Suspenders or braces are fabric or leather straps worn over the shoulders to hold up trousers. The straps may be elasticated, either entirely or only at attachment ends, Suspenders are typically attached to trousers with clips or buttons using leather tabs at the ends. Outside the United States the term suspenders, or suspender belt and this is called a garter belt in American English. There have been precursors to suspenders throughout the past 300 years. They were once almost universally worn, due to the cut of mid-nineteenth. During the nineteenth century, suspenders were sometimes called galluses, after losing popularity during World War I, when men became accustomed to uniform belts, suspenders were still regular attire throughout the 1920s. Because of their image as underwear, some men switched to belts during the 1930s as the vests which had hidden suspenders became worn less often and this signaled the switch in position of securing buttons from the outside of the waistband to the inside.
Life magazine stated in 1938 that 60% of American men chose belts over suspenders, though the return of fuller-cut trousers in the 1940s revived suspenders, they did not dominate over belts again to the same extent. However, in the UK they remained the norm to wear with suits, while suspenders have been in and out of fashion over the last century, there has been a brief resurgence in interest, possibly due to the styles seen in films like Wall Street. Many business people and professionals such as lawyers still wear suspenders, clip-on style suspenders are a typical part of skinhead, and to a lesser extent, punk fashion. In skinhead and punk fashion, suspenders are typically between 3⁄4 and 1 inch in width, materials used for making suspenders have changed over time, with newer additions such as rayon, a hard-wearing synthetic fiber, now offered. The traditional Woolen Boxcloth Suspenders remain available but are very costly, generally, a high quality rayon with elastic webbing is the fabric used to create suspenders, with silks webbing or tubed suiting cloths from mills such as Dugdale Bros of England used.
Good quality smart suspenders were traditionally considered white collar, or upper or upper-middle class and they were made to be attached to trousers by buttons sewn onto the waistband. There are relatively few current manufacturers in the UK, but the classic button-on reform end is quite widely available in the USA. In traditional or formal settings, it is considered a faux pas to wear both belt and suspenders at the time, though in the past this has not always been the case. Further, suspenders were traditionally considered an undergarment and, as such, were considered inappropriate to be seen, from their time of their invention until World War II, the waistcoat, or a jumper or cardigan for coolness in the summer, covered suspenders to prevent indecency. Similarly and jackets kept the shirtsleeves hidden, in the inter-war period, men began removing jackets in public, and so this sensibility became eroded over time. It is perhaps only in Britain that a few die-hards still consider it gauche to wear, for example, generally, it is now considered acceptable fashion, on both sides of the Atlantic, for mens suspenders to be seen
A scabbard is a sheath for holding a sword, knife, or other large blade. Scabbards have been made of materials over the millennia, including leather, wood. Most commonly, scabbards were worn suspended from a belt or shoulder belt called a baldric. Wooden scabbards were usually covered in fabric or leather, and leather versions usually bore metal fittings for added protection, japanese blades, typically have their sharp cutting edge protected by a wooden scabbard called a saya. Many scabbards like the ones the Greeks and Romans used were small and they were designed for holding the sword rather than protecting it. All-metal scabbards were popular items for a display of wealth among elites in the European Iron Age, little is known about the scabbards of the early Iron Age, due to their wooden construction. However, during the Middle and late Iron Ages, the scabbard became important especially as a vehicle for decorative elaboration, after 200 BC fully decorated scabbards became rare. A number of ancient scabbards have been recovered from weapons sacrifices, the fur was probably kept oily, keeping the blade free from rust.
The fur would allow a smoother, quicker draw, entirely metal scabbards became popular in Europe early in the 19th century and eventually superseded most other types. Metal was more durable than leather and could withstand the rigors of field use. In addition, metal offered the ability to present a military appearance. Nevertheless, leather scabbards never entirely lost favor among military users and were used as late as the American Civil War. Some military police forces, naval shore patrols, law enforcement, Scabbards were historically, albeit rarely, worn across the back with the intention of being quickly unsheathed, but only by a handful of Celtic tribes, and only with very short lengths of sword. This is because it is almost impossible to draw any true two-handed sword, some more well-known examples of this include the back scabbard depicted in the movie Braveheart and the back scabbard seen in the video game series The Legend of Zelda. Among the Parisii of Yorkshire, for example, the sword was worn across the back.
Holster Media related to Scabbards at Wikimedia Commons
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Batman's utility belt
Batmans utility belt is a feature of Batmans costume. Similar belts are used by the various Robins, Batgirl, in its first appearance, Batmans utility belt contain choking gas capsules. Two issues after the utility belt debuted, Fox wrote the first appearance of a bat-themed weapon, up until 1989, most artists drew the utility belt as a simple yellow belt with a buckle and capsules/cylinders around it. In 1986, Frank Miller drew Batmans utility belt with military-style pouches in the Batman and this rendition was used again in Batman, Year One and used by almost every artist in the Batman, Legends of the Dark Knight comics series. In 2000, the became a standard feature in the depiction of the utility belt. The grapple gun, which fired the Batline/Bat-rope, was first introduced in Tim Burtons live-action film, although seemingly unremarkable in appearance, the utility belt is one of Batmans most important tools in fighting crime. Consisting primarily of a strap and buckle, the utility belt houses ten pouches or cylindrical cartridges that are attached to the outside of the belt, the buckle itself typically contains a miniature camera and a tape recorder.
A secondary compartment behind the length of the belt houses Batmans supply of batarangs, each of the ten pouches or cylinders contains various tools integral to Batmans war on crime, with the cylinders being interchangeable with each other. Through the years, Batman has modified the contents of his belt to accommodate various crime-fighting scenarios, most versions of the belt contain security features to prevent anyone other than Batman from opening it. The belt is shown to be able to electrocute any villain who even touches it and it can release stun gas to prevent tampering. The belts compartments are locked and only Batman knows how to open them, there are several special varieties of the batarang, aside from the regular type. Explosive batarangs explode once they hit their target, electric batarangs deliver powerful electric shocks to whatever they come in contact with. These batarangs can incapacitate enemies or overload electronic devices, remote-controlled batarangs let Batman fully steer the batarang via a remote control.
These are used when a line of sight isnt possible. These batarangs have cameras in them so that Batman can see where they are going, batline/Batrope/Batclaw/Batgrapple, A handheld grappling hook that shoots out a claw-shaped projectile on a retractable high-tensile cord, which grabs onto a surface. Then, this cord pulls Batman to his target, a boost upgrade launches him high into the air above the target point if he desires. The hook can pull down walls, grab enemies and pull them closer, the hook is secured to the belt magnetically rather than being contained in the belt. It has been portrayed as a grappling hook line to be manually thrown onto a higher surface or vantage point for him to climb it to the targeted area
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age generally followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition, although the Iron Age generally followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic. Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing, according to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems.
The overall period is characterized by use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques, tin must be mined and smelted separately, added to molten copper to make bronze alloy. The Bronze Age was a time of use of metals. The dating of the foil has been disputed, the Bronze Age in the ancient Near East began with the rise of Sumer in the 4th millennium BC. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and mathematics, the usual tripartite division into an Early and Late Bronze Age is not used. Instead, a division based on art-historical and historical characteristics is more common. The cities of the Ancient Near East housed several tens of thousands of people, ur in the Middle Bronze Age and Babylon in the Late Bronze Age similarly had large populations. The earliest mention of Babylonia appears on a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 23rd century BC, the Amorite dynasty established the city-state of Babylon in the 19th century BC.
Over 100 years later, it took over the other city-states. Babylonia adopted the written Semitic Akkadian language for official use, by that time, the Sumerian language was no longer spoken, but was still in religious use. Elam was an ancient civilization located to the east of Mesopotamia, in the Old Elamite period, Elam consisted of kingdoms on the Iranian plateau, centered in Anshan, and from the mid-2nd millennium BC, it was centered in Susa in the Khuzestan lowlands. Its culture played a role in the Gutian Empire and especially during the Achaemenid dynasty that succeeded it
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Leather is a durable and flexible material created by tanning animal rawhide and skin, often cattle hide. It can be produced at manufacturing scales ranging from cottage industry to heavy industry, people use leather to make various goods—including clothing, leather wallpaper, and as a furniture covering. It is produced in a variety of types and styles. Several tanning processes transform hides and skins into leather, Chrome-tanned leather, invented in 1858, is tanned using chromium sulfate and it is more supple and pliable than vegetable-tanned leather and does not discolor or lose shape as drastically in water as vegetable-tanned. It is known as wet-blue for its color derived from the chromium, more exotic colors are possible when using chrome tanning. The chrome tanning method usually only takes a day to finish, and it is reported that chrome-tanned leather adds up to 80% of the global leather supply. Vegetable-tanned leather is tanned using tannins and other found in different vegetable matter, such as tree bark prepared in bark mills, leaves, fruits.
It is supple and brown in color, with the exact shade depending on the mix of chemicals and it is the only form of leather suitable for use in leather carving or stamping. Vegetable-tanned leather is not stable in water, it tends to discolor, so if left to soak and dried it shrinks, in hot water, it shrinks drastically and partly congeals—becoming rigid, and eventually brittle. Boiled leather is an example of this, where the leather has been hardened by being immersed in hot water, historically, it was occasionally used as armour after hardening, and it has been used for book binding. Aldehyde-tanned leather is tanned using glutaraldehyde or oxazolidine compounds and this is the leather that most tanners refer to as wet-white leather due to its pale cream or white color. It is the type of chrome-free leather, often seen in shoes for infants. Formaldehyde tanning is another aldehyde tanning method, brain-tanned leathers fall into this category, and are exceptionally water absorbent. Brain tanned leathers are made by a process that uses emulsified oils, often those of animal brains such as deer, cattle.
They are known for their softness and washability. Chamois leather falls into the category of aldehyde tanning, and like brain tanning, produces a porous, chamois leather is made using marine oils that oxidize easily to produce the aldehydes that tan the leather to color it. Rose-tanned leather is a variation of oil tanning and brain tanning. Rose-tanned leather tanned leaves a powerful rose fragrance even years from when it is manufactured and it has been called the most valuable leather on earth, but this is mostly due to the high cost of rose otto and its labor-intensive tanning process
Holsters are generally designed to offer protection to the handgun, secure its retention, and provide ready access to it. The need for access is often at odds with the need for security and protection. Holsters are generally designed to be used one hand, allowing the handgun to be removed and/or replaced with the same hand. Holsters are generally attached to a belt or waistband or clipped to another article of clothing. Some holsters, such as holsters, have integrated support. Other holsters may fit inside a pocket, to add stability and protection to the handgun, keeping it more reliably secure, Holsters are generally worn in a location where they can be readily accessible. Common locations are, at the waist, behind the back, at the ankle, at the chest, Holsters are sometimes contained in an external bag, such as a purse or fanny pack. Since holsters are made from fairly stiff yet tough materials. The traditional material, particularly for handgun holsters, is leather and it has an attractive appearance and can be dyed in many colors and/or embossed with elaborate designs for cosmetic reasons.
Ballistic nylon is another common fabric for holsters, as it is stiff, wear resistant, molded plastics, such as Kydex, are popular, due to their low cost and robustness. The wide range of types indicates the highly varied circumstances in which holsters are used, duty holsters are designed to be carried openly, so concealment is not an issue, but retention and appearance are. Duty holsters can be made of leather, nylon, or plastic, they are designed to be attached to a duty belt, and worn on the dominant side. Duty holsters are generally found for service and compact size handguns as opposed to small subcompact handguns as these are generally only used for concealed carry backup guns. The primary characteristic that often distinguishes duty holsters from all other designs is retention. Therefore, when selecting a duty holster, an officer may be forced to find a compromise of speed, tactical/military holsters are usually made of nylon or plastic. They may be made in a pattern to match the wearers uniform.
They are often of a design and offer a retention device. Some military holsters still use the old flap design, there is some overlap between duty holsters, tactical holsters, and military holsters
Police duty belt
Many police forces in the United Kingdom began with a uniform consisting of a swallow-tail coat and top hat. A pillbox or kepi hat along with a frock coat were introduced in the 1860s, along with helmets designed especially for protection against attack, in the case of the earliest equipment carrying, a cutlass or firearm was usually clipped to the belt of the frock coat. In fact pockets themselves were not introduced until the early 1900s in some cases, before duty belts, British female officers carried their truncheons, which were shorter than the male version, in their handbags along with their police notebook as a matter of routine. Male officers carried handcuffs, whereas officers were not permitted to without special permission. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Sam Browne belt was in use by police officers in the USA. Most duty belts have a width of 2-1/4 inches and are made of ballistic nylon or leather. Many Canadian police departments have had officers complain of having back pain due to their supposedly rigid leather belts, in response, many Canadian departments are now switching to nylon belts because they are considered by some to be more flexible.
The Service de Police de la Ville de Montréal, the second largest municipal police service in Canada, in Australia, instead of belts the WA Police are trending towards wearing vests with more equipment in them than belts due to back problems, and maneuverability. Older belts used to fail under the weight of whatever was carried, manufacturers have introduced double-ply belts which retain their shape, nylon duty gear is generally less expensive and easier to maintain than leather gear of comparable quality. However, leather gear is generally regarded as having a traditional and professional appearance. To combine the best of materials, companies like Bianchi manufacture nylon duty gear that has the appearance of leather. The most common color for duty belts in service with law enforcement personnel and security officers is black, there is some variation. In some instances, brown leather is used in place of black, Duty belts wrap around the officers waist and fasten with a buckle at the front.
This is often protected by a cover to prevent release of the belt by anyone other than the officer. In the past, many belts would sag and move around while around the waist while an officer was engaging in a physical activity. Belt keepers wrap around the duty belt and trouser belt, ensuring that the stays in place. Belt suspenders allow the wearer to move a portion of the weight of the belt onto the shoulders and this means that the belt does not have to be worn as tightly, cutting down on pressure exerted on the stomach and waist area. Traditionally, belts have been fastened using a buckle, however
A belt buckle is a buckle, a clasp for fastening two ends, such as of straps or a belt, in which a device attached to one of the ends is fitted or coupled to the other. The word enters Middle English via Old French and the Latin buccula or cheek-strap, Belt buckles and other fixtures are used on a variety of belts, including cingula, baltea and waist-belts. Belt buckles go back at least to the age and a gold great buckle was among the items interred at Sutton Hoo. Primarily decorative shield on tongue buckles were common Anglo-Saxon grave goods at this time, elaborately decorated on the shield portion and associated only with men. One such buckle, found in a 7th-century grave at Finglesham, frame-style buckles are the oldest design. In a frame-and-prong buckle the prong attaches to one end of the frame and extends away from the wearer through a hole in the belt, where it anchors against the opposite side of the frame. The oldest styles have a loop or D shaped frame. Very small buckles with removable center pins and chapes were introduced and used on shoes, beginning in the 17th century, a chape is the fixed cover or plate which attaches buckle to belt while the mordant or bite is the adjustable portion.
Plate-style buckles are common on western military belts of the mid-19th century, officers might have a similar but more intricate clasp-style closure that featured two interlocking metal parts. In practice, the term belt plate refers to any flat, the distance between the fixed frame or chape of a plate buckle and its adjustment prong is called the throw. Box-out buckles make the traditional belt seen today, usually made with an enduring leather or other synthetic material as the band, these belt buckles are less functional but more fashionable. These belts became popular after Hollywood began using them in movies for their fresh, now they dominate belt production, and are viewed as a more attractive belt. Box-frame buckles are another, 20th-century style of military friction buckle, the box-frame buckle consists of three parts. There may or may not be a tip on the opposite tongue end of the belt for easier insertion. Earlier, military-style buckles often use friction and are designed for use with cloth belts or straps, simple friction buckles are one-piece frames with no prong whatsoever, the strap or belt winding through a series of slots, and may more technically be called belt slides or belt trims.
Although technically not buckles, other such as plastic side-clasp or even seat belt latches are often used on belts. Because of their association with military equipment, belt buckles were primarily a masculine ornament well into the 19th century. Belt buckles became more popular as fashion accessories in the early 20th century, the large, flat surface of the western-style belt buckles make them a popular ornament or style of jewelry
Trousers or pants are an item of clothing worn from the waist to the ankles, covering both legs separately. In the UK, the word generally means underwear and not trousers. Shorts are similar to trousers, but with legs that come only to around the area of the knee. To distinguish them from shorts, trousers may be called long trousers in certain such as school uniform. Made of wool, the trousers had straight legs and wide crotches, breeches were worn instead of trousers in early modern Europe by some men in higher classes of society. Since the mid-20th century, trousers have increasingly been worn by women as well, made of denim, are a form of trousers for casual wear, now widely worn all over the world by both sexes. Shorts are often preferred in hot weather or for sports and often by children. Trousers are worn on the hips or waist and may be held up by their own fastenings, leggings are form-fitting trousers, of a clingy material, often knitted cotton and spandex. In Scotland, trousers are occasionally known as trews, which is the root of the word trousers.
Trousers are known as breeks in Scots, a related to breeches. The item of clothing worn under trousers is underpants, in North America and Australia pants is the general category term, whereas trousers often refers more specifically to tailored garments with a waistband, belt-loops, and a fly-front. So informal elastic-waist knitted garments would be called pants, but not trousers, North Americans call undergarments underwear, undies, jockey shorts, long johns or panties to distinguish them from other pants that are worn on the outside. The term drawers normally refers to undergarments, but in dialects, may be found as a synonym for breeches. In these dialects, the term underdrawers is used for undergarments, many North Americans refer to their undergarments by their type, such as boxers or briefs. In Australia, mens underwear has various terms including under-dacks, undies. In New Zealand mens underwear is known as undies, or y-fronts, various people in the fashion industry use the words trouser or pant instead of trousers or pants.
The words trousers and pants are pluralia tantum, nouns that generally appear in plural form—much like the words scissors. However, the form is used in some compound words, such as trouser-leg, trouser-press