Bellingham is the county seat and most populous city of Whatcom County in the U. S. state of Washington. Located 52 miles southeast of Vancouver, 90 miles north of Seattle, 21 miles south of the U. S.–Canada border, Bellingham is in between two major metropolitan areas and Vancouver, British Columbia. The city's population was 80,885 at the 2010 United States Census. With a 2018 population estimate of 90,665 per the Washington State Office of Financial Management, Bellingham is the twelfth-most populous city in the state of Washington; the city of Bellingham was incorporated in 1903 through the consolidation of Fairhaven, Whatcom and Bellingham: four historic towns that settled beside Bellingham Bay. The bay, where the present-day city and the former town of the same name derive their names from, was named Bellingham Bay by George Vancouver upon arriving to it in June 1792, its namesake, Sir William Bellingham, was the Controller of Storekeeper Accounts of the Royal Navy during the Vancouver Expedition.
Today, Bellingham is the northernmost city with a population of more than 50,000 people in the contiguous United States. The city is a popular tourist destination known for its easy access to outdoor recreation in the San Juan Islands and North Cascades. Bellingham is undergoing redevelopment on more than 100 acres of former industrial land in its Waterfront District with a hotel, conference center, retirement living and commercial development planned for the site. Prior to Euro-American settlement, Bellingham was in the homeland of Coast Salish peoples of the Lummi and neighboring tribes; the first Caucasian immigrants reached the area in 1854. In 1858, the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush caused thousands of miners and scalawags to head north from California. Whatcom grew overnight from a small northwest mill town to a bustling seaport, the basetown for the Whatcom Trail, which led to the Fraser Canyon goldfields, used in open defiance of colonial Governor James Douglas's edict that all entry to the gold colony be made via Victoria, British Columbia.
Coal was mined in the Bellingham area from the mid-19th to the mid-20th centuries. It was Henry Roeder who had discovered coal off the northeastern shore of Bellingham Bay, in 1854 a group of San Francisco investors established the Bellingham Bay Coal Company; the mine extended to hundreds of miles of tunnels as deep as 1,200 feet. It ran southwest to Bellingham Bay, on both sides of Squalicum Creek, an area of about one square mile. At its peak in the 1920s, the mine employed some 250 miners digging over 200,000 tons of coal annually, it was closed in 1955. In the early 1890s, three railroad lines arrived, connecting the bay cities to a nationwide market of builders; the foothills around Bellingham were clearcut after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake to help provide the lumber for the rebuilding of San Francisco. In time and shingle mills sprang up all over the county to accommodate the byproduct of their work. In 1889, Pierre Cornwall and an association of investors formed the Bellingham Bay Improvement Company.
The BBIC invested in several diverse enterprises such as shipping, mining, railroad construction, real estate sales and utilities. Though their dreams of turning Bellingham into a Pacific Northwest metropolis never came to fruition, the BBIC made an immense contribution to the economic development of Bellingham. BBIC was not the only outside firm with an interest in Bellingham utilities; the General Electric Company of New York purchased Bellingham's Fairhaven Line and New Whatcom street rail line in 1897. In 1898 the utility merged into the Northern Railway and Improvement Company which prompted the Electric Corporation of Boston to purchase a large block of shares. In 1890, Fairhaven developers bought Bellingham. Whatcom and Sehome had adjacent borders and both towns wanted to merge. On October 27, 1903, the word "New" was dropped from the name, because the Washington State Legislature outlawed the use of the word new in city and town names. At first, attempts to combine Fairhaven and Whatcom failed, there was controversy over the name of the proposed new city.
Whatcom citizens wouldn't support a city named Fairhaven, Fairhaven residents would not support a city named Whatcom. They settled on the name Bellingham, which remains today. Voting a second time for a final merger of the four towns into a single city, the resolution passed by 2163 votes for and 596 against. Bellingham was incorporated on December 28, 1903 as a result of the incremental consolidation of four towns situated around Bellingham Bay during the final decades of the 19th Century. Whatcom is today's "Old Town" area and was founded in 1852. Sehome was an area of downtown founded in 1854. Bellingham was further south near Boulevard Park, founded in 1853. Bellingham was the site of the Bellingham riots against East Indian immigrant workers in 1907. A mob of 400–500 white men, predominantly members of the Asiatic Exclusion League, with intentions to exclude East Indian immigrants from the work force of the local lumber mills, attacked the homes of the South Asian Indians; the Indians were Sikhs but were labelled as Hindus by much of the media of the day.
Bellingham's proximity to the Strait of Juan de Fuca and to the Inside Passage to Alaska helped keep some cannery operations here. Pacific American Fisheries, for example, shipped empty cans to Alaska, where they were packed with fish and shipped back; the mean annual salary of a wage earner in Bellingham is $46,114, wh
SATA Express is a computer bus interface that supports both Serial ATA and PCI Express storage devices standardized in the SATA 3.2 specification. The SATA Express connector used on the host side is backward compatible with the standard SATA data connector, while it provides two PCI Express lanes as a pure PCI Express connection to the storage device. Instead of continuing with the SATA interface's usual approach of doubling its native speed with each major version, SATA 3.2 specification included the PCI Express bus for achieving data transfer speeds greater than the SATA 3.0 speed limit of 6 Gbit/s. Designers of the SATA interface concluded that doubling the native SATA speed would take too much time to catch up with the advancements in solid-state drive technology, would require too many changes to the SATA standard, would result in a much greater power consumption compared with the existing PCI Express bus; as a adopted computer bus, PCI Express provides sufficient bandwidth while allowing easy scaling up by using faster or additional lanes.
In addition to supporting legacy Advanced Host Controller Interface at the logical interface level, SATA Express supports NVM Express as the logical device interface for attached PCI Express storage devices. While the support for AHCI ensures software-level backward compatibility with legacy SATA devices and legacy operating systems, NVM Express is designed to utilize high-speed PCI Express storage devices by leveraging their capability of executing many I/O operations in parallel; the Serial ATA interface was designed for interfacing with hard disk drives, doubling its native speed with each major revision: maximum SATA transfer speeds went from 1.5 Gbit/s in SATA 1.0, through 3 Gbit/s in SATA 2.0, to 6 Gbit/s as provided by SATA 3.0. SATA has been selected as the interface for more adopted solid-state drives, but the need for a faster interface became apparent as the speed of SSDs and hybrid drives increased over time; as an example, some SSDs available in early 2009 were well over the capabilities of SATA 1.0 and close to the SATA 2.0 maximum transfer speed, while in the second half of 2013 high-end consumer SSDs had reached the SATA 3.0 speed limit, requiring an faster interface.
While evaluating different approaches to the required speed increase, designers of the SATA interface concluded that extending the SATA interface so it doubles its native speed to 12 Gbit/s would require more than two years, making that approach unsuitable for catching up with advancements in SSD technology. At the same time, increasing the native SATA speed to 12 Gbit/s would require too many changes to the SATA standard, ending up in a more costly and less power efficient solution compared with the available and adopted PCI Express bus. Thus, PCI Express was selected by the designers of SATA interface, as part of the SATA 3.2 revision, standardized in 2013. Some vendors use proprietary logical interfaces for their enterprise-grade flash-based storage products, connected through the PCI Express bus; such storage products can use a multi-lane PCI Express link, while interfacing with the operating system through proprietary drivers and host interfaces. Moreover, as of June 2014 there are similar enterprise-grade storage products using NVM Express as the non-proprietary logical interface for a PCI Express add-on card.
Support for SATA Express was announced for the Intel 9 Series chipsets, Z97 and H97 Platform Controller Hubs, with both of them supporting Intel Haswell and Haswell Refresh processors. In December 2013, Asus unveiled a prototype "Z87-Deluxe/SATA Express" motherboard based on the Intel Z87 chipset, supporting Haswell processors and using additional ASMedia controller to provide SATA Express connectivity. In April 2014, Asus demonstrated support for the so-called separate reference clock with independent spread spectrum clocking with some of its pre-production SATA Express hardware. SRIS eliminates the need for complex and costly shielding on SATA Express cables required for transmitting PCI Express synchronization signals, by providing a separate clock generator on the storage device with additional support from the motherboard firmware. In May 2014, Intel Z97 and H97 chipsets became available, bringing support for both SATA Express and M.2, a specification for flash-based storage devices in form of internally mounted computer expansion cards.
Z97 and H97 chipsets use two PCI Express 2.0 lanes for each of their SATA Express ports, providing 1 GB/s of bandwidth to PCI Express storage devices. The release of these two new chipsets, intended for high-end desktops, was soon followed by the availability of Z97- and H97-based motherboards. In late August 2014, Intel X99 chipset became available, bringing support for both SATA Express and M.2 to the Intel's enthusiast platform. Each of the X99's SATA Express ports requires two PCI Express 2.0 lanes provided by the chipset, while the M.2 slots can use either two 2.0 lanes from the chipset itself, or up to four 3.0 lanes taken directly from the LGA 2011-v3 CPU. As a result, the X99 provides bandwidths of up to 3.94 GB/s for connected PCI Express storage devices. Following the release of X99 chipset, numerous X99-based
David Cheetham is a Canadian archaeologist. He works in Central America and specializes in the identification of Preclassic/Formative era structures and pottery. Cheetham is a member of the New World Archaeological Foundation, Department of Anthropology at Brigham Young University. H He has taught Anthropology courses at California State University, Long Beach and is teaching at University of Calif He has worked extensively in Belize and Chiapas, Mexico performing archaeological field work and pottery analysis on his own projects as well as consulting for other archaeologists, including extensive work for Jaime Awe at the BVAR, his major digs include the excavation of the Zopilote, a Maya burial at Cahal Pech, Belize in 1993, several seasons of field work at Tikal and the unearthing of a juvenile sacrificial victim in Canton Corralito/Paso de la Amada, Chiapas Mexico in 2004. He spent six months assisting Zahi Hawass during the filming of the History Channel show Chasing Mummies during which he performed underwater archaeology and helped to raise a pylon from the temple of Cleopatra VII out of the harbor at Alexandria, Egypt in 2010.
Working in the field of Mesoamerican Archaeology since the late 1980s, Cheetham has become an authority on the pottery and stratification based on ceramic analysis in the region of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and the Yucatan Peninsula. His work has helped to link the Olmec site of San Lorenzo with a potential Olmec outpost in the Soconousco through exhaustive comparative analysis of the style and chemical analysis of the composite materials of pottery and figurines from both the San Lorenzo Tenochtitlán and Canton Corralito sites. Additional analysis of the bones of individuals recovered from a burial at the site has reinforced these findings. Other work by Cheetham includes the study of Cacao use in early Mesoamerican cultures through the chemical residue left in specialized pottery vessels, he has completed several analysis' of social structures in the region through pottery style from artifacts recovered during numerous excavations of midden and elite burial contexts. He has written on the use of ceramic forms and manufacture by the Olmec, the Maya and other prehistoric cultures of Central America.
Ornia, Los Angeles