London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
London Ambulance Service
The London Ambulance Service is a NHS trust responsible for operating ambulances and answering and responding to urgent and emergency medical situations within the London region of England. The service responds to 999 and 111 phone calls, providing triage and advice to enable an appropriate level of response, it is one of the busiest ambulance services in the world, the busiest in the United Kingdom, providing care to more than 8.6 million people, who live and work in London. The service is under the leadership of chief executive Garrett Emmerson; the service employs around 4,500 staff. It is one of 10 ambulance trusts in England providing emergency medical services, is part of the National Health Service, receiving direct government funding for its role. There is no charge to patients for use of the service, as every person in the UK has the right to the attendance of an ambulance in an emergency; the LAS responded to over 1.8 million calls for assistance, over 1 million incidents in 2015/16.
Incidents rose by 20,000 in 2015/16. All 999 calls from the public are answered at one of the two Emergency Operations Centres in Waterloo or Bow who dispatch and allocate the appropriate resources. To assist, the service's command and control system is linked electronically with the equivalent system for London's Metropolitan Police; this means that police updates regarding specific jobs will be updated directly on the computer-aided dispatch log, to be viewed by the EOC, the resources allocated to the job. In 1818, a Parliamentary Select Committee had recommended that provision be made for carrying infectious patients in London "which would prevent the use of coaches or sedan chairs" but nothing was done. In 1866, a Hospital Carriage Fund provided six carriages to hospitals in the metropolitan area, for the use of patients suffering from smallpox or other infectious diseases, provided that they pay for the hire of the horses; the first permanent ambulance service in London was established by the Metropolitan Asylums Board in 1879, when a new Poor Law Act empowered them "to provide and maintain carriages suitable for the conveyance of persons suffering from any infectious disorder".
The first became operational at The South Eastern Fever Hospital, Deptford, in October 1883. In all, six hospitals operated horse-drawn "land ambulances", putting the whole of London within three miles of one of them; each ambulance station included accommodation for a married superintendent and around 20 drivers, horse keepers and attendants, laundry staff and domestic cleaners. A fleet of four paddle steamer "river ambulances" transported smallpox patients along the River Thames to Deptford, where they could be quarantined on hospital ships, departing from three special wharves at Rotherhithe and Fulham. At Deptford, in order to transfer patients between the hospitals at Joyce Green and Long Reach near Gravesend, a horse-drawn ambulance tramway was constructed in 1897 and extended in 1904. In 1902, the MAB introduced a steam in 1904, their first motor ambulance; the last horse-drawn ambulances were used on 14 September 1912. Although the MAB was supposed to be transporting only infectious patients, it also carried accident victims and emergency medical cases.
The Metropolitan Ambulance Act, 1909, empowered the London County Council to establish an emergency ambulance service, but this was not established until February 1915 and was under the control of the chief of the London Fire Brigade. In 1915, the MAB Ambulance Section were the first public body to employ women drivers, due to the number of men who had volunteered for military service. By July 1916 the London County Council Ambulance Corps was staffed by women. By 1930, the MAB was the largest user of civil ambulance services in the world, however the Local Government Act 1929 meant that work of the MAB was taken over by the London County Council, which took charge of the modern fleet of 107 MAB motor ambulances, together with 46 ambulances which were run by local Poor law unions. Taken with the 21 ambulances operated by the LCC, this provided a comprehensive service for all kinds of illness and accident, under the direction of the Medical Officer of Health for the County of London; the LCC took control of the River Ambulance Service, but it was disbanded in 1932.
During World War II, the London Auxiliary Ambulance Service was operated by over 10,000 auxiliaries women, from all walks of life. They ran services from 139 Auxiliary Stations across London. A plaque at one of the last to close, Station 39 in Weymouth Mews, near Portland Place, commemorates their wartime service. In 1948 the National Health Service Act made it a requirement for ambulances to be available for anyone who needed them; the present-day London Ambulance Service was formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of nine existing services in the new county of Greater London, in 1974, after a reorganisation of the NHS, the LAS was transferred from the control of local government to the South West Thames Regional Health Authority. On 1 April 1996, the LAS left the control of the South West Thames Regional Health Authority and became an NHS trust. In late 2017 LAS adopted the Ambulance Response Program which altered the targets for response times to reflect patient outcomes by removing hidden waiting times after a successful trial by the Yorkshire Ambulance Service, West Midlands Ambulance Service and South Western Ambulance Service.
As an NHS Trust, the LAS has a Trust Board consisting of 12 members. The board includes; the chief executive and Chief
Becontree is a suburb and large housing estate of 4 square miles in the London borough of Barking and Dagenham. It is located 11 miles east-northeast of Charing Cross and was constructed in the interwar period as the largest public housing estate in the world; the Housing Act 1919 permitted the London County Council to build housing outside the County of London and Becontree was constructed between 1921 and 1935 to cottage estate principles in the parishes of Barking and Ilford in Essex. The official completion of the estate was celebrated in 1935 with a population of around 100,000 people in 26,000 homes; the building of the estate caused a huge increase in population density, which led to demands on services and reforms of local government. An additional 1,000 houses were added in phases; the estate had no industrial and little commercial development until the May & Baker and Ford Dagenham sites opened nearby, a shopping area was built at Heathway. The estate has formed part of Greater London since 1965, when the Barking section was combined with Dagenham, has been within a single London borough since boundary changes caused the Ilford section to be transferred from Redbridge to Barking and Dagenham in 1994.
The estate is named after the ancient Becontree Hundred, which covered the area. It is recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086; the name is Old English and means'tree of a man named Beohha'. The tree would have stood on Becontree Heath, just outside the eastern boundary of the estate; the majority of the estate was in the parish of Dagenham and the whole estate is in the Dagenham post town, the two names are used interchangeably. Because of the lack of available land in the County of London, the Housing Act 1919 permitted the London County Council to build housing and act as landlord outside of its territory. On 18 June 1919 the London County Council's Standing Committee on the Housing of the Working Classes resolved to build 29,000 dwellings to accommodate 145,000 people within 5 years, of which 24,000 were to be at Becontree. Becontree was developed between 1921 and 1935 as a large cottage estate of around 26,000 homes, intended to be "homes fit for heroes" for World War I veterans. Most of the land at that time was market gardens, with occasional groups of cottages and some country lanes.
It was compulsorily purchased. 4,000 houses had been completed by 1921. The early residents were able to pick rhubarb and cabbages from the abandoned market gardens; the first houses completed, in Chittys Lane, are recognisable by a blue council plaque embedded in the wall. The construction was an enormous civil engineering project. A special railway was built for the building work, it connected the railway sidings at Goodmayes on the Great Eastern line and a wharf with a new 500 ft jetty, on the River Thames. Four steam cranes on the jetty could unload building material from seven barges at a time; the building of the estate took longer than anticipated. The LCC hoped to build 24,000 homes by 1924, they were only able to achieve 3,000 and the works were extended into three phases lasting until 1935. On 13 July 1935 the official completion of the estate was celebrated with the ceremonial opening of Parsloes Park by MP Christopher Addison. However, the demand for housing meant that a further 800 homes were built in 1937.
With a population of 115,652, it was the largest public housing development in the world. After the Second World War, between 1949 and 1951, 600 additional houses were built by the LCC in Dagenham in an area adjacent to the estate called Heath Park. Wythenshawe, in Manchester with an area of 11 square miles, is larger but the population density is lower. At times Wythenshawe has claimed to be the largest council housing estate in Europe. Private home ownership in the area has grown, Wythenshawe has continued to expand; the LCC built the estate to rehouse people from London's East End, who were displaced by slum clearance. The first residents were all prosperous working-class families, such as factory workers and busmen. Prospective tenants were interviewed by London County Council officials in their homes to check their suitability and the size of family, their domestic standards and financial resources; the tenants came from the skilled working class in secure jobs and earning more than the average wage.
At the time everyone marvelled at having indoor toilets and a private garden, although the sash windows were draughty, there was no insulation in the attics, during the winter months few people could afford enough coal to heat the bedrooms. The toilet, bath tap and a tap in the kitchen over a copper boiler, used for both washing clothes and heating bath water, were all fed from a reservoir tank in the attic, which invariably froze on winter mornings, leaving the toilets unusable. One clause in the contract of tenancy stipulated that children born to parents living on the estate would not be housed by the LCC and when the time came for them to establish their own homes, the relevant local authority would be expected to provide housing. Privet hedges were planted along the pavements at the end of every front garden and during the spring and summer months a squad of gardeners were employed to keep them in regulation height. Although the estate regulations stipulated that the gardens must be maintained in order, more than a few degenerated into virtual jungles.
However, to encourage the application of this rule, prizes were awarded for the best kept gardens. Initial candidates were selected by the rent collectors during their weekly rounds and a committee decided on the final prizes, which ranged from ten shillings consolation prizes
Hanwell is a district in the London Borough of Ealing, west London, England. It is about 2.5 km west of Ealing Broadway. It is the westernmost location of the London post town; the earliest surviving reference is AD 959 when it is recorded as Hanewelle in pledge, when Alfwyn pawned his land for money to go on a pilgrimage. The origin of the name is uncertain. Near to the old Rectory and close to Hanwell spring is a large stone of about a ton in weight. In Anglo-Saxon the word Han denoted a boundary stone; this juxtaposition of these two natural features could have given rise to the name Han-well, which dates back to before the Domesday Book. The original borders of the parish stretched from the bend of the River Brent at Greenford and followed the river down to the River Thames, its geography, before the draining of the marshes, formed a natural boundary between the different tribes of the south east of England. This gives some support to the suggestion. If so, the name is derived from Han-créd-welle.
Han-créd or cock-crow meant the border between night and day, is neither one nor the other. So Hanwell would mean well upon the boundary. For more see: River Brent: Hydronymy; the only other Hanwell in Britain is a small parish in Oxfordshire on the boundary with Warwickshire. The Uxbridge Road was turnpiked between Uxbridge and Tyburn in 1714; the revenue from tolls enabled an all-weather metaled road surface of compacted gravel to be laid down. This constant movement of people along the road, brought about the establishment of coaching inns along the road as it crossed the River Brent and passed through the parish of Hanwell. In these inns, travellers could stable their horses, place their carts or goods in safe storage and secure board and lodgings for themselves overnight; the first inn on crossing the River Brent is "The Viaduct", on the north side. Named after the Wharncliffe Viaduct, its original name was the "Coach and Horses". At the back of the pub, some of the original stable building can be seen, dating to about 1730.
Early in the 20th century, The Viaduct received a new faïence façade, which Nikolaus Pevsner succinctly described as "a jolly tiled Edwardian pub". Today the profusion of street furniture detracts somewhat from the original impact that these rich mid-browns and mid-cream glazed tiles gave the building. Next was the "Duke of Wellington", which lay 400 m closer to London on the southern side of the road opposite the old Hanwell Police Station. However, this was not rebuilt. Further east still and back across on the north side of the Uxbridge Road at the junction of Hanwell Broadway is the "Duke of York"This became an important staging point for stagecoaches on their way between Oxford and London. Established in the 18th century, it has been subsequently rebuilt in the Tudorbethan style; the next pub occupies the site of what was the first inn to be established on the Oxford Road as it ran through Hanwell. It lies on the south side of the road, it was original called the "Spencer Arms"after Edward Spencer, Lord of the Manor of Boston during the Civil War.
In the 18th century, the Manor Courts hearings were transferred here from Greenford later transferred to the Viaduct Inn. However, the present building dates back to 1930 when it was rebuilt by brewers Mann, Crossman & Paulin in the Arts & Crafts style. Though unexciting on the outside, its interior is still today, a fine example of this type of architecture, CAMRA has placed it in its National Inventory of Pub Interiors of Outstanding Historic Interest; the lower half of the exterior walls is decorated with green faïence with brick-sized faces. These tiles extend to cover the stallriser of the shop to the immediate right; this is because this shop was built to serve as the Off-licence premises. Retail stores and shops started to fill the gaps between these inns to take advantage of the passing trade brought by this important route into and out of the city. During the Victorian period, the village to the north of the Uxbridge Road began to expand to the south of the road. Toward the southern end of Green Lane is The Fox public house.
The Fox has been named West Middlesex Pub of the Year in 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2011. Built in 1848 it is a unspoiled and original mid-Victorian pub, it has received a'local listing' from Ealing Council as a building of local interest. It is constructed out of local golden yellow brick with more expensive red bricks used for detailing on corners and chimneys. Rich brown glazed tiles are used for the ground floor exterior walls with coloured stained glass in the fan lights; the upper story has Mock Tudor detailing, including dentils on the two outward-facing gables. Most of the interior is original, although the dividing walls between bars and off-license sales have been taken out to create one large bar area; the present day eating area retains its original wooden wall panelling. On the east of the building itself is a sheltered beer garden, so food and drink can be enjoyed inside or out; the Fox was the meeting place for the local fox hunt until the 1920s. The hunt would set off across Hanwell Heath.
Present-day clientele can still see foxes drinking, quite unfazed, from the dog bowls of water, put outside the Fox's saloon bar. Lying to the west of the River Brent and so in the precinct of Norwood Green, the Middlesex County Lunatic Asylum was referred to as the Hanwell Asylum because it was closer to the centre of Hanwell than either Norwood or
Tower Gardens Estate
Tower Gardens in North Tottenham is a distinctive semi-circular estate bounded by Lordship Lane and the Roundway. Constructed between 1904 and 1928, it was one of the first municipal "cottage estates" in the world, it is now a conservation area and is featured in the annual London Open City architecture weekend held third weekend in September. When first built by the London County Council it was known as the White Hart Lane Estate; the Conservation Area comprises the oldest parts of the estate, built by the London County Council between 1904 and 1913. It is one of the first "garden suburbs" in the world and is characterised by good quality and practical buildings that show an inventive use of materials and vernacular motifs typical of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Along with Hampstead Garden Suburb, Tower Gardens is one of the most important estates of its type in London; the estate consists of 954 houses arranged in each with its own architectural style. Their appearance was influenced by the Garden City Movement founded by Sir Ebenezer Howard.
The properties are two-up, two-down with some three bed houses and flats in Topham Square. The houses remain cheap by London standards; the curiously named streets belie the area's history. Most appear to be named after someone who once owned the land, from Siward, Earl of Northumberland, in the time of Edward the Confessor, through to Thomas Smith in 1792. A project by Risley Avenue School in conjunction with Bruce Castle Museum identified the streets as named after the'Lord's of Tottenham'; the terraced houses in N17 are small and were not expensively built but they have lots of little interesting architectural features which differ with every street. They are predominantly brick and pebble dash cottages in a style that owes something to the Arts and Crafts movement of the time. Construction was under the architect a member of the Art Workers Guild; the façades change all over the estate and in places terraces of four houses were designed to look like country mansions. Features of interest include the gables, gable dormers, impressive chimneys, long roofs, low eaves and two story projecting bays.
Images can be found in the Conway Library's online collection. Earlier houses have front doors opening into the single reception room; when they were built they would have had outside toilets. Tin baths were a common feature due to the lack of bathrooms. Houses benefited from new legislation and have front doors opening onto a hall with stairs and a second reception room. Whilst the design of the estate was influenced by the Garden City Movement, the grid layout of the lower half of the estate was not in the tradition of the garden suburbs, nor was the density of housing; however some houses were set back behind small greens and a large green area was provided for recreation including tennis and bowls. The trees lining the streets are protected and provide a boulevard feel Risley Avenue, privet hedges to the front fascia of the properties within the conservation area are protected. "A life in the day of a Tower Gardens resident" "Tower Gardens – Tottenham's Garden Suburb" "Tower Gardens N17": Tower Gardens Residents group
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate