The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages. They inhabit a contiguous region in the Balkan Peninsula and the eastern Alps, in the modern era are geographically separated from the body of West Slavic and East Slavic people by the Romanians and Austrians in between; the South Slavs today include the nations of Bosniaks, Croats, Montenegrins and Slovenes. They are the main population of the Eastern and Southeastern European countries of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, North Macedonia and Slovenia. In the 20th century, the country of Yugoslavia united the regions inhabited by South Slavic nations – with the key exception of Bulgaria – into a single state; the concept of Yugoslavia, a single state for all South Slavic peoples, emerged in the late 17th century and gained prominence through the 19th century Illyrian movement. The Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, renamed to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929, was proclaimed on 1 December 1918, following the unification of the State of Slovenes and Serbs with the kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro.
The South Slavs are known in Serbian and Montenegrin as Južni Sloveni. The Slavic root *jugъ means "south"; the Slavic ethnonym itself was used by 6th-century writers to describe the southern group of Early Slavs. The South Slavs are called "Balkan Slavs", although this term does not encompass the Slovenes. Another name popular in the Early modern period was "Illyrians", the name of a pre-Slavic Balkan people, a name first adopted by Dalmatian intellectuals in the late 15th century to refer to South Slavic lands and population, it was used by the Habsburg Monarchy and notably adopted by the 19th-century Croatian nationalist and Pan-Slavist Illyrian movement. The idea of Yugoslavism appeared, aimed at uniting all South Slav-populated territories into a common state. From this idea emerged Yugoslavia, which however did not include Bulgaria; the Proto-Slavic homeland is the area of Slavic settlement in Central and Eastern Europe during the first millennium AD, with its precise location debated by archaeologists and historians.
None of the proposed homelands reaches the Volga River in the east, over the Dinaric Alps in the southwest or the Balkan Mountains in the south, or past Bohemia in the west. Traditionally, scholars put it in the marshes of Ukraine, alternatively between the Bug and the Dnieper, according to F. Curta, the homeland of the southern Slavs mentioned by 6th-century writers was just north of the Lower Danube. Little is known about the Slavs before the 5th century. Jordanes and other late Roman authors provide the probable earliest references to southern Slavs in the second half of the 6th century. Procopius described the Sclaveni and Antes as two barbarian peoples with the same institutions and customs since ancient times, not ruled by a single leader but living under democracy, while Pseudo-Maurice called them a numerous people, undisciplined and leaderless, who did not allow enslavement and conquest, resistant to hardship, bearing all weathers, they were portrayed by Procopius as unusually tall and strong, of dark skin and "reddish" hair, leading a primitive life and living in scattered huts changing their residence.
Procopius said they were henotheistic, believing in the god of lightning, the ruler of all, to whom they sacrificed cattle. They went into battle on foot, charging straight at their enemy, armed with spears and small shields, but they did not wear armour. Slavs settled the Balkans in the 6th and 7th centuries. Up until the late 560s their activity was raiding, crossing from the Danube, though with limited Slavic settlement through Byzantine foederati colonies; the Danube and Sava frontier was overwhelmed by large-scale Slavic settlement in the late 6th and early 7th century. What is today central Serbia was an important geo-strategical province, through which the Via Militaris crossed; this area was intruded by barbarians in the 5th and 6th centuries. From the Danube, the Slavs commenced raiding the Byzantine Empire from the 520s, on an annual basis, spreading destruction, taking loot and herds of cattle, seizing prisoners and taking fortresses; the Byzantine Empire was stretched defending its rich Asian provinces from Arabs and others.
This meant that numerically small, disorganised early Slavic raids were capable of causing much disruption, but could not capture the larger, fortified cities. The first Slavic raid south of the Danube was recorded by Procopius, who mentions an attack of the Antes, "who dwell close to the Sclaveni" in 518. Sclaveni are first mentioned in the context of the military policy on the Danube frontier of Byzantine Emperor Justinian I. Throughout the century, Slavs raided and plundered deep into the Balkans, from Dalmatia to Greece and Thrace, were at times recruited as mercenaries, fighting the Ostrogoths. Justinian seems to have used divide and conquer and the Sclaveni and Antes are mentioned as fighting each other; the Antes are last mentioned as anti-Byzantine belligerents in 545, the Sclaveni continued to raid the Balkans. In 558 the Avars arrived at the Black Sea steppe, defeated the Antes between the Dnieper and Dniester; the Avars subsequently allied themselves with the Sclaveni, although there was an episode in which the Sclaveni Daurentius (fl.
Slovenian Museum of Natural History
The Slovenian Museum of Natural History is a Slovenian national museum with natural history and educational contents. It is the scientific Slovenian institution; the museum features national and worldwide collections demonstrating the changes in biodiversity, the development of the natural history thought, as well as different techniques of collection and preparation of samples. Its research activities focus on natural heritage of Slovenia; the Slovenian Museum of Natural History operates in the Center District in Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia, at Museum Street, near Tivoli Park, the Parliament and the Opera House. Along with the National Museum of Slovenia, it is housed in a building from 1885, built upon the plans by the Viennese architect Wilhelm Rezori and the master builder Wilhelm Treo from Ljubljana; the symbol of the museum is an complete woolly mammoth skeleton, found in Nevlje near Kamnik in 1938. Its official publication, published since autumn 1978, has been named Scopolia in honour of Giovanni Antonio Scopoli, a leading Carniolan naturalist of the 18th century.
The museum was founded in 1821 as the Carniolan Estates Museum. Five years the Austrian Emperor Francis II decided to sponsor the museum and ordered its renaming to Carniolan Provincial Museum. In 1882, the museum was renamed to Carniolan Provincial Museum - Rudolphinum in honour of the Crown Prince Rudolph. After the establishment of the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes, the name was changed to National Museum. In 1944, it was divided into the National Museum of Slovenia and the Slovenian Museum of Natural History. In 2005, the museum acquired its largest object, a skeleton of a young female fin whale Leonora, found dead at the Slovenian coast in 2003; the corpse weighted 11 was 13.2 metres long. After an elaborate procedure, the skeleton was put on display in autumn 2011; the museum's geological-palaeontological collections include fossils from various Slovenian sites. In addition to the mammoth from Nevlje of significance are a 210-million-year-old 84-centimetre long fish skeleton found in the Triglav Mountains and a Miocene-era baleen whale skeleton found in the Slovene Hills.
One of the museum's founding collections was Sigmund Zois's mineral collection. Although it is an outstanding historical collection, minerals are now exhibited as classified by modern methods according to their internal structure, among them is the mineral zoisite, named after Zois. There are two Biedermeier wooden tables that are covered by tiles from Palnstorf's collection of minerals and rocks. Hohenwart's collection of mollusc shells comprises about 5,000 specimens, dating from 1831 and originating from the Indo-Pacific; the insect collection of Ferdinand J. Schmidt includes several interesting specimens, notably the "narrow-necked" blind cave beetles that were described in 1831 as the first cave insect; the plants and animals of the mountains and woods are shown in specialised dioramas. On view are permanent bird, fish and skeleton collections; the Slovenian Wildlife Sound Archive is a collection of animal sounds on Heteroptera and cicadas, stored on digital and analogue recording media.
This article incorporates material from the Culture.si entry "Slovenian Museum of Natural History", licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License but not under the GFDL. Official website Media related to Slovenian Museum of Natural History at Wikimedia Commons
Lorraine is a cultural and historical region in north-eastern France, now located in the administrative region of Grand Est. Lorraine's name stems from the medieval kingdom of Lotharingia, which in turn was named for either Emperor Lothair I or King Lothair II, it was ruled as the Duchy of Lorraine before the Kingdom of France annexed it in 1766. From 1982 until January 2016, Lorraine was an administrative region of France. In 2016, under a reorganization, it became part of the new region Grand Est; as a region in modern France, Lorraine consisted of the four departments Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse and Vosges, containing 2,337 communes. Metz is the regional prefecture; the largest metropolitan area of Lorraine is Nancy, which had developed for centuries as the seat of the duchy. Lorraine borders Germany and Luxembourg, its inhabitants are called "Lorrains" in French and number about 2,356,000. Lorraine's borders have changed in its long history; the location of Lorraine led to it being a paramount strategic asset as the crossroads of four nations.
This, along with its political alliances, marriage alliances, the ability of rulers over the centuries to choose sides between East and West, gave it a tremendously powerful and important role in transforming all of European history. Its rulers intermarried with royal families over all of Europe, played kingmaker, seated rulers on the thrones of the Holy Roman Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire Austria-Hungary, others. In 840, Charlemagne's son Louis; the Carolingian Empire was divided among Louis' three sons by the Treaty of Verdun of 843. The middle realm, known as Middle Francia, went to Lothair I, reaching from Frisia in Northern Germany through the Low Countries, Eastern France, Provence, Northern Italy, down to Rome. On the death of Lothair I, Middle Francia was divided in three by the Treaty of Prüm in 855, with the northern third called Lotharingia and going to Lothair II. Due to Lotharingia being sandwiched between East and West Francia, the rulers identified as a duchy from 870 onward, enabling the duchy to ally and align itself nominally with either eastern or western Carolingian kingdoms in order to survive and maintain its independence.
Thus it operated as an independent kingdom. In 870, Lorraine allied with East Francia. In 962, when Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor, restored the Empire, Lorraine was designated as the autonomous Duchy of Lorraine within the Holy Roman Empire, it maintained this status until 1766, after which it was annexed under succession law by the Kingdom of France, via derivative aristocratic house alliances. The succession within these houses, in tandem with other historical events, would have restored Lorraine's status as its own duchy, but a vacuum in leadership occurred, its duke François Stephen de Lorraine took the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, his brother Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine became governor of the Austrian Netherlands. For political reasons, he decided to hide those heirs who were not born by his first wife, Archduchess Maria Anna of Austria, deceased when he took office; the vacuum in leadership, the French Revolution, the political results and changes issuing from the many nationalistic wars that followed in the next 130 years resulted in Lorraine becoming a permanent part of the modern Republic of France.
Because of wars, it came under control of Germany several times as the border between the nations shifted. While Lorrainian separatists do exist in the 21st century, their political power and influence is negligible. Lorraine separatism today consists more of preserving its cultural identity rather than seeking genuine political independence. With enlightened leadership and at a crossroads between French and German cultures, Lotharingia experienced tremendous economic and cultural prosperity during the 12th and 13th centuries under the Hohenstaufen emperors. Along with the rest of Europe, this prosperity was terminated in Lorraine in the 14th century by a series of harsh winters, bad harvests, the Black Death. During the Renaissance, a flourishing prosperity returned to Lotharingia until the Thirty Years' War. France annexed Lorraine by force in 1766, it retains control in the early 21st century. Due to the region's location, the population has been mixed; the north is Germanic, speaking Lorraine Franconian and other Germanic dialects.
Strong centralized nationalism had only begun to replace the feudalist system which had formed the multilingual borders, insurrection against the French occupation influenced much of the area's early identity. In 1871, the German Empire regained a part of Lorraine Bezirk Lothringen, corresponding to the current department of Moselle); the department formed part of the new Imperial German State of Alsace-Lorraine. In France, the revanchist movement developed to recover this territory; the Imperial German administration discouraged the French language and culture in favor of High German, which became the administrative language It required the use of German in schools in areas which it considered or designated as German-speaking, an arbitrary categorisation. French was allowed to remain in use only in primary and secondary schools in municipalities considered Francophone, such as Château-Salins and the surrounding arrondissement, as well and in their local administration, but after 1877, higher education, including state-run colleges, universities an
Istria Histria, Ίστρια, is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. The peninsula is located at the head of the Adriatic between the Gulf of Trieste and the Kvarner Gulf, it is shared by three countries: Croatia and Italy. Croatia encapsulates most of the Istrian peninsula with its Istria County; the geographical features of Istria include the Učka mountain ridge, the highest portion of the Ćićarija mountain range. Istria lies in three countries: Croatia and Italy. By far the largest portion lies in Croatia. "Croatian Istria" is divided into the larger being Istria County in western Croatia. Important towns in Istria County include Pula/Pola, Poreč/Parenzo, Rovinj/Rovigno, Pazin/Pisino, Labin/Albona, Umag/Umago, Motovun/Montona, Buzet/Pinguente, Buje/Buie. Smaller towns in Istria County include Višnjan, Roč, Hum; the northwestern part of Istria lies in Slovenia: it is known as Slovenian Istria, includes the coastal municipalities of Piran/Pirano, Izola/Isola and Koper/Capodistria, the Karstic municipality of Hrpelje-Kozina.
Northwards of Slovenian Istria, there is a tiny portion of the peninsula. This smallest portion of Istria consists of the comunes of Muggia and San Dorligo della Valle, with Santa Croce lying farthest to the north; the ancient region of Histria extended over a much wider area, including the whole Kras plateau until the southern edges of the Vipava Valley, the southwestern portions of modern Inner Carniola with Postojna and Ilirska Bistrica, the Italian Province of Trieste, but not the Liburnian coast, part of Illyricum. Central Istria has a continental climate; the northern coast of Istria has a sub-Mediterranean climate. The western and southern coast has a Mediterranean climate; the eastern coast has a sub-Mediterranean climate with oceanic influences. The warmest places are Rovinj, while the coldest is Pazin. Precipitation is moderate, with between 640 and 1,020 mm falling in the coastal areas, up to 1,500 mm in the hills; the name is derived from the Histri tribes, which Strabo refers to as living in the region and who are credited as being the builders of the hillfort settlements.
The Histri are classified in some sources as a "Venetic" Illyrian tribe, with certain linguistic differences from other Illyrians. The Romans described the Histri as a fierce tribe of pirates, protected by the difficult navigation of their rocky coasts, it took two military campaigns for the Romans to subdue them in 177 BC. The region was called together with the Venetian part the X. Roman Region of "Venetia et Histria", the ancient definition of the northeastern border of Italy. Dante Alighieri refers to it as well, the eastern border of Italy per ancient definition is the river Arsia; the eastern side of this river was settled by people. Earlier influence of the Iapodes was attested there, while at some time between the 4th and 1st century BC, the Liburnians extended their territory and it became a part of Liburnia. On the northern side, Histria included the Italian city of Trieste; some scholars speculate that the names Histri and Istria are related to the Latin name Hister, or Danube. Ancient folktales reported—inaccurately—that the Danube split in two or "bifurcated" and came to the sea near Trieste as well as at the Black Sea.
The story of the "bifurcation of the Danube" is part of the Argonaut legend. There is a suspected link to the commune of Istria in Constanţa, named after the ancient city Histria, named after River Hister. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the region was pillaged by the Goths, the Eastern Roman Empire, the Avars, it was subsequently annexed to the Lombard Kingdom in 751, annexed to the Frankish kingdom by Pepin of Italy in 789. In 804, the Placitum of Riziano was held in the Parish of Rižan, a meeting between the representatives of Istrian towns and castles and the deputies of Charlemagne and his son Pepin; the report about this judicial diet illustrates the changes accompanying the transfer of power from the Eastern Roman Empire to the Carolingian Empire and the discontent of the local residents. Afterwards it was successively controlled by the dukes of Carantania, Bavaria and by the patriarch of Aquileia, before it became the territory of the Republic of Venice in 1267; the medieval Croatian kingdom held only the far eastern part of Istria, but they lost it to the Holy Roman Empire in the late 11th century.
The coastal areas and cities of Istria came under Venetian Influence in the 9th century. On 15 February 1267, Parenzo was formally incorporated with the Venetian state. Other coastal towns followed shortly thereafter. Bajamonte Tiepolo was sent away from Venice in 1310, to start a new life in Istria after his downfall. A description of the 16th-century Istria with a precise map was prepared by the Italian geographer Pietro Coppo. A copy of the map inscribed in stone can now be seen in the Pietro Coppo Park in the center of the town of Izola in southwestern Slovenia; the Inner part of Istria around Mitterburg had been part of the Holy Roman Empire for centuries, more part of the domains of the Austrian Ha
A polymath is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of subject areas, known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems. In Western Europe, the first work to use polymathy in its title was published in 1603 by Johann von Wowern, a Hamburg philosopher. Von Wowern defined polymathy as "knowledge of various matters, drawn from all kinds of studies ranging through all the fields of the disciplines, as far as the human mind, with unwearied industry, is able to pursue them". Von Wowern lists erudition, philology and polyhistory as synonyms; the related term, polyhistor, is an ancient term with similar meaning. Polymaths include the great thinkers of the Renaissance and the Enlightenment who excelled at several fields in science, engineering and the arts. In the Italian Renaissance, the idea of the polymath was expressed by Leon Battista Alberti in the statement that "a man can do all things if he will". Embodying a basic tenet of Renaissance humanism that humans are limitless in their capacity for development, the concept led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as as possible.
This is expressed in the term "Renaissance man" applied to the gifted people of that age who sought to develop their abilities in all areas of accomplishment: intellectual, artistic and physical. The term entered the lexicon in the 20th century and has now been applied to great thinkers living before and after the Renaissance. "Renaissance man" was first recorded in written English in the early 20th century. It is now used to refer during, or after the Renaissance. Leonardo da Vinci has been described as the archetype of the Renaissance man, a man of "unquenchable curiosity" and "feverishly inventive imagination". Many notable polymaths lived during the Renaissance period, a cultural movement that spanned the 14th through to the 17th century that began in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and spread to the rest of Europe; these polymaths had a rounded approach to education that reflected the ideals of the humanists of the time. A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal.
The idea of a universal education was essential to achieving polymath ability, hence the word university was used to describe a seat of learning. At this time, universities did not specialize in specific areas, but rather trained students in a broad array of science and theology; this universal education gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship toward becoming a master of a specific field. When someone is called a "Renaissance man" today, it is meant that rather than having broad interests or superficial knowledge in several fields, the individual possesses a more profound knowledge and a proficiency, or an expertise, in at least some of those fields; some dictionaries use the term "Renaissance man" to describe someone with many interests or talents, while others give a meaning restricted to the Renaissance and more related to Renaissance ideals. Aside from "Renaissance man" as mentioned above, similar terms in use are homo universalis and uomo universale, which translate to "universal man".
The related term "generalist"—contrasted with a "specialist"—is used to describe a person with a general approach to knowledge. The term "universal genius" or "versatile genius" is used, with Leonardo da Vinci as the prime example again; the term is used for people who made lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which they were involved and when they took a universality of approach. When a person is described as having encyclopedic knowledge, they exhibit a vast scope of knowledge. However, this designation may be anachronistic in the case of persons such as Eratosthenes whose reputation for having encyclopedic knowledge predates the existence of any encyclopedic object. Although polymathy and similar constructs like multipotentiality and multiple talents have gained wider coverage in the popular domain, polymathy, as a field of scientific study, is still at an early stage of development, with some researchers calling for more studies to further advance this construct and shed new light on topics such as creativity and education.
At present, researchers studying this topic come from backgrounds as diverse as psychology, mathematics and education. Although incipient, the extant studies can demonstrate the importance of polymathy as a concept that can help enhance our understanding of human diversity and of the elements that underlie one of the most human of traits: creativity; this section presents an overview of the contributions of six contemporary scholarly authors to the understanding of the phenomenon of polymathy. The criterion to choose the authors included in this article was the existence of publications in academic outlets focusing on the concept of polymathy itself. Robert Root-Bernstein is considered the principal responsible for rekindling the interest on polymathy in the scientific community, he is a professor of physiology at Michigan State University and has been awarded the MacArthur Fellowship, known as a "Genius Grant", a prize awarded to those who have shown "extraordinary originality and dedication in their creative pursuits and a marked capacity for self-direction" and are citizens or res
Pedicularis is a genus of perennial green root parasite plants placed in the broomrape family Orobanchaceae. Between 350 and 600 species are accepted by different authorities from the wetter northern temperate zones, as well as from South America; the highest diversity is with 352 species accepted in China alone. The common name lousewort, applied to several species, derives from an old belief that these plants, when ingested, were responsible for lice infestations in livestock; the genus name Pedicularis is from the Latin pediculus meaning louse. Pedicularis acaulis Pedicularis amoena Pedicularis arguteserrata Pedicularis ascendens Pedicularis asparagoides Pedicularis asplenifolia Pedicularis attollens Pedicularis baumgartenii Pedicularis brachyodonta Pedicularis bracteosa Pedicularis canadensis Pedicularis centranthera Pedicularis comosa Pedicularis compacta Pedicularis contorta Pedicularis dasyantha Pedicularis dasystachys Pedicularis densiflora Pedicularis dudleyi Pedicularis elegans Pedicularis elongata Pedicularis exaltata Pedicularis ferdinandi Pedicularis flammea Pedicularis foliosa Pedicularis furbishiae Pedicularis friderici-augusti Pedicularis graeca Pedicularis groenlandica Pedicularis gyroflexa Pedicularis hacquetii Pedicularis heterodonta Pedicularis hirsuta Pedicularis howellii Pedicularis julica Pedicularis kaufmannii Pedicularis kerneri Pedicularis labradorica Pedicularis lanceolata Pedicularis langsdorfii Pedicularis lapponica Pedicularis leucodon Pedicularis limnogena Pedicularis mixta Pedicularis oederi Pedicularis ornithorhyncha Pedicularis orthantha Pedicularis oxycarpa Pedicularis palustris Pedicularis pectinata Pedicularis petiolaris Pedicularis physocalyx Pedicularis portenschlagii Pedicularis procera Pedicularis pyrenaica Pedicularis racemosa Pedicularis rainierensis Pedicularis recutita Pedicularis resupinata Pedicularis rex Pedicularis rosea Pedicularis rostratocapitata Pedicularis rostratospicata Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum Pedicularis schizocalyx Pedicularis semibarbata Pedicularis sibthorpii Pedicularis sudetica Pedicularis sylvatica Pedicularis tuberosa Pedicularis uralensis Pedicularis verticillata Bombus polaris has an essential role in the pollination of the large zygomorphic flowers of Pedicularis.
B. polaris has a special adaption that allows it to work the spikes of Pedicularis from the bottom towards the top. Flora Europaea: Pedicularis Flora of China: Pedicularis Jepson Manual Treatment: Pedicularis
In modern medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations. There are surgeons in podiatry, dentistry maxillofacial surgeon and the veterinary fields; the first person to document a surgery was Sushruta. He specialized in cosmetic plastic surgery and had documented an operation of open rhinoplasty, his magnum opus Suśruta-saṃhitā is one of the most important surviving ancient treatises on medicine and is considered a foundational text of Ayurveda and surgery. The treatise addresses all aspects of general medicine, but the translator G. D. Singhal dubbed Suśruta "the father of surgical intervention" on account of the extraordinarily accurate and detailed accounts of surgery to be found in the work. After the eventual decline of the Sushruta School of Medicine in India, surgery had been ignored until the Islamic Golden Age surgeon Al-Zahrawi, reestablished surgery as an effective medical practice, he is considered the greatest medieval surgeon to have appeared from the Islamic World, has been described as the father of surgery.
His greatest contribution to medicine is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices. He was the first physician to describe an ectopic pregnancy, the first physician to identify the hereditary nature of hæmophilia, his pioneering contributions to the field of surgical procedures and instruments had an enormous impact on surgery but it was not until the eighteenth century that surgery as a distinct medical discipline emerged in England. In Europe, surgery was associated with barber-surgeons who used their hair-cutting tools to undertake surgical procedures at the battlefield and for their employers. With advances in medicine and physiology, the professions of barbers and surgeons diverged. Surgeon continued, however, to be used as the title for military medical officers until the end of the 19th century, the title of Surgeon General continues to exist for both senior military medical officers and senior government public health officers. In 1950, the Royal College of Surgeons of England in London began to offer surgeons a formal status via RCS membership.
The title Mister became a badge of honour, today, in many Commonwealth countries, a qualified doctor who, after at least four years' training, obtains a surgical qualification is given the honour of being allowed to revert to calling themselves Mr, Mrs or Ms in the course of their professional practice, but this time the meaning is different. It is sometimes assumed that the change of title implies consultant status, but the length of postgraduate medical training outside North America is such that a qualified surgeon may be years away from obtaining such a post: many doctors obtained these qualifications in the senior house officer grade, remained in that grade when they began sub-specialty training; the distinction of Mr is used by surgeons in the Republic of Ireland, some states of Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and some other Commonwealth countries. In many English-speaking countries the military title of surgeon is applied to any medical practitioner, due to the historical evolution of the term.
The US Army Medical Corps retains various surgeon MOS' in the ranks of officer pay grades for military personnel dedicated to performing surgery on wounded soldiers. Some physicians who are general practitioners or specialists in family medicine or emergency medicine may perform limited ranges of minor, common, or emergency surgery. Anesthesia accompanies surgery, anesthesiologists and nurse anesthetists may oversee this aspect of surgery. Surgeon's assistant, surgical nurses, surgical technologists are trained professionals who support surgeons. In the United States, the Department of Labor description of a surgeon is "a physician who treats diseases and deformities by invasive, minimally-invasive, or non-invasive surgical methods, such as using instruments, appliances, or by manual manipulation". Sushruta al-Zahrawi, regarded as one of the greatest medieval surgeons and a father of surgery. ) Charles Kelman William Stewart Halsted Alfred Blalock C. Walton Lillehei Christiaan Barnard Victor Chang Australian pioneer of heart transplantation John Hunter Sir Victor Horsley Lars Leksell Joseph Lister Harvey Cushing Paul Tessier Gholam A. Peyman Ioannis Pallikaris Nikolay Pirogov Valery Shumakov Svyatoslav Fyodorov Gazi Yasargil Rene Favaloro (first surgeon to perform bypass