Belo Horizonte

Belo Horizonte is the sixth-largest city in Brazil, with a population of 2.5 million. It is the eighteenth-largest in the Americas; the metropolis is anchor to the Belo Horizonte metropolitan area, ranked as the third most populous metropolitan area in Brazil and the seventeenth most populous in the Americas. Belo Horizonte is the capital of the state of Brazil's second most populous state, it is the first planned modern city in Brazil. The region was first settled in the early 18th century, but the city as it is known today was planned and constructed in the 1890s, to replace Ouro Preto as the capital of Minas Gerais; the city features a mixture of contemporary and classical buildings, is home to several modern Brazilian architectural icons, most notably the Pampulha Complex. In planning the city, Aarão Reis and Francisco Bicalho sought inspiration in the urban planning of Washington, D. C; the city has employed notable programs in urban revitalization and food security, for which it has been awarded international accolades.

The city is built on several hills and is surrounded by mountains. There are several large parks in the immediate surroundings of Belo Horizonte; the Mangabeiras Park, 6 km southeast of the city centre in the hills of Curral Ridge, has a broad view of the city. It has an area of 2.35 km2. The Jambeiro Woods nature reserve extends over 912 hectares, with vegetation typical of the Atlantic Forest. More than 100 species of birds inhabit the reserve, as well as 10 species of mammals. Belo Horizonte was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city shared as host of the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and the football tournament during the 2016 Summer Olympics; the metropolis was once a small village, founded by João Leite da Silva Ortiz, a bandeirante explorer from São Paulo. The explorer settled in the region in 1701, he established a farm called "Curral d'el Rey", archaic Portuguese for the "King's Corral", which in modern Portuguese would be spelled Curral do Rei. The farm's wealth and success encouraged people from surrounding places to move into the region, Curral del Rey became a village surrounded by farms.

Another important factor contributing to the growth of the village was immigration from the São Francisco River region, who had to pass through Curral d'el Rey to reach southern parts of Brazil. Travelers visited a small wooden chapel, where they prayed for a safe trip. Due to this fact, the chapel was named Capela da Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem, which means "Chapel of Our Lady of the Good Journey." After the construction of Belo Horizonte, the old baroque chapel was replaced by a neo-gothic church that became the city's cathedral. The previous capital of Minas Gerais, Ouro Preto called "Vila Rica", was a symbol of both the monarchic Brazilian Empire and the period when most of Brazilian income was due to mining; that never pleased the members of the Inconfidência Mineira, republican intellectuals who conspired against the Portuguese dominion of Brazil. In 1889, Brazil became a republic, it was agreed that a new state capital, in tune with a modern and prosperous Minas Gerais, had to be established.

In 1893, due to the climatic and topographic conditions, Curral Del Rey was selected by Minas Gerais governor Afonso Pena among other cities as the location for the new economic and cultural center of the state, under the new name of "Cidade de Minas," or City of Minas. Aarão Reis, an urbanist from the State of Pará, was chosen to design the second planned city of Brazil. Cidade de Minas was inaugurated in 1897, with many unfinished buildings as the Brazilian government set a deadline for its completion; the local government encouraged growth through subsidies. It offered free lots and funding for building houses. An interesting feature of Reis' downtown street plan for Belo Horizonte was the inclusion of a symmetrical array of perpendicular and diagonal streets named after Brazilian states and Brazilian indigenous tribes. In 1906, the name was changed to Belo Horizonte. At that time the city was experiencing a considerable industrial expansion that increased its commercial and service sectors.

From its beginning, the city's original plan prohibited workers from living inside the urban area, defined by Avenida do Contorno, reserved for government workers, bringing about an accelerated occupation outside the city's area well provided with infrastructure since its beginning. The city's original planners did not count on its ongoing population growth, which proved intense in the last 20 years of the 20th century. In the 1940s, a young Oscar Niemeyer designed the Pampulha Neighbourhood to great acclaim, a commission he got thanks to then-mayor and soon-to-be-president Juscelino Kubitschek; these two men are responsible for the wide avenues, large lakes and jutting skylines that characterize the city today. A 1949 American government film favorably reviewed the building of the city. Belo Horizonte is fast becoming a regional center of commerce; the Latin American Research and development center of Google, situated in Belo Horizonte, was responsible for the management and operation of the former social networking


Bookspan LLC is a New York-based online book seller, founded in 2000. Bookspan began as a joint endeavor by Time Warner. Bertelsmann took over control in 2007, a year sold its interest to Najafi Companies, an Arizona investment firm. Najafi held its ownership in a subsidiary named Direct Brands, which held Najafi's ownership in the Columbia House record club. In 2013, Najafi sold its interest in Direct Brands to Pride Tree Holdings, a New York-based media and consumer technology holding company founded in 2012 and incorporated in Delaware. Bookspan operates a number of discount book purchasing programs; as of 2017, the programs include: The Literary Guild Doubleday Book Club Mystery Guild History Book Club Science Fiction Book Club Crossings Book Club The Good Cook Crafter's Choice Official website

Barry Hewlett

Dr. Barry S. Hewlett, Professor of Anthropology at Washington State University, earned his A. B. and M. A. degrees at California State University and his Ph. D. from the University of California at Santa Barbara. He is best known for his study of the Aka people of Central Africa, he has worked with his wife, Dr. Bonnie Hewlett, who concentrates her study on the Aka women and health issues, his publications include 24 chapters in books and 27 scholarly journal articles. His research interests include the cultural influence of the Aka and Ngandu on infant development, the cultural contexts of various tropical diseases, the impact of new African tropical forest parks and reserves on the local people, cultural transmission and biocultural evolution, his interests in infectious diseases include local cultural models of disease, incorporating anthropological approaches to disease control efforts, emerging diseases including Ebola. Hewlett published a book chapter about Ebola in 2003, followed by two scholarly articles about Ebola in 2005, co-authored a book in 2008 on the subject, another book chapter on Ebola in 2010.

Hunter-Gatherers of the Congo Basin: Cultures and Biology of African Pygmies. Transaction Books, 2014. Ebola and Politics: The Anthropology of an Emerging Disease. Wadsworth Centage, 2008. Hunter-Gatherer Childhoods: Evolutionary and Cultural Perspectives. Transaction/Aldine, 2005. Diverse Contexts of Human Infancy. Prentice Hall, 1996. Father-Child Relations: Cultural and Biocultural Contexts. Aldine, 1992. Intimate Fathers: The Nature and Context of Aka Pygmy Paternal Infant Care. University of Michigan Press, 1991. Providing care and facing death:nurses and Ebola in Central Africa. Transcultural Nursing, 2005, 16, 289-297. Weaning and parent-offspring conflict in Fofi foragers and farmers. Current Anthropology, 2005, 46-50. Culture and Ebola in Northern Uganda. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2003, 9, 1242-1248. Semes and genes in Africa, Current Anthropology, 2002, 43, 313-321; the contexts of female hunting in Central Africa, American Anthropologist, 2001, 103, 1024-1040