Tula Oblast is a federal subject of Russia. It is geographically in the European Russia region of the country and is part of the Central Federal District, covering an area of 25,700 square kilometers and a population of 1,553,925. Tula is the capital of Tula Oblast. Tula Oblast borders Moscow Oblast in the north, Ryazan Oblast in the east, Lipetsk Oblast in the southeast, Oryol Oblast in the southwest, Kaluga Oblast in the west. Tula Oblast is one of the most developed and urbanized territories in Russia, the majority of the territory forms the Tula-Novomoskovsk Agglomeration, an urban area with a population of over 1 million; the Tula Oblast area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, as shown by discoveries of burial mounds and old settlements. By the Eighth Century, these lands were occupied by the Vyatichi, an East Slavic tribe who cultivated the land and worked at crafts, confirmed by records in property registers which mention an "ancient settlement" located at the confluence of the Upa River and Tulitsa River.
The first mention of the city of Tula in 1146 is found in the Nikon Chronicle, in reference to the campaign of Prince Svyatoslav Olgovich of Chernigov. At the time the lands belonged to the Ryazan Principality, Prince Sviatoslav passed through a number of settlements, including Tula, while heading for Ryazan. Tula Oblast is located in Russia's Central Federal District and borders Moscow, Lipetsk and Kaluga Oblasts. Tula Oblast streams. Major rivers include: Don River Oka River Upa River The oblast is rich in iron ore, clay and deposits of lignite; the lignite deposit is part of the Moscow coal basin. Tula Oblast has a moderate continental climate, with cold winters. Average January temperature is − 9 °C in south. Average July temperature is about +19 °C to +20 °C. Annual precipitation is 470 millimetres in 575 millimetres in northwest. During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Tula CPSU Committee, the chairman of the oblast Soviet, the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee.
Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, the head of the Oblast administration, the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament. The Charter of Tula Oblast is the fundamental law of the region; the Tula Oblast Duma is the province's standing legislative body. The Oblast Duma exercises its authority by passing laws and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it; the highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor, the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia. Population: 1,553,925 . Ethnic composition: Russians - 95.3% Ukrainians - 1% Armenians - 0.6% Tatars - 0.5% Azeris - 0.4% Romani people - 0.3% Belarusians - 0.2% Germans - 0.2% Others - 1.5% 19,778 people were registered from administrative databases, could not declare an ethnicity.
It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group. 2002 Census population: Urban: 1,366,818 Rural: 308,940 Males: 755,057 Females: 920,701 Females per 1000 Males: 1219 Average age: 41.7 years Urban: 41.5 years Rural: 42.8 years Male: 37.8 years Female: 44.9 years2012Births: 15 499 Deaths: 27 197 Total fertility rate:2009 - 1.31 | 2010 - 1.31 | 2011 - 1.32 | 2012 - 1.43 | 2013 - 1.42 | 2014 - 1.47 | 2015 - 1.57 | 2016 - 1.56 According to a 2012 survey 62% of the population of Tula Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 1% are Muslims. In addition, 19% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 13% is atheist, 3% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question. Tula Oblast is part of the Central economic region, it is a prominent industrial center with metalworking, engineering and chemical industries. Major industrial cities include Aleksin. Historical industries, such as firearm and accordion manufacturing, still play an important role in the region.
The oblast has a developed agricultural sector, which ranks 33rd in Russia in agricultural production. The sector includes farming grain, sugar beets, vegetable growing, livestock raising, dairying. Tula Oblast has as many as 32 museums. Several are located in the administrative center of the oblast, the city of Tula, notably the Tula State Arms Museum, the Tula Kremlin, the Tula Samovar Museum. Another important cultural tourist attractions is the home and country estate of Leo Tolstoy, Yasnaya Polyana, located 12 km outside of the city of Tula; the oblast has four professional theaters, a philharmonic orchestra, a circus. List of Chairmen of the Tula Oblast Duma 2005 Moscow power blackouts Tula Arms Plant Official website of the Museum-Estate of Leo Tolstoy "Yasnaya Polyana"
Oka is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Kaluga, Ryazan and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga, its length exceeds 1,500 kilometres. The Russian capital Moscow sits on one of the Oka's tributaries—the Moskva River; the Oka river is the homeland of the Eastern Slavic Vyatichi tribe. By 5th century the land around the Oka river was inhabited by different Slavic tribes; the Baltic tribe of Galindians lived in the western part of the Oka basin. Turkic tribes inhabited the Oka area. There is no common opinion. From the Mongol conquest until about 1633, the Oka was the last line of defense against steppe raiders; the river gave its name to the Upper Oka Principalities, situated upstream from Tarusa. In 1221 Grand Duke Yuri II of Vladimir founded Nizhny Novgorod to become one of the largest Russian cities, to protect the Oka's confluence with the Volga; the Qasim Khanate, a Muslim polity, occupied the middle reaches of the Oka in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Before the construction of the railways in the mid-19th century and the building of the Moscow Canal in the 1930s, the Oka, along with its tributary Moskva, served as an important transportation route connecting Moscow with the Volga River. Due to the Oka's and Moskva's meandering courses, travel was not fast: for example, it took Cornelis de Bruijn around 10 days to sail from Moscow down these two rivers to Nizhny Novgorod in 1703. Traveling upstream may have been slower, as the boats had to be pulled by burlaks; the banks of the river are dotted with historical and cultural sites, including the medieval monasteries of Murom, the mosques and minarets of Kasimov, the fortified kremlins of Kolomna and Serpukhov, the memorial houses of Vasily Polenov and Sergey Yesenin, the excavated ruins of Old Ryazan and the Oka Shukhov Tower. The Prioksko-Terrasny Biosphere Reserve lies along the left bank of the river opposite the town of Pushchino and is known for its wisent breeding nursery. Oryol Ugra Zhizdra Upa Protva Nara Moskva Pra Osyotr Pronya Para Moksha Tyosha Klyazma Besputa Oryol Belyov Chekalin Kaluga Aleksin Tarusa Serpukhov Stupino Kashira Protvino Pushchino Kolomna Ryazan Kasimov Murom Pavlovo Navashino Gorbatov Dzerzhinsk Nizhny Novgorod The River appears as the title and main theme in a popular, nostalgia filled song of the Polish 1st Tadeusz Kościuszko Infantry Division, formed nearby in 1943.
The unit fought all the way to Berlin alongside the Red Army. It was written by Leon Pasternak. Oka at GEOnet Names Server Media related to Oka River at Wikimedia Commons
Principality of Chernigov
The Principality of Chernigov was one of the largest states within Kievan Rus'. For a time the principality was the second most important after Kiev. Most of the Principality of Chernigov was located on the left bank of the river Dnieper, within the basins of the Desna and Seim rivers; the principality was populated by Slavic tribes of Siverians and by the Dnieper Polans. The territory of the principality extended to the lands of Radimichs and the Vyatichs and Drehovichs; the capital of the principality was the city of Chernihiv. Other important cities were Novhorod-Siversky, Bryansk, Kursk, Hlukhiv, Homel, Bilhorod and others. Ownership and influence of the Chernigov Principality reached far to the North and to the South-East. According to the Primary Chronicle, before the 11th century the principality was ruled by local tribal elders and voivodes from Kiev who were appointed by the Grand Prince to collect tribute from the local population, manage judicial trials, defend the land from external enemies.
In the years 1024–1036 the principality of Chernigov was passed under the administration of son of the Vladimir the Great, Mstislav of Chernigov, who came there from Tmutorokan. Together with Yaroslav the Wise, Mstislav ruled the Kievan Rus' establishing Chernigov as one of the most important administration centers in Rus'. Upon the death of Mstislav, Chernigov was incorporated into the realm of Kiev. After Yaroslav the Wise the principality of Chernigov was passed to one of his sons, Grand Prince Sviatoslav, who initiated the Chernigov branch of the Rurikids. During the civil war of the Yaroslavichi, Chernigov was contested between sons of Svyatoslav and Vsevolod. By the decision of the Liubech Congress in 1097, the sons of Sviatoslav, Oleg and their descendants, secured the principality. After that the principality obtained a certain degree of autonomy and was secured after the Oleg's descendants; the Principality was split into three main apanage principalities: Chernigov, Novgorod-Seversk, Murom-Ryazan, while Tmutarakan, due to its remoteness became contested and was overtaken.
Murom and the Ryazan principality drifted away from the influence of Chernigov and after some time was contested by the Principality of Vladimir. Nonetheless the influence of Chernigov princes remained large and they retained the title of Kiev Grand Prince for some time. Chernigov was one of the largest economic and cultural centers of Kievan Rus'; the counties of Chernigov, according to the book "Lands of Chernihiv-Siveria", published in Warsaw in 1936 by Polish historian from Russia Stefan Maria Kuchinsky: Oster Chernihiv Liubech Rechytsia Putyvl Bilhorod Rylsk Novhorod-Siversky Starodub Homel Propoisk Chechersk Mglin Briansk Trubetsk Karachev Novosil Yelets Mezetsk Prince of Chernigov for list of rulers Upper Oka Principalities, counties along the Oka River Severia
Mongol invasion of Kievan Rus'
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Moscow and Kiev. The campaign was heralded by the Battle of the Kalka River in May 1223, which resulted in a Mongol victory over the forces of several Rus' principalities; the Mongols retreated. A full-scale invasion of Rus' by Batu Khan followed, from 1237 to 1242; the invasion was ended by the Mongol succession process upon the death of Ögedei Khan. All Rus' principalities were forced to submit to Mongol rule and became part of the Golden Horde empire, some of which lasted until 1480; the invasion, facilitated by the beginning of the breakup of Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, had incalculable ramifications for the history of Eastern Europe, including the division of the East Slavic people into three separate nations: modern-day Russia and Belarus, the rise of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. As it was undergoing fragmentation, Kievan Rus' faced the unexpected eruption of an irresistible foreign foe coming from the mysterious regions of the Far East.
"For our sins", writes the Rus' chronicler of the time, "unknown nations arrived. No one knew their whence they came, or what religion they practiced; that is known only to God, to wise men learned in books". The princes of Rus' first heard of the coming Mongol warriors from the nomadic Cumans. Known for pillaging settlers on the frontier, the nomads now preferred peaceful relations, warning their neighbors: "These terrible strangers have taken our country, tomorrow they will take yours if you do not come and help us". In response to this call, Mstislav the Bold and Mstislav Romanovich the Old joined forces and set out eastward to meet the foe, only to be routed on April 1, 1223, at the Battle of the Kalka River. Although this defeat left the Rus' principalities at the mercy of invaders, the Mongol forces retreated and did not reappear for thirteen years, during which time the princes of Rus' went on quarrelling and fighting as before, until they were startled by a new and much more formidable invading force.
In the Secret History of the Mongols, the only reference to this early battle is: "Then he sent Dorbei the Fierce off against the city of Merv, on to conquer the people between Iraq and the Indus. He sent Subetei the Brave off to war in the North where he defeated eleven kingdoms and tribes, crossing the Volga and Ural Rivers going to war with Kiev." The vast Mongol army of around 25,000 mounted archers, commanded by Batu Khan and Subutai, crossed the Volga River and invaded Volga Bulgaria in late 1236. It took them only a month to extinguish the resistance of the weak Volga Bulgarians, the Cumans-Kipchaks and the Alani. In November 1237, Batu Khan sent his envoys to the court of Yuri II of Vladimir and demanded his submission. A month the hordes besieged Ryazan. After six days of bloody battle, the city was annihilated and inhabitants slaughtered. Alarmed by the news, Yuri II sent his sons to detain the invaders, but they were defeated and ran for their lives. Having burnt down Kolomna and Moscow, the horde laid siege to Vladimir on February 4, 1238.
Three days the capital of Vladimir-Suzdal was taken and burnt to the ground. The royal family perished in the fire. Crossing the Volga, he mustered a new army, encircled and annihilated by the Mongols in the Battle of the Sit River on March 4. Thereupon Batu Khan divided his army into smaller units, which ransacked fourteen cities of modern-day Russia: Rostov, Yaroslavl, Kashin, Gorodets, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yuriev-Polsky, Volokolamsk and Torzhok. Chinese siege engines were used by the Mongols under Tului to raze the walls of Russian cities; the most difficult to take was the small town of Kozelsk, whose boy-prince Vasily, son of Titus, inhabitants resisted the Mongols for seven weeks, killing 4,000. As the story goes, at the news of the Mongol approach, the whole town of Kitezh with all its inhabitants was submerged into a lake, where, as legend has it, it may be seen to this day; the only major cities to escape destruction were Pskov. The Mongols planned to advance on Novgorod, but the principality was spared the fate of its brethren by the wise decision to preemptively surrender.
In mid-1238, Batu Khan devastated the pacified Mordovia. In the winter of 1239, he sacked Pereyaslav. After many days of siege, the horde stormed Kiev in December 1240. Despite the resistance of Danylo of Halych, Batu Khan managed to take two of his principal cities and Volodymyr-Volynskyi; the Mongols resolved to "reach the ultimate sea", where they could proceed no further, invaded Hungary and Poland. Batu Khan captured Pest, on Christmas Day 1241, Esztergom; this time the invaders came to stay, they built for themselves a capital, called Sarai, on the lower Volga. Here the commander of the Golden Horde, as the western section of the Mongol empire was called, fixed his golden headquarters and represented his sovereign the grand khan who lived with the Great Horde in the Orkhon Valley. Here they held parts of Rus' in subjection for nearly three centuries. All of the Russian states, including Novgorod, Smolensk and Pskov, submitted to the Tatar-Mongol rule; the term by which this subjection is designated, the Mongol or Tatar "yoke", suggests terrible oppression, but in reality these nomadic invaders from Mongolia were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters.
In the first place, they never settled in the country, they had little direct dealing with the inhabitants. In accord
Kimovsky District is an administrative district, one of the twenty-three in Tula Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kimovsky Municipal District, it is located in the east of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,112 square kilometers, its administrative center is the town of Kimovsk. Population: 42,853; the population of Kimovsk accounts for 66.5% of the district's total population. Kimovsky District is located in the east of Tula Oblast, it is on hilly terrain in the central Russian Plain. The upper reaches of the Don River run along the Kimovsky's western border; the district is 77 km east of the city of Tula, about 200 km south of Moscow. The elevation ranges from 100 meters in the river valleys to 234 meters in the heights; the area is in the transition zone between the steppe vegetation and climate to the south, the forest-steppe vegetation to the north. The area measures 45 km, 20 km; the administrative center is the town of Kimovsk. The district is bordered on the north by Novomoskovsky District, on the east by Mikhaylovsky District and Skopinsky District, on the south by Kurkinsky District and Uzlovsky District, on the west by Bogoroditsky District.
Тульская областная Дума. Закон №954-ЗТО от 27 декабря 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области», в ред. Закона №2131-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области" и Закон Тульской области "Об установлении границ административно-территориальных единиц – районов в городе Туле"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Тульской областной Думы", №11–12, часть 4, ноябрь–декабрь 2007 г... Тульская областная Дума. Закон №547-ЗТО от 11 марта 2005 г. «О переименовании муниципального образования — город Кимовск и Кимовский район Тульской области, установлении границ, наделении статусом и определении административных центров муниципальных образований на территории Кимовского района Тульской области», в ред. Закона №1898-ЗТО от 1 апреля 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований на территории Кимовского района Тульской области и о внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "О переименовании муниципального образования — город Кимовск и Кимовский район Тульской области, установлении границ, наделении статусом и определении административных центров муниципальных образований на территории Кимовского района Тульской области"».
Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тульские известия", №66–69, 22 марта 2005 г.. Kimovsky District on Google Maps Kimovsky District on OpenStreetMap
Kamensky District, Tula Oblast
Kamensky District is an administrative district, one of the twenty-three in Tula Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Kamensky Municipal District, it is located in the south of the oblast. The area of the district is 795 square kilometers, its administrative center is the rural locality of Arkhangelskoye. Population: 9,548; the population of Arkhangelskoye accounts for 25.0% of the district's total population. Тульская областная Дума. Закон №954-ЗТО от 27 декабря 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области», в ред. Закона №2131-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области" и Закон Тульской области "Об установлении границ административно-территориальных единиц – районов в городе Туле"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Тульской областной Думы", №11–12, часть 4, ноябрь–декабрь 2007 г... Тульская областная Дума.
Закон №535-ЗТО от 3 марта 2005 г. «О переименовании муниципального образования "Каменский район Тульской области", установлении границ, наделении статусом и определении административных центров муниципальных образований на территории Каменского района Тульской области», в ред. Закона №1896-ЗТО от 1 апреля 2013 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований на территории Каменского района Тульской области и о внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "О переименовании муниципального образования "Каменский район Тульской области", установлении границ, наделении статусом и определении административных центров муниципальных образований на территории Каменского района Тульской области"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тульские известия", №55–58, 15 марта 2005 г
Aleksinsky District is an administrative district, one of the twenty-three in Tula Oblast, Russia. It is located in the northwest of the oblast; the area of the district is 982.5 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the town of Aleksin. Population: 74,326; the population of Aleksin accounts for 83.1% of the district's total population. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Aleksinsky District is one of the twenty-three in the oblast; the town of Aleksin serves as its administrative center. As a municipal division, the territory of the district is split between two municipal formations—Aleksin Urban Okrug, to which the town of Aleksin and 154 of the administrative district's rural localities belong, Novogurovsky Urban Okrug, which covers the rest of the administrative district's territory, including the work settlement of Novogurovsky. Тульская областная Дума. Закон №954-ЗТО от 27 декабря 2007 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области», в ред. Закона №2131-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г.
«О внесении изменений в Закон Тульской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тульской области" и Закон Тульской области "Об установлении границ административно-территориальных единиц – районов в городе Туле"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вестник Тульской областной Думы", №11–12, часть 4, ноябрь–декабрь 2007 г... Тульская областная Дума. Закон №2140-ЗТО от 11 июня 2014 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Алексинского района Тульской области», в ред. Закона №2182-ЗТО от 30 сентября 2014 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 5 Закона Тульской области "О преобразовании муниципальных образований, расположенных на территории Алексинского района Тульской области"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Сборник правовых актов Тульской области и иной официальной информации", 11 июня 2014 г.. Тульская областная Дума. Закон №554-ЗТО от 11 марта 2005 г.
«О переименовании муниципального образования "Посёлок Новогуровский" Алексинского района Тульской области, установлении границы муниципального образования рабочий посёлок Новогуровский и наделении его статусом городского округа». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тульские известия", №71–74, 24 марта 2005 г.. Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 71», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г