Kiowa people are a Native American tribe and an indigenous people of the Great Plains. They migrated southward from western Montana into the Rocky Mountains in Colorado in the 17th and 18th centuries, into the Southern Plains by the early 19th century. In 1867, the Kiowa were moved to a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma. Today, they are federally recognized as Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma with headquarters in Carnegie, Oklahoma; as of 2011, there were 12,000 members. The Kiowa language, part of the Tanoan language family, is still spoken today. Kiowa call themselves Ka'igwu, Cáuigù or Gaigwu, most given with the meaning "Principal People"; the first part of the name is the element Kae-, Cáui- or Gai- which means the Kiowa themselves – it may derive from the word ka' or from ka-a. The true origin is lost. Kae-kia means a Kiowa man; the second element -gua refers to "men or people", so the meaning of the two elements is "Kiowa people". Ancient names were Kútjàu or Kwu-da and Tep-da, relating to the tribal origin myth of a creator pulling people out of a hollow log until a pregnant woman got stuck.
They called themselves Kom-pa-bianta for "people with large tipi flaps", before they met Southern Plains tribes or before they met white men. Another explanation of their name "Kiowa" originated after their migration through what the Kiowa refer to as "The Mountains of the Kiowa" in the present eastern edge of Glacier National Park, just south of the border with Canada; the mountain pass they came through was populated by grizzly bear Kgyi-yo and Blackfoot people. Other tribes who encountered the Kiowa used sign language to describe them - by holding two straight fingers near the lower outside edge of the eye and moving these fingers back past the ear; this corresponded to the ancient Kiowa hairstyle cut horizontally from the lower outside edge of the eyes to the back of their ears. This was a functional practice to keep their hair from getting tangled while they shot an arrow from a bow string. George Catlin painted Kiowa warriors with this hairstyle. For a time, the Kiowa are thought to have shared land in present-day eastern Colorado, with the Arapaho.
An Arapaho name for the Kiowa is "creek people", the Arapaho word for "creek" is koh'owu', which when pronounced has some resemblance to the current name "Kiowa". For example, the Kiowa are referred to as "creek people" in an oral narrative recited in 1993 by native Arapaho speaker Paul Moss. "Kiowa" may have been a transliteration by European Americans of a name by which the tribe was known among the Arapaho. The Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family; the relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in 1910, was definitively established in 1967. Parker McKenzie, born 1897, was a noted authority on the Kiowa language, learning English only when he began school, he worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language, he went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture. McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language.
Kiowa /ˈkaɪ.əwə/ or Cáuijògà / Cáuijò:gyà is a Tanoan language spoken by the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma in Caddo and Comanche counties. Additionally, Kiowa were one of the numerous nations across the US, Canada and Mexico that spoke Plains Sign Talk. A trade language, it became a language within its own right that remained in use across North America; the Kiowa Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Oklahoma. Their tribal jurisdictional area includes Caddo, Cotton, Kiowa and Washita Counties. Enrollment in the tribe requires a minimum blood quantum of ¼ Kiowa descent; as of 2011, their business committee is: Chairman: Matthew M. Komalty Vice-chairman: Charles Domebo Eisenberger Secretary: Rhonda J. Ahhaity Treasurer: Renee M. Plata Committeeman: Dave Geimausaddle Committeeman: Anita L. Onco Johnson Committeeman: Thomas Kaulaity Committeeman: Ronald Poolaw Sr; the Kiowa Tribe issues its own vehicle tags. As of 2011, the tribe owns one smoke shop, two casinos, the Kiowa Red River Casino, Morningstar Steakhouse and Grill, Morningstar Buffet, The Winner's Circle restaurant in Devol and Kiowa Bingo near Carnegie, Oklahoma.
The Kiowa were patrilineal with a chiefdom. They lived in semi-sedentary structures, they were hunters and gatherers, meaning they did not live in one area long enough to grow plants or crops, but did trade with sedentary tribes that grew crops. The Kiowa migrated seasonally with the American bison, they hunted antelope, deer and other wild game. The women collected varieties of wild berries and fruit, processing them with prepared meats to make pemmican. Dogs were used to pull rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves; the Kiowa tended to stay in areas for long periods of time. When they adopted the horse, acquired from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande, the Kiowa revolutionized their economy, they had much larger ranges for their seasonal hunting, horses could carry some of their camping goods. By the time they arrived on the Plains, they were a mounted warrior nation; the Kiowa and Plains Apache established a homeland that lay in the southwestern plains adjacent to the Arkansas River in southeastern Colorado and western Kansas and the Red River drainage of the Texas Panhandle and
University of Mary Hardin–Baylor
The University of Mary Hardin–Baylor is a Christian co-educational institution of higher learning located in Belton, United States. UMHB was chartered by the Republic of Texas in 1845 as Baylor Female College, the female department of what is now Baylor University, it has since become its own institution and grown to 3,914 students and awards degrees at the baccalaureate, master's, doctoral levels. It is affiliated with the Baptist General Convention of Texas; the university is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. UMHB's first doctoral program, leading to the doctor of education began in June 2007 with 21 students in the inaugural class; the university's overall student/faculty ratio is 16:1. This university now awards the doctor of physical therapy and the doctor of nursing practice degrees. UMHB's history dates to the time before Texas became a U. S. state. Its original charter was granted by the Republic of Texas in 1845 as the female department of Baylor University.
Classes began in May, 1846, in a small wooden building on a hillside at Independence in Washington County. The first class consisted of 24 male and female students While it was a coeducational institution, the classes were still separated by gender. Baylor College’s coeducation lasted only until 1851, when it was divided into a Female Department and a Male Department; each began occupying separate buildings about a mile apart at the Independence campus. The changing demography of Texas and relocation of the local railroad made it difficult for college students to get transportation to Independence. Both colleges were relocated in 1886 to their permanent homes in Central Texas: the women's division relocated to Belton, where operations continued as Baylor Female College, the men's division moved to Waco, merged with coeducational Waco University, continued as Baylor University; the Cottage Home System, the first work-study program for women in a college west of the Mississippi, was instituted on the new Belton campus in 1893 by Elli Moore Townsend, wife of the serving president.
Its aim was to provide more affordable housing for women students who could not meet the expense of dormitories. The women students earned financial assistance by growing vegetables, raising livestock, hand making crafts and quality clothing items; the cottages were modest wood frame residences. In 1905, a permanent residence hall for the Cottage Home System was built by the residents themselves. Beginning in 1922, a few male students, known as "Campus Boys", were allowed to attend classes and work on campus through their junior year, at which time they transferred to Baylor University or another college for their senior year and graduation. "Campus Boys" did work, deemed unsuitable for the young ladies. They maintained the grounds, unloaded coal from rail cars, milked cows, fed hogs, served as night watchmen, unstopped drains, they lived on the second floor of a carpenter shop in quarters dubbed "The Shack". In 1925, Baylor Female College was renamed Baylor College for Women. A year it was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Universities, being the first Texas Baptist college to do so.
In 1927, it received accreditation from the American Association of Colleges. In 1925, enrollment peaked at 2,372. That, in addition to a devastating campus fire in 1929, required immediate construction of more buildings, with the help of the Great Depression, brought the college to the edge of bankruptcy, it was saved by a generous gift from John G. Hardin. In gratitude, the college changed its name to Mary Hardin–Baylor College in 1934. In 1968, the Scott and White College of Nursing, named for the Scott and White Memorial Hospital located in nearby Temple, became a part of Mary Hardin–Baylor College. Mary Hardin–Baylor College once again became coeducational in 1971. August of that year had the first male graduates, including three males receiving bachelor's degrees. With the inauguration in 1978 of its first graduate program, a master of education, the college achieved status as a university with five schools: Arts and Sciences, Creative Arts, Business and Nursing, it was renamed the University of Mary Hardin–Baylor.
The school has 119 undergraduate majors and 13 graduate degree programs, including several master's degrees and two doctoral programs. Qualified students can participate in engaged learning through internships with businesses and industries. Study abroad programs are offered on three continents. UMHB comprises eight colleges: The McLane College of Business, College of Christian Studies, College of Education, College of Humanities and Sciences and White College of Nursing, College of Visual and Performing Arts, the Graduate School. Sybil Leonard Armes, a Christian author, alternate poet laureate of Texas in 1969, former trustee of UMHB Miriam'Ma' Ferguson, Texas' first female governor and the second woman to be inaugurated governor of any state in the U. S. Jerrell Freeman and American football linebacker Buddy Groom, Major League Baseball pitcher, 1992-2005 Oveta Culp Hobby, the first woman appointed as a commanding officer of a military unit, the first director of the Women's Army Corps, the first Secretary of the United States Department of Health and Welfare, the second woman to serve in a US cabinet Margaret "Maggie" Lea Houston, eldest daughter of Republic of Texas President Sam Houston Lucy Wilson Rice, Texas painter Johnson Hall, an all-girls dormitory on the UMHB campus, was named after Rebekah Baines Johnson, mother of President Lyndon B. Johnson and granddaughter of Baptist preacher Reverend George Washington Baines, who served as president o
Bell County, Texas
Bell County is a county located in the central part of the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 310,235, its county seat is Belton. The county is named for Peter Hansborough Bell, the third governor of Texas. Bell County is part of the Killeen–Temple, Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 2010, the center of population of Texas was located near the town of Holland. In 1834–1835, Little River became part of Robertson's Colony, made up of settlers from Nashville, led by Sterling C. Robertson; this area became known as the Tennessee Valley. Soon after the settlements were deserted during the Runaway Scrape, deserted again after the Elmwood Creek Blood Scrape, reoccupied. Texas Ranger George Erath established a fort on Little River. During 1843–44, settlers began returning; the next year, the Republic of Texas founded Baylor Female College. In 1850, Bell County was named for Texas Governor Peter Hansborough Bell; the population was 600 whites and 60 black slaves. Belton was designated as the county seat in 1851.
The last serious Indian raid in the area occurred in 1859. Bell County assumed its present boundaries with the 1860 resurvey of the line between Bell and Milam Counties. In 1861, the county voted for secession from the Union. Residents were divided. From 1862–1865, Union sympathizers and Confederate deserters holed up in "Camp Safety". Following the war, new social movements developed. In 1867, the Belton Women’s Commonwealth, the first women’s movement in Central Texas, was formed by Martha McWhirter; the group provided shelter to women in abusive relationships. During the early years of the Reconstruction era, so much violence occurred in the county, the government stationed federal troops in Belton; some racist whites attacked their white supporters. Corruption and racial divides were severe; as in many areas, a local version of white paramilitary insurgents developed who were similar to the KKK. The coming of railroads in the late 19th century stimulated growth across the state. In 1881, the Gulf and Santa Fe Railway, the first railroad to be built in Bell County, established Temple as its headquarters.
Reflecting growth in the county, in 1884, the Bell County Courthouse was built. It is still used; the ambitious Renaissance Revival design was by architect Jasper N. Preston and Sons; as another improvement, in 1905, the Belton and Temple Interurban electric railway was completed, providing service between the cities. During the 1920s, the Ku Klux Klan underwent a revival in Bell County. In many areas, it was concentrated on nativist issues, opposing Catholic and Jewish immigration from eastern and southern Europe. After a scandal involving the leader of the KKK, the group's influence declined markedly by the end of the decade. In 1925, Miriam A. Ferguson, a native of the county, was inaugurated as the first woman governor of the state, she won re-election in 1932 for a nonconsecutive second term. The county and state supported founding Temple Junior College in 1926; the entry of the United States in World War II stimulated war spending across the country. In 1942, Fort Hood was opened as a military training base.
It drew recruits from across the country. The postwar period was one of suburbanization in many areas. In 1956, the Killeen school board voted to integrate the local high school; this followed the Brown v. Board of Education ruling by the US Supreme Court that racial segregation in public schools, supported by all the taxpayers, was unconstitutional; the state founded Central Texas College in 1965 in Killeen. Since the late 20th century, new retail development has taken the form of large malls. In 1976, Temple Mall opened. By 1980, Killeen had become the largest city in Bell County; the next year, the Killeen Mall opened. In another type of development, in 1987, the Bell County Expo Center opened. Since the late 20th century, the county has been the site of several mass shootings and unusual incidents of gun violence. On October 16, 1991, in what was called the Luby's shooting, disaffected employee George Jo Hennard, Jr. killed 23 people, wounded 20 others, before killing himself. It was the largest mass murder by firearm in the United States to that time.
In 1995, Governor George W. Bush signed a new law easing restrictions on carrying handguns. Texas overrode a 125-year-old ban on carrying weapons, signed and enacted by Governor E. J. Davis. On November 5 in the 2009 Fort Hood shooting, Army Major Nidal Malik Hasan killed 13 people, wounded 30, he was paralyzed in return fire. He had been described as mentally unstable. On April 2 in the 2014 Fort Hood shooting, Army Specialist Ivan Lopez killed three people and wounded 16. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,088 square miles, of which 1,051 square miles are land and 37 square miles are covered by water. McLennan County Falls County Milam County Williamson County Burnet County Lampasas County Coryell County As of the census of 2010, 310,235 people, 114,035 households, 80,449 families resided in the county; the population density was 295.2 people per square mile. The 125,470 housing units averaged 88 per squ
The Tonkawa are a Native American tribe indigenous to present-day Texas. They once spoke the now-extinct Tonkawa language, a language isolate. Today, many descendants are enrolled in the federally recognized Tonkawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. In the 16th century, the Tonkawa tribe had around 1,879 members with their numbers diminishing to around 1,600 by the late 17th century due to fatalities from new infectious diseases and conflict with other tribes, most notably the Apache. By 1921, only 34 tribal members remained, their numbers have since recovered to close to 700 in the early 21st century. Most live in Oklahoma; the Tonkawa's autonym is Tickanwa•tic. The name Tonkawa is derived from the Waco tribal word, meaning "they all stay together"; the Tonkawa tribe operates a number of businesses which have an annual economic impact of over $10,860,657. Along with several smoke shops, the tribe runs 3 different casinos: Tonkawa Indian Casino and Tonkawa Gasino located in Tonkawa and the Native Lights Casino in Newkirk, Oklahoma.
The annual Tonkawa Powwow is held on the last weekend in June to commemorate the end of the tribe's own Trail of Tears when the tribe was forcefully removed and relocated from its traditional lands to present-day Oklahoma. Scholars once thought. Recent research, has shown that the tribe inhabited northwestern Oklahoma in 1601. By 1700, the stronger and more aggressive Apache had pushed the Tonkawa south to the Red River which forms the border between current-day Oklahoma and Texas. In the 1740s, some Tonkawa were involved with the Yojuanes and others as settlers in the San Gabriel Missions of Texas along the San Gabriel River. In 1758, the Tonkawa along with allied Bidais, Wichitas and Yojuanes went to attack the Lipan Apache in the vicinity of Mission Santa Cruz de San Sabá, which they destroyed; the tribe continued their southern migration into Texas and northern Mexico, where they allied with the Lipan Apache. In 1824, the Tonkawa entered into a treaty with Stephen F. Austin to protect Anglo-American immigrants against the Comanche.
At the time, Austin was an agent recruiting immigrants to settle in the Mexican state of Coahuila y Texas. In 1840 at the Battle of Plum Creek and again in 1858 at the Battle of Little Robe Creek, the Tonkawa fought alongside the Texas Rangers against the Comanche; the Tonkawas visited the capital city of Austin during the days of the Republic of Texas and during early statehood. In 1859, the United States escorted the Tonkawa and a number of other Texas Indian tribes to a new home at the Wichita Agency in Indian Territory, placed them under the protection of nearby Fort Cobb; when the American Civil War started, the troops at the fort received orders to march to Fort Leavenworth, leaving the Indians at the Wichita Agency unprotected. In response to years of animosity, a number of pro-Union tribes, including the Delawares and Penateka Comanches, attacked the Tonkawas as they tried to escape; the fight, known as the Tonkawa Massacre killed nearly half of the remaining Tonkawas, leaving them with little more than 100 people.
The tribe returned to Texas where they remained for the rest of the Civil War. In October, 1884, the United States removed them, once again, to the new Oakland Agency in northern Indian Territory, where they remain to this day; this journey involved going to Cisco, where they boarded a railroad train that took them to Stroud in Indian Territory, where they spent the winter at the Sac and Fox Agency. The Tonkawas travelled 100 miles to the Ponca Agency, arrived at nearby Fort Oakland on June 30, 1885. On October 21, 1891, the tribe signed an agreement with the Cherokee Commission to accept individual allotments of land; the Tonkawa Tribe of Oklahoma incorporated in 1938. The Tonkawa were made up of various groups, many of which are no longer known by name; these groups are counted as Tonkawa: Eurycea tonkawae Jeffrey D. Carlisle: Tonkawa Indians from the Handbook of Texas Online
Stillhouse Hollow Lake
Stillhouse Hollow Lake is a U. S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir on the Lampasas River in the Brazos River basin, 5 miles southwest of Belton, United States. Stillhouse Hollow Dam and the reservoir are both managed by the Fort Worth District of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the reservoir was impounded in 1968, serves to provide flood control for the communities downstream. The lake functions as a water supply for several of the surrounding communities. Stillhouse Hollow Lake is a popular recreational destination. Stillhouse Hollow Lake is commonly known as Stillhouse Hollow Reservoir. Due to the extraordinary drought condition in Central Texas, Stillhouse Hollow experienced the lowest recorded lake level in 2011 exceeding its prior minimum of 610 ft set in 1989. At the close of 2011, the level of the lake stood at just over 605 ft. Stillhouse Hollow Lake has been stocked with species of fish intended to improve the utility of the reservoir for recreational fishing. Fish present in Stillhouse Hollow Lake include largemouth bass, smallmouth bass, white bass and crappie.
In addition to maintaining the dam that creates the reservoir, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers maintains recreational facilities at the lake. Dana Peak Park and Union Grove Park are both developed US Army Corps of Engineers parks open to the public. Boating and fishing are popular. Official Stillhouse Hollow Lake web site Stillhouse Hollow Lake - Texas Parks & Wildlife Stillhouse Hollow Lake from the Handbook of Texas Online
Waco is a city in central Texas and is the county seat of McLennan County, United States. It is situated along I-35, halfway between Dallas and Austin; the city had a 2010 population of 124,805. The 2017 US Census population estimate is 136,436 The Waco Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of McLennan and Falls Counties, which had a 2010 population of 234,906. Falls County was added to the Waco MSA in 2013; the 2017 US Census population estimate for the Waco MSA is 268,696. Indigenous peoples occupied areas along the river for thousands of years. In historic times, the area of present-day Waco was occupied by the Wichita Indian tribe known as the "Waco". In 1824, Thomas M. Duke was sent to explore the area after the Waco people tried to defend themselves and their lands from settlers, his report to Stephen F. Austin, described the Waco village: This town is situated on the West Bank of the River, they have a spring as cold as ice itself. All we want is some Sugar to have Ice Toddy, they have about 400 acres planted in corn, beans and melons and that tended in good order.
I think. After further violence due to settler incursion, Austin halted an attempt to destroy their village in retaliation. In 1825, he made a treaty with them; the Waco were pushed out of the region, settling north near present-day Fort Worth. In 1872, they were forced onto a reservation in Oklahoma with other Wichita tribes. In 1902, the Waco became official US citizens. Neil McLennan settled in an area near the South Bosque River in 1838. Jacob De Cordova bought McLennan's property and hired a former Texas Ranger and surveyor named George B. Erath to inspect the area. In 1849, Erath designed the first block of the city. Property owners wanted to name the city Lamartine, but Erath convinced them to name the area Waco Village, after the Indians who had lived there. In March 1849, Shapley Ross built the first house in Waco, a double-log cabin, on a bluff overlooking the springs, his daughter Kate was the first settler child to be born in Waco. In 1866, Waco's leading citizens embarked on an ambitious project to build the first bridge to span the wide Brazos River.
They formed the Waco Bridge Company to build the 475-foot brick Waco Suspension Bridge, completed in 1870. The company commissioned a firm owned by John Augustus Roebling in Trenton, New Jersey, to supply the cables and steelwork for the bridge, contracted with Mr. Thomas M. Griffith, a civil engineer based in New York, for the supervisory engineering work on the bridge; the economic effects of the Waco bridge were large. The cowboys and cattle-herds following the Chisholm Trail north, crossed the Brazos River at Waco; some chose to pay the Suspension Bridge toll. The population of Waco grew as immigrants now had a safe crossing for their horse-drawn carriages and wagons. Since 1971, the bridge has been open only to pedestrian traffic and is in the National Register of Historic Places. In the late 19th century, a red-light district called the "Reservation" grew up in Waco, prostitution was regulated by the city; the Reservation was suppressed in the early 20th century. In 1885, the soft drink Dr Pepper was invented in Waco at Morrison's Old Corner Drug Store.
In 1845, Baylor University was founded in Texas. It merged with Waco University, becoming an integral part of the city; the university's Strecker Museum was the oldest continuously operating museum in the state until it closed in 2003, the collections were moved to the new Mayborn Museum Complex. In 1873, AddRan College was founded by brothers Randolph Clark in Fort Worth; the school moved to Waco in 1895, changing its name to Add-Ran Christian University and taking up residence in the empty buildings of Waco Female College. Add-Ran changed its name to Texas Christian University in 1902 and left Waco after the school's main building burned down in 1910. TCU was offered $200,000 by the city of Fort Worth to relocate there. In the 1890s, William Cowper Brann published the successful Iconoclast newspaper in Waco. One of his targets was Baylor University. Brann revealed that Baylor officials had been importing South American children recruited by missionaries and making house-servants out of them. Brann was shot in the back by a Baylor supporter.
Brann wheeled, drew his pistol, killed Davis. Brann was helped home by his friends, died there of his wounds. In 1894, the first Cotton Palace fair and exhibition center was built to reflect the dominant contribution of the agricultural cotton industry in the region. Since the end of the Civil War, cotton had been cultivated in the Brazos and Bosque valleys, Waco had become known nationwide as a top producer. Over the next 23 years, the annual exposition would welcome over eight million attendees; the opulent building which housed the month-long exhibition was destroyed by fire and rebuilt in 1910. In 1931, the exposition fell prey to the Great Depression, the building was torn down. However, the annual Cotton Palace Pageant continues, hosted in late April in conjunction with the Brazos River Festival. On September 15, 1896, "The Crash" took place about 15 miles north of Waco. "The Crash at Crush" was a publicity stunt done by the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad company, featuring two locomotives intentionally set to a head-on collision.
Meant to be a family fun event with food and entertainment, the Crash turned deadly when both boilers exploded simul
Temple is a city in Bell County, United States. As of 2016, the city has a population of 73,600 according to a US census estimate. Located near the county seat of Belton, Temple lies in the region referred to as Central Texas and is a principal city in the Killeen–Temple–Fort Hood Metropolitan Statistical Area, which as of 2015 had a population of 450,051. Located off Interstate 35, Temple is 34 miles south of Waco. Temple has developed as a small city with a number of arts and retail amenities not associated with a smaller community; the primary economic drivers are the extensive medical community and goods distribution based on its central location between the Dallas-Fort Worth, San Antonio, Houston metropolitan areas, proximity to larger neighbors Austin and Waco. Temple was founded as a railroad town in 1881 by the Gulf and Santa Fe Railroad, it was incorporated in 1882. The town was named after Bernard Moore Temple. Temple was a civil engineer and former surveyor with the Gulf and Santa Fe Railway Company.
In 1882, the Missouri–Kansas–Texas Railroad built through the town, soon after, the Santa Fe railroad made Temple a division point. In its early years, Temple was a town of shacks and tents with a large number of saloons and tough characters found in the early West. Locally, it was nicknamed "Tanglefoot", because some residents found that the combination of muddy streets and liquor made walking through the town challenging. After the town was incorporated in 1882, two private schools were founded in the city. In 1893, the annual Temple Stag Party began, growing out of a private Thanksgiving celebration attended by the town's leading men, it was held until 1923. The Temple Railroad and Heritage Museum, on the second floor of the Santa Fe Railroad station at 315 West Avenue B, commemorates the significance of railroads for the city. Temple is located northeast of the center of Bell County at 31°6′30″N 97°23′21″W, it is the second-largest city in Bell County. It is bordered on the opposite side of the Leon River, by Belton, the county seat.
Temple is situated within a short drive of most of the major cities of Texas: 124 mi north to Fort Worth, 130 mi north-northeast to Dallas, 65 mi southwest to Austin, 147 mi southwest to San Antonio, 168 mi southeast to Houston. The city is located right on Interstate 35 running alongside the Balcones Fault with mixed geography. Towards the east lies the Blackland Prairie region, towards the west, the terrain rises with low, limestone-layered hills at the northeastern tip of the Texas Hill Country. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 74.9 square miles, of which, 70.1 square miles are land and 4.8 square miles are covered by water. As of the 2010 census, 66,102 people, 23,359 households, 15,878 families resided in the city; the population density was 834.2 people per square mile. The 28,005 housing units averaged 359.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.1% White, 23.7% Hispanic or Latino, 16.9% African American, 0.6% Native American, 2.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.3% from two or more races.
Of the 23,359 households, 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 14.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.0% were not families. About 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals, 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.29. In the city, the population was distributed as 24.1% under the age of 18, 9.2% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $47,240 and for a family was $42,795. Males had a median income of $30,858 versus $22,113 for females; the per capita income for the city was $25,740. About 10.8% of families and 12.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.0% of those under age 18 and 9.8% of those age 65 or over.
Temple has a homeless population of 1.9% on average. Assistance to the homeless is provided by the Salvation Army. Over 100 years ago, the local economy began with the regional Santa Fe Railroad hospital. Temple now thrives in a complex economy, with both goods distribution and its reputation as a regional medical center leading the way. Baylor Scott & White Health is the largest employer in the area with about 12,000 employees, most located at Baylor Scott & White Medical Center – Temple. Temple is home to many regional distribution centers and is headquarters to two large, multinational companies, Wilsonart International and McLane Company, as well as parent McLane Group. In addition to some manufacturing a developing customer service/ call center industry exists. Temple is home to the Temple Bottling Company, which produces Dr Pepper. Temple is within 30 miles of Fort Hood, military personnel contribute a portion of the city's economy. Temple is served by the Temple Independent School District.
The district has one high school, three middle schools, nine elementary schools, three supplemental learning programs. Students within the local s