 3–10 cm in length. The flowers are wind-pollinated pendulous catkins, produced in spring, the male and female flowers are on separate catkins, but on the same tree. The fruit is a nut about 3–6 mm long, held in a leafy bract, the bract may be either trilobed or simple oval. The asymmetry of the seedwing makes it spin as it falls, the shape of the wing is important in the identification of different hornbeam species.
Typically, 10–30 seeds are on each seed catkin, the 30–40 species occur across much of the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, with the greatest number of species in east Asia, particularly China. Only two species occur in Europe, only one in eastern North America, and one in Mesoamerica, Carpinus betulus can be found in Europe and Ukraine. Hornbeams yield a hard timber, giving rise to the name ironwood. Dried heartwood billets are nearly white and are suitable for decorative use, for general carpentry, hornbeam is rarely used, partly due to the difficulty of working it. The wood is used to construct carving boards, tool handles, handplane soles, coach wheels, piano actions, shoe lasts, the wood can be used as gear pegs in simple machines, including traditional windmills. It is sometimes coppiced to provide hardwood poles and it is used in parquet flooring and for making chess pieces. — European hornbeam - widespread across much of Europe, Iran, Caucasus, - Nepal, Himalayas of northern India Carpinus fangiana Hu - Sichuan, Guangxi Carpinus hebestroma Yamam.
- Tibet, Yunnan Carpinus omeiensis Hu & W. P. Fang - Sichuan, — Oriental hornbeam - Hungary, Italy, Turkey, Caucasus Carpinus paohsingensis W. Y. Hsia - China Carpinus polyneura Franch. — Chonowskis hornbeam - China, Japan Carpinus turczaninowii Hance — Korean hornbeam, - China, Korea, - China, Himalayas, northern Indochina Acer carpinifolium, hornbeam maple Eichhorn, Markus. Brady Haran for the University of Nottingham
Biviers is a commune in the Isère département in southeastern France. Biviers lies 10 km northeast of Grenoble on the D1090 road, at the foot of Mount Saint-Eynard, towards the southwest, Biviers faces the Belledonne range, in the Grésivaudan section of the Isère River valley. On the northwest, the village leans against a 450 metres tall limestone cliff above the scree, the cliff is subject to constant erosion, and rock slides are frequent during the summer, with great noise and much dust. Mout Blanc can be seen many places in the village and is only 105 kilometres in line of sight. Biviers can be subdivided into three sectors, The upper part is a cliff starting from an elevation of 900 metres. The middle section – between 500 metres and 900 metres – is a forest and is a destination of hikers. The slope is steep and averages 20%, the lower section sits on flatter ground and is where most inhabitants live, the lowest point of the village being at 311 metres. Jannick Moussin is the current mayor of Biviers, the inhabitants of Biviers are known as French, Biviérois.
From 1999 to 2007, the rate was 0. 81% vs. a mortality rate of 0. 55%. Despite the positive difference, population decreased on average by 0. 2% per year during the same period, the 2005 census showed that women represent 50. 5% of Biviers population versus 49. 5% for men. This population is aging fairly fast, Montbives is a house, built during the 14th century. It boasts a square tower and an impressive kitchen with carved stone pillars. The château de Serviantin dates back from the 15th century, the name stems from Abel Servien who was born there in 1593 and who served as a minister for Louis XIII. Its square tower can be seen from chemin de la Grivelière and is a historical monument. The château de Franquières is more recent and dates back from the 17th century and it was built between 1601 and 1610 by the Aymon de Franquières family. When he died the year, the property went to Anne-Marie Franquières – most probably his sister –. In 1852 it moved to Baroness of Vignet, Charles de Vignet who sold it in 1880 to Félix du Bourg whose family owned it till 1924 when it was sold to the Forest-Colcombet, finally, it was bought in 1959 by the OVE.
The church of Biviers was probably built around 1500, shortly after the French revolution it was seriously damaged by a violent storm which destroyed its roof, its stained glass windows and even some furniture
Quercus pubescens, the downy oak or pubescent oak, is an oak in the white oak section of the genus, Quercus sect. It is native to southern Europe and southwest Asia, from northern Spain east to the Crimea and it is found in France and parts of central Europe. Downy oaks typically grow in dry, lime-rich soils and it is a submediterranean species, growing from the coastline to deep in the continent. Its optimum is in the region, characterized by hot dry summers. In western and central Europe, downy oak is confined to areas with submediteranean microclimate or to coastlines of former lakes, Quercus pubescens is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing up to 20 m. Forest-grown trees grow tall, while open-growing trees develop a very broad and they are long-lived, to several hundred years, and eventually grow into very stout trees with trunks up to 2 m in diameter. Open-grown trees frequently develop several trunks, the bark is very rough, light grey and divided into small flakes. Large trees develop very thick whitish bark cracked into deep furrows, similar to the Pedunculate oak, the twigs are light purple or whitish, tomentose.
The buds are small and blunt, light brown, the leaves are leathery usually 4–10 cm long and 3–6 cm wide, usually widest beyond the middle. The leaves group at the ends of twigs, the upper leaf surface is dark green and rough, the lower light green. Both leaf surfaces are covered with minute pubescence which is sometimes lost in older leaves by late summer, the young expanding leaves are whitish or pinkish with very soft tomentum. The leaf shape is variable, divided into 3-7 pairs of deep or shallow lobes. The lobes are usually blunt, rarely sharp, the apex is usually wide and round. The base of the leaf is heart shaped, widely rounded or sometimes pointed, the petioles are 4–15 mm long and pubescent. The leaves are persistent late into the autumn, remaining green up to early winter and they eventually turn russet or brown and fall off. The Quercus pubescens acorns are brown to yellow, 8–20 mm long, usually thin. The acorn cups are light grey to almost white, with pointed, overlapping scales, the acorn stalks are thick and pubescent, up to 2 cm long.
The acorns usually occur in groups of 2-5 on the same stalk, three subspecies are accepted by Flora Europaea, Quercus pubescens subsp
The Alpine ibex, known as the steinbock or bouquetin, is a species of wild goat that lives in the mountains of the European Alps. It is a dimorphic species with larger males who carry larger. The coat colour is brownish grey. Alpine ibex tend to live in steep, rough terrain above the snow line and they are social, although adult males and females segregate for most of the year, coming together only to mate. Four distinct groups exist, adult groups, female-offsping groups, groups of young individuals. During the breeding season, males fight for access to females and these two national parks are connected and have been especially created to help the ibex to thrive. The ibex is the emblem of both the Gran Paradiso National Park and the Vanoise National Park, the species is currently listed as of least concern by the IUCN. The Alpine ibex was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 and it is classified in the genus Capra with at least seven other species of wild goat. Both Capra and Ovis descended from an animal from the Miocene and early Pliocene, whose fossils are found in Kenya, China.
The genus Tossunnoria appears in China during the late Miocene and appears to have been intermediate between gorals and goats, fossils of Alpine ibex date back to the late Pleistocene, when it and the Spanish ibex probably evolved from the extinct Pleistocene species Capra camburgensis. The Nubian and Siberian ibex are considered to be subspecies of the Alpine ibex. Compared with other members of its genus, the Alpine ibex has a short, broad head and it has brownish grey hair over most of the body, a pale abdomen and slightly darker markings on the chin and throat and in a stripe along the back. They moult twice a year, firstly in April or May, and again in September, when they replace the short coat with thicker hair. Males commonly grow to a height of 90 to 101 centimetres at the withers, with a length of 149 to 171 centimetres. Females are noticeably smaller, with a height of 73 to 84 centimetres, a body length of 121 to 141 centimetres. Both male and female Alpine ibexes have large, backwards-curving, horns with numerous ridges along their length, at 69 to 98 centimetres, those of the males are substantially larger than those of females, which reach only 18 to 35 centimetres in length.
It was introduced to Bulgaria and Slovenia, an excellent climber, its preferred habitat is the rocky region along the snow line above alpine forests, where it occupies steep, rough terrain at elevations of 1,800 to 3,300 metres. Alpine ibex are typically absent from woodland areas although adult males in densely populated areas may stay in larch, males spend the winter in coniferous forests
Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude. The high altitude causes an adverse climate, which is too cold, Alpine tundra transitions to sub-alpine forests below the tree line, stunted forests occurring at the forest-tundra ecotone are known as Krummholz. With increasing elevation it ends at the line where snow. Alpine tundra occurs in mountains worldwide, the flora of the alpine tundra is characterized by dwarf shrubs close to the ground. The cold climate of the tundra is caused by the lack of greenhouse effect at high altitude. Alpine tundra occurs at high altitude at any latitude. Portions of Montane grasslands and shrublands ecoregions worldwide include alpine tundra, Alpine tundra occupies high-mountain summits and ridges above timberline. Aspect plays a role as well, the treeline often occurs at higher elevations on warmer equator-facing slopes, with limited access to infrastructure, only a handful of human communities exist in alpine zones.
Many are small and have heavily specialized economies, often relying on such as agriculture, mining. An example of such a town is La Rinconada, Peru, a gold-mining town. A counterexample is El Alto, Bolivia, at 4,150 metres, which has a diverse service and manufacturing economy. Alpine climate is the weather for the alpine tundra. The climate becomes colder at high elevations—this characteristic is described by the rate of air, air tends to get colder as it rises. The dry adiabatic lapse rate is 10 °C per km of elevation or altitude, moving up 100 metres on a mountain is roughly equivalent to moving 80 kilometers towards the pole. This relationship is only approximate, since local factors such as proximity to oceans can drastically modify the climate, typical high-elevation growing seasons range from 45 to 90 days, with average summer temperatures near 10 °C. Growing season temperatures frequently fall below freezing, and frost occurs throughout the season in many areas. Precipitation occurs mainly as snow, but soil water availability is highly variable with season, location.
For example, snowfields commonly accumulate on the lee sides of ridges while ridgelines may remain nearly snow free due to redistribution by wind, some alpine habitats may be up to 70% snow free in winter