Instrument flight rules
Instrument flight rules is one of two sets of regulations governing all aspects of civil aviation aircraft operations. The U. S. Federal Aviation Administration's Instrument Flying Handbook defines IFR as: "Rules and regulations established by the FAA to govern flight under conditions in which flight by outside visual reference is not safe. IFR flight depends upon flying by reference to instruments in the flight deck, navigation is accomplished by reference to electronic signals." It is a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate the type of flight plan an aircraft is flying, such as an IFR or VFR flight plan. To put instrument flight rules into context, a brief overview of visual flight rules is necessary, it is possible and straightforward, in clear weather conditions, to fly a plane by reference to outside visual cues, such as the horizon to maintain orientation, nearby buildings and terrain features for navigation, other aircraft to maintain separation. This is known as operating the aircraft under VFR, is the most common mode of operation for small aircraft.
However, it is safe to fly VFR only when these outside references can be seen from a sufficient distance. Thus, cloud ceiling and flight visibility are the most important variables for safe operations during all phases of flight; the minimum weather conditions for ceiling and visibility for VFR flights are defined in FAR Part 91.155, vary depending on the type of airspace in which the aircraft is operating, on whether the flight is conducted during daytime or nighttime. However, typical daytime VFR minimums for most airspace is 3 statute miles of flight visibility and a distance from clouds of 500' below, 1,000' above, 2,000' feet horizontally. Flight conditions reported as equal to or greater than these VFR minimums are referred to as visual meteorological conditions. Any aircraft operating under VFR must have the required equipment on board, as described in FAR Part 91.205. VFR pilots may use cockpit instruments as secondary aids to navigation and orientation, but are not required to. Visual flight rules are simpler than instrument flight rules, require less training and practice.
VFR provides a great degree of freedom, allowing pilots to go where they want, when they want, allows them a much wider latitude in determining how they get there. When operation of an aircraft under VFR is not safe, because the visual cues outside the aircraft are obscured by weather, instrument flight rules must be used instead. IFR permits an aircraft to operate in instrument meteorological conditions, any weather condition less than VMC but in which aircraft can still operate safely. Use of instrument flight rules is required when flying in "Class A" airspace regardless of weather conditions. Class A airspace extends from 18,000 feet above mean sea level to flight level 600 above the contiguous 48 United States and overlying the waters within 12 miles thereof. Flight in Class A airspace requires pilots and aircraft to be instrument equipped and rated and to be operating under Instrument Flight Rules. In many countries commercial airliners and their pilots must operate under IFR as the majority of flights enter Class A airspace.
Procedures and training are more complex compared to VFR instruction, as a pilot must demonstrate competency in conducting an entire cross-country flight by reference to instruments. Instrument pilots must meticulously evaluate weather, create a detailed flight plan based around specific instrument departure, en route, arrival procedures, dispatch the flight; the distance by which an aircraft avoids obstacles or other aircraft is termed separation. The most important concept of IFR flying is that separation is maintained regardless of weather conditions. In controlled airspace, air traffic control separates IFR aircraft from obstacles and other aircraft using a flight clearance based on route, distance and altitude. ATC monitors IFR flights on radar, or through aircraft position reports in areas where radar coverage is not available. Aircraft position reports are sent as voice radio transmissions. In the United States, a flight operating under IFR is required to provide position reports unless ATC advises a pilot that the plane is in radar contact.
The pilot must resume position reports after ATC advises that radar contact has been lost, or that radar services are terminated. IFR flights in controlled airspace require an ATC clearance for each part of the flight. A clearance always specifies a clearance limit, the farthest the aircraft can fly without a new clearance. In addition, a clearance provides a heading or route to follow and communication parameters, such as frequencies and transponder codes. In uncontrolled airspace, ATC clearances are unavailable. In some states a form of separation is provided to certain aircraft in uncontrolled airspace as far as is practical, but separation is not mandated nor provided. Despite the protection offered by flight in controlled airspace under IFR, the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the aircraft rests with the pilot in command, who can refuse clearances, it is essential to differentiate between flig
Nigeria the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Niger in the north, Chad in the northeast, Cameroon in the east, Benin in the west. Its coast in the south is located on the Gulf of Guinea in the Atlantic Ocean; the federation comprises 36 states and 1 Federal Capital Territory, where the capital, Abuja, is located. The constitution defines Nigeria as a democratic secular country. Nigeria has been home to states over the millennia; the modern state originated from British colonial rule beginning in the 19th century, took its present territorial shape with the merging of the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1914. The British set up administrative and legal structures while practising indirect rule through traditional chiefdoms. Nigeria became a formally independent federation in 1960, it experienced a civil war from 1967 to 1970. It thereafter alternated between democratically elected civilian governments and military dictatorships until it achieved a stable democracy in 1999, with the 2011 presidential election considered the first to be reasonably free and fair.
Nigeria is referred to as the "Giant of Africa", owing to its large population and economy. With 186 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after India and China, with more than 90 million of its population under age 18; the country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by 250 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa and Yoruba. The official language is English. Nigeria is divided in half between Christians, who live in the southern part of the country, Muslims, who live in the north. A minority of the population practice religions indigenous to Nigeria, such as those native to the Igbo and Yoruba ethnicities; as of 2015, Nigeria is the world's 20th largest economy, worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power parity respectively. It overtook South Africa to become Africa's largest economy in 2014.
The 2013 debt-to-GDP ratio was 11 percent. Nigeria is considered to be an emerging market by the World Bank. However, it has a "low" Human Development Index, ranking 152nd in the world. Nigeria is a member of the MINT group of countries, which are seen as the globe's next "BRIC-like" economies, it is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies set to become among the biggest in the world. Nigeria is a founding member of the African Union and a member of many other international organizations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations and OPEC; the name Nigeria was taken from the Niger River running through the country. This name was coined in the late 19th century by British journalist Flora Shaw, who married Lord Lugard, a British colonial administrator; the origin of the name Niger, which applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain. The word is an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew n-igerewen used by inhabitants along the middle reaches of the river around Timbuktu prior to 19th-century European colonialism.
The Nok civilisation of Northern Nigeria flourished between 500 BC and AD 200, producing life-sized terracotta figures that are some of the earliest known sculptures in Sub-Saharan Africa. Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD. Hausa kingdoms and the Kanem–Bornu Empire prospered as trade posts between North and West Africa; the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people consolidated in the 10th century and continued until it lost its sovereignty to the British in 1911. Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture. Nri and Aguleri, where the Igbo creation myth originates, are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. Members of the clan trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure Eri. In West Africa, the oldest bronzes made using the lost-wax process were from Igbo-Ukwu, a city under Nri influence; the Yoruba kingdoms of Ife and Oyo in southwestern Nigeria became prominent in the 12th and 14th centuries, respectively.
The oldest signs of human settlement at Ife's current site date back to the 9th century, its material culture includes terracotta and bronze figures. Oyo, at its territorial zenith in the late 17th to early 18th centuries, extended its influence from western Nigeria to modern-day Togo; the Edo's Benin Empire is located in southwestern Nigeria. Benin's power lasted between the 19th centuries, their dominance reached further. At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire; the territory controlled by the resultant state included much of modern-day northern and central Nigeria. For centuries, various peoples in modern-day Nigeria traded overland with traders from North Africa. Cities in the area became regional centres in a broad network of trade routes that spanned western and northern Africa. In the 16th century, Portuguese explorers were the first Europeans to begin significant, direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lago
Kogi, is a state in the central region of Nigeria. It is popularly called the Confluence State because of the confluence of River Niger and River Benue at its capital, the first administrative capital of modern-day Nigeria. Agriculture is a main part of the state economy with fishing in the riverine areas like Lokoja, Baji,etc, the state has coal, petroleum and other mineral industries; the main ethnic groups are Igala and Okun. Federal Capital Territory – to the north Nasarawa State – to the north east Benue State – to the east Enugu State – to the south east Anambra State – to the south Edo State – to the south west Ondo State – to the west Ekiti State – to the west Kwara State – to the west Niger State – to the northKogi state is the only state in Nigeria which shares a boundary with ten other states; the state was created in 1991 from parts of Benue State. The state as presently constituted, comprises the people of the Kabba Province of Northern Nigeria. One of the first Qadi in the Kogi State was Faruk Imam.
There are three main ethnic groups and languages in Kogi: Igala and Okun with other such as Bassa-Nge, a people of Nupe extraction in Lokoja and Bassa Local Government Area, Bassa-Komo of Bassa Local Government Area, Kakanda, Oworo people, Magongo and the pure NUPE people of Eggan community under Lokoja Local Government. The name Nigeria, was coined in Lokoja by Flora Shaw, the future wife of Baron Lugard, a British colonial administrator, while gazing out at the river Niger. Kogi State consists of twenty-one local government areas. Which are: Adavi Ajaokuta Ankpa Bassa Dekina Ibaji Idah Igalamela-Odolu Ijumu Kabba/Bunu Koton Karfe Lokoja Mopa-Muro Ofu Ogori/Magongo Okehi Okene Olamaboro Omala Yagba East Yagba West Tourist attractions in Kogi State include the colonial relics, the confluence of Rivers Niger and Benue and natural land features. Being a 2-hour drive from Abuja some tourists come for day trips. Kogi State connects the Federal Capital Territory with 22 Southern States. Being in close proximity to the federal capital territory, Abuja International Airport serves as the national and international gateway for air travelers from and to the state.
Good telecommunications services are available in the state. Agriculture is the mainstay of the economy. There are many Farm produce from the state notably coffee, palm oil, groundnuts, cassava, yam and melon. Mineral resources include coal, iron and tin; the state is home to the largest iron and steel industry in Nigeria known as Ajaokuta Steel Company Limited and one of the largest cement factories in Africa, the Obajana Cement Factory. Kogi state is home to the Federal University, Kogi State University Anyigba, Federal Polytechnic Idah, Kogi State Polytechnic, Federal College of Education, College of Education, College of Agriculture Kabba, Kogi state college of education and the Private Salem University, Lokoja. There are a college of nursing and midwifery in Obangede, School of health tech in Idah and ECWA School of Nursing in Egbe. Kogi State has produced sprinters such as Sunday Bada and other sportsmen, who have contributed to the growth of sports worldwide. Kogi United and Babanawa F.
C. are football teams based in the state. Other sports, such as swimming and table tennis are promoted in the state; the Kogi state Sports Council had a track record of Directors and great personnel team Who at one time or the other had worked with the vision of putting the State on the world map. Among them are personalities like Mr. Francis Umoru, Mr. Mohammed Emeje, Mr. Benjamin O. Ameje, Mr. A. Ogido, Mr. Joel J. Abu and others. Among other sportsmen produce by the state is Shola Ameobi, an Ayetoro Gbede born Ijumu, English footballer playing for Bolton Wanderers as a striker, late Sunday Bada 400 Metres Olympic Champion from Ogidi in Ijumu Local Govt. of the state. Three Senators have always represented Kogi state since the return of democracy in 1999 at Senate with Kogi East, Kogi West and Kogi Central producing one each. Rt. Hon. Chief S A Ajayi OFRDarey- Darey Art Alade Joseph Benjamin Halima Abubakar Praiz Mercy Johnson Jummai Joseph Debie Rise Jaywon Website
Midway Airlines (1976–1991)
Midway Airlines was a United States airline founded on August 6, 1976, by investor Kenneth T. Carlson and joined by Irving T. Tague and William B. Owens in October 13, 1976, filing with the Civil Aeronautics Board for an airline operating certificate. Although it received its operating certificate from the CAB prior to the passage of the Airline Deregulation Act in 1978, it is recognized as the first post-deregulation start-up; the airline commenced operations on October 31, 1979. The airline was intended to breathe new life into Midway International Airport called Chicago Midway Airport, which had lost most of its scheduled flights to O'Hare International Airport. Midway Airlines and the revitalized airport were advertised as a trouble-free alternative to O'Hare, both of these spurred re-development and growth on Chicago's South Side; the airport was billed as a convenient ten- to fifteen-minute drive from downtown Chicago. Following the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978, Midway first emerged as a discount carrier.
It was ease of connections at Midway Airport. The airline purchased three Douglas DC-9s from Trans World Airlines and began service on October 31, 1979, flying to Cleveland, Ohio's Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport, Kansas City and Detroit, Michigan; the scheduled service was an instant success. In 1980, Midway bought five more DC-9s and added flights to St. Louis, New York City's La Guardia Airport, Washington National Airport in Arlington, outside Washington, D. C.. The airline briefly served Minneapolis, but dropped this service shortly after it began. During the 1980s, the airline adopted a combination of all-leather two-by-two seating to business markets and all-coach seating to vacation destinations, it dropped this idea due to the impact on revenue caused by eliminating seats, the confusion it created in the minds of connecting passengers. The carrier expanded into the Caribbean via the purchase in 1984 of the assets of Air Florida, which had gone into bankruptcy, it proved to be good mix of vacation travel revenue.
Midway flourished under the leadership of David R. Hinson, its chief executive officer from 1985 to 1991. In 1984, Boeing 737-200 flights to the Caribbean were being operated by subsidiary Midway Express while DC-9 domestic jet service was flown Midway Metrolink. In 1986 the company assisted in setting up a successful regional affiliate, Midway Connection, as a feeder operating commuter turboprop aircraft with service to small communities in Illinois, Indiana and Michigan; this carrier was established following the bankruptcy of Chicago Air, a regional carrier which attempted a similar, but independent, feeder operation earlier in 1986. On a June 1988 weekday, Midway scheduled 116 nonstop flights into Midway Airport from 25 airports, along with 75 Midway Connection nonstops from 17 other airports, they flew Chicago Midway - Miami - Saint Croix - St. Thomas round trip as well as Chicago Midway - Fort Lauderdale - Nassau round trip. Midway Airlines′ peak year was 1989, when it flew 10.1 billion revenue passenger-kilometers, compared to 0.6 billion in 1981.
Midway Airlines was noted for friendly employees and attentive service, its Chicago South Side passengers were fiercely loyal to their hometown airline. Some of the signature in-flight service items were after-dinner chocolate wafer mints and hot hand towels for the entire cabin, both of which had caught on with Midway's business clientele. In June 1989, Midway Airlines agreed to purchase a hub operation at Philadelphia International Airport in Philadelphia, for $100 million along with $100 million worth of DC-9 jets from the bankrupt Eastern Air Lines; the company began hub operations in Philadelphia in November 1989. However, less than a year competition with the US Airways Philadelphia hub, coupled with rising jet fuel prices following the August 1990 IraqI invasion of Kuwait, caused the company to quit its Philadelphia hub. In October 1990 it sold its Philadelphia assets to USAir for $67.5 million. Citing the high price of jet fuel during the 1991 Gulf War and a drop in passengers in the recession that followed, the airline filed Chapter 11 in March 1991.
In reorganization, Midway attempted to sell itself to Northwest Airlines. Northwest pulled out of negotiations on November 12, 1991, Midway ceased operations the next day, its bankruptcy was re-filed as a liquidation under Chapter 7 bankruptcy laws. Canada Montreal Toronto Caribbean Nassau St. Croix St. Thomas United States Albany Atlanta Boston Chicago Hub Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Cleveland Cleveland Columbus Dallas/Fort Worth Denver Des Moines Detroit Fort Lauderdale/Hollywood Fort Myers Hartford Indianapolis Jacksonville (Jacksonville Internation
Sosoliso Airlines Flight 1145
Sosoliso Airlines Flight 1145 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight between the Nigerian cities of Abuja and Port Harcourt. At about 14:08 local time on 10 December 2005, Flight 1145 from Abuja crash-landed at Port Harcourt International Airport; the plane, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9-32 with 110 people on board, slammed into the ground and burst into flames. After the crash, seven survivors were recovered and taken to hospitals, but only two people survived, it was the second air disaster to occur in Nigeria in less than three months, after Bellview Airlines Flight 210, which crashed on 22 October 2005 for reasons unknown, killing all 117 people on board. It was the company's only fatal accident; the aircraft departed Abuja's Nnamdi Azikiwe International Airport at 12:25 p.m UTC. The route had a scheduled time enroute of 40 minutes. About 90 miles from the airport, the aircraft contacted ATC for initial descent clearance and was cleared by ATC to FL160; the aircraft continued its descent until 13:00, when the crew asked ATC for the weather condition at the airport.
ATC told the aircraft that there was no precipitation and that a scattered Cumulonimbus condition existed. On, the crew acknowledged the report; the aircraft continued to follow its descent profile. ATC contacted the aircraft and advised that precipitation was approaching the airport; the controller cleared the aircraft to land at Runway 21, but warned the pilot that the runway could be wet, indicating that hydroplaning was a possibility. The flight crew acknowledged this message. Unable to make out the unlit runway through the rain, the captain called for a go around at an altitude of about 200 ft; this call was made about 100 ft below the DA. The DC-9 slammed onto the grass strip between the runway and the taxiway. 60 meters from the first impact point, the empennage struck a concrete drainage culvert, the aircraft disintegrated and burst into flames. The cockpit and the forward fuselage broke off from its main body and slid along the taxiway, creating a total trail of wreckage of 120 meters; the McDonnell Douglas DC-9 was manufactured in 1973.
It entered the Nigerian registration on 12 June 2003, was owned by JAT Airways, operated by Sosoliso Airlines Ltd. The aircraft certificate was released on 17 March 2005 and would have been due to another check on 27 June 2006; the aircraft was described as airworthy at the time of the accident. The Nigerian Accident Investigation Bureau found out that the data from satellite imagery by Boeing Aircraft Company in USA suggested that at 13:00 UTC, a sea breeze front reinforced by an outflow, pushed inland in the vicinity of Port Harcourt; the leading edge of the boundary, in theory, could have included an abrupt increase in wind speed and significant horizontal and/or vertical windshear. Rain showers and thunderstorm likely occurred as warm and moist air were lifted into the atmosphere. Data from Nigerian Meteorological Agency showed that there was a change in the wind speed and direction as the aircraft approached the airport; the weather was deteriorating fast, visibility was limited. The change of wind speed and direction created a perfect environment for wind-shear occurring in the airport.
As the Flight Data Recorder and the Cockpit Voice Recorder were retrieved by investigators, it was revealed that both black boxes had been damaged. The FDR had slight damage, was downloaded by investigators in a file format, the situation was different for the CVR; the CVR coaxial spools were under tension during its normal operating flight, when the tape was severed, the spool would have spun which resulted in the release of additional tape into the transport and crash areas. There were some problems with both black boxes, but the data was filtered several times until the audio became reasonably intelligible. From the FDR data, it was revealed. Thirty seconds before the crash, the aircraft descended for seven seconds and leveled off at an altitude of 204 ft, below the Decision Altitude of 307 ft, the airspeed decreased to 145 knots. A few seconds there was an increase of speed to 151 knots, indicating that flight crew had initiated a go-around, the aircraft had descended well below 204 ft and headed to the left.
The crew was unable to recover the plane, the data ceased functioning when the aircraft speed was at 160 knots. From the CVR data, 16 seconds before the crash, the Captain called for a go-around, gear up and flaps, a warning horn sounded followed by a'too low gear' aural sound; the pilots had difficulty in sighting the runway and should have carried a missed approach at the Decision Altitude of 307 ft instead of continuing descent below 204 ft. The flaps were retracted and the gear was extended. The'too low gear' warning appeared again, a Ground Proximity Warning System followed. Investigators conducted an interview with an eyewitness of the crash; the eyewitness was a Nigerian Airspace Management Agency security guard stationed about 1 km from the runway. He stated that the conditions at the airport were light precipitation, he stated that the aircraft was not stable as it passed over him. He further stated that the approach lights were not on and everywhere was raining. Seconds he heard a loud bang, with fire and thick smoke.
Another eyewitness, a Sosoliso Airlines pilot departing to Enugu reported adverse weather condition in the airport. Firemen in the airport handling the crash stated b
Colgan Air Flight 3407
Colgan Air Flight 3407, marketed as Continental Connection under a codeshare agreement with Continental Airlines, was a scheduled passenger flight from Newark, New Jersey, to Buffalo, New York, which crashed on February 12, 2009. The aircraft, a Bombardier Dash-8 Q400, entered an aerodynamic stall from which it did not recover and crashed into a house in Clarence Center, New York at 10:17 p.m. EST, killing all 49 passengers and crew on board, as well as one person inside the house; the National Transportation Safety Board conducted the accident investigation and published a final report on February 2, 2010, which found the probable cause to be the pilots' inappropriate response to the stall warnings. As of 2019, Flight 3407 is the most recent aviation incident resulting in mass casualties involving a U. S.-based airline. Families of the accident victims lobbied the U. S. Congress to enact more stringent regulations for regional carriers, to improve the scrutiny of safe operating procedures and the working conditions of pilots.
Although it did nothing to address the specific causes of the crash – improper stall recovery technique and pilot fatigue – the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation Administrative Extension Act of 2010 required some of these regulation changes. Colgan Air Flight 3407 was marketed as Continental Connection Flight 3407, it was delayed two hours, departing at 9:18 p.m. Eastern Standard Time, en route from Newark Liberty International Airport to Buffalo Niagara International Airport; the twin-engine turboprop Bombardier Dash 8 Q400, FAA registry N200WQ, was manufactured in 2008 for Colgan. This was the first fatal accident for a Colgan Air passenger flight since the company was founded in 1991. One previous ferry flight crashed offshore of Massachusetts in August 2003, killing both of the crew on board; the only prior accident involving a Colgan Air passenger flight occurred at LaGuardia Airport, when another plane collided with the Colgan aircraft while taxiing, resulting in minor injuries to a flight attendant.
Captain Marvin Renslow, 47, of Lutz, was the pilot in command, Rebecca Lynne Shaw, 24, of Maple Valley, served as the first officer. There were two flight attendants: Donna Prisco. Captain Renslow was hired in September 2005 and had accumulated 3,379 total flight hours, with 111 hours as captain on the Q400. First Officer Shaw was hired in January 2008, had 2,244 hours, 774 of them in turbine aircraft including the Q400. There were two Canadian passengers, one Chinese passenger, one Israeli passenger on board; the remaining 41 passengers, as well as the crew members, were American. Shortly after the flight was cleared for the runway 23 instrument landing system approach to Buffalo Niagara International Airport, it disappeared from radar; the weather consisted of light fog with wind of 15 knots. The de-icing system had been turned on 11 minutes after takeoff. Shortly before the crash, the pilots discussed significant ice buildup on the aircraft's wings and windshield. Two other aircraft reported icing conditions around the time of the crash.
The last radio transmission from the flight occurred when the first officer acknowledged a routine instruction to change to tower frequency. The plane was 3.0 miles northeast of the radio beacon KLUMP at that time. The crash occurred 41 seconds after that last transmission. Since ATC approach control was unable to get any further response from the flight, the assistance of Delta Air Lines Flight 1998 and US Airways Flight 1452 was requested. Neither was able to spot the missing plane. Following the clearance for final approach, landing gear and flaps were extended; the flight data recorder indicated. The captain called for the flaps to be increased to 15 degrees; the airspeed continued to slow to 135 knots. Six seconds the aircraft's stick shaker activated, warning of an impending stall as the speed continued to slow to 131 knots; the captain responded by abruptly pulling back on the control column, followed by increasing thrust to 75% power, instead of lowering the nose and applying full power, the proper stall recovery technique.
That improper action pitched the nose up further, increasing both the g-load and the stall speed. The stick pusher activated, but the captain overrode the stick pusher and continued pulling back on the control column; the first officer retracted the flaps without consulting the captain, making recovery more difficult. In its final moments, the aircraft pitched up 31 degrees pitched down 25 degrees rolled left 46 degrees and snapped back to the right at 105 degrees. Occupants aboard experienced g-forces estimated at nearly 2 G's; the crew made no emergency declaration as they lost altitude and crashed into a private home at 6038 Long Street, about 5 miles from the end of the runway, with the nose pointed away from the airport. The aircraft burst into flames as the fuel tanks ruptured on impact, destroying the house of Douglas and Karen Wielinski, most of the plane. Douglas was killed. There was little damage to surrounding homes though the lots in that area are only 60 feet wide; the home was close to the Clarence Center Fire Company, so emergency personnel were able to respond quickly.
Two of the firefighters were injured. Twelve nearby houses were evacuated. A total of 50 people died, including the 49 passengers and crew on b
Satellite imagery are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world. Satellite imaging companies sell images by licensing them to governments and businesses such as Apple Maps and Google Maps; the first images from space were taken on sub-orbital flights. The U. S-launched V-2 flight on October 24, 1946 took one image every 1.5 seconds. With an apogee of 65 miles, these photos were from five times higher than the previous record, the 13.7 miles by the Explorer II balloon mission in 1935. The first satellite photographs of Earth were made on August 14, 1959 by the U. S. Explorer 6; the first satellite photographs of the Moon might have been made on October 6, 1959 by the Soviet satellite Luna 3, on a mission to photograph the far side of the Moon. The Blue Marble photograph was taken from space in 1972, has become popular in the media and among the public. In 1972 the United States started the Landsat program, the largest program for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space.
Landsat Data Continuity Mission, the most recent Landsat satellite, was launched on 11 February 2013. In 1977, the first real time satellite imagery was acquired by the United States's KH-11 satellite system. All satellite images produced by NASA are published by NASA Earth Observatory and are available to the public. Several other countries have satellite imaging programs, a collaborative European effort launched the ERS and Envisat satellites carrying various sensors. There are private companies that provide commercial satellite imagery. In the early 21st century satellite imagery became available when affordable, easy to use software with access to satellite imagery databases was offered by several companies and organizations. Satellite images have many applications in meteorology, fishing, biodiversity conservation, landscape, cartography, regional planning, education and warfare. Images can be in other spectra. There are elevation maps made by radar images. Interpretation and analysis of satellite imagery is conducted using specialized remote sensing software.
There are four types of resolution when discussing satellite imagery in remote sensing: spatial, spectral and radiometric. Campbell defines these as follows: spatial resolution is defined as the pixel size of an image representing the size of the surface area being measured on the ground, determined by the sensors' instantaneous field of view. Geometric resolution refers to the satellite sensor's ability to image a portion of the Earth's surface in a single pixel and is expressed in terms of Ground sample distance, or GSD. GSD is a term containing the overall optical and systemic noise sources and is useful for comparing how well one sensor can "see" an object on the ground within a single pixel. For example, the GSD of Landsat is ≈30m, which means the smallest unit that maps to a single pixel within an image is ≈30m x 30m; the latest commercial satellite has a GSD of 0.41 m. This compares to a 0.3 m resolution obtained by some early military film based Reconnaissance satellite such as Corona.
The resolution of satellite images varies depending on the instrument used and the altitude of the satellite's orbit. For example, the Landsat archive offers repeated imagery at 30 meter resolution for the planet, but most of it has not been processed from the raw data. Landsat 7 has an average return period of 16 days. For many smaller areas, images with resolution as high as 41 cm can be available. Satellite imagery is sometimes supplemented with aerial photography, which has higher resolution, but is more expensive per square meter. Satellite imagery can be combined with vector or raster data in a GIS provided that the imagery has been spatially rectified so that it will properly align with other data sets. Satellite imaging of the Earth surface is of sufficient public utility that many countries maintain satellite imaging programs; the United States has led the way in making these data available for scientific use. Some of the more popular programs are listed below followed by the European Union's Sentinel constellation.
Landsat is the oldest continuous Earth observing satellite imaging program. Optical Landsat imagery has been collected at 30 m resolution since the early 1980s. Beginning with Landsat 5, thermal infrared imagery was collected; the Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 satellites are in orbit. Landsat 9 is planned. MODIS has collected near-daily satellite imagery of the earth in 36 spectral bands since 2000. MODIS is onboard the NASA Aqua satellites; the ESA is developing the Sentinel constellation of satellites. 7 missions are planned, each for a different application. Sentinel-1, Sentinel-2, Sentinel-3 have been launched; the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emissio