African Hebrew Israelites of Jerusalem
The African Hebrew Israelite Nation of Jerusalem is a spiritual group now based in Dimona, whose members believe they are descended from the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The community now numbers around 5,000, their immigrant ancestors were African Americans, many from Chicago, who migrated to Israel in the late 1960s. Some of them consider themselves to be Jewish but when they began to emigrate to Israel, the religious officials and the state did not and they were asked to convert. In 2003, the remainder of the existing community were granted official Israeli permanent residency and were entitled to acquire Israeli citizenship by naturalization, which does not imply any Jewish status. Since 2004, members of the community have served in the Israel Defense Forces; the group was founded in Chicago by a former steel worker named Ben Carter. In his early twenties Carter was given the name Ben Ammi by Rabbi Reuben of the Chicago Congregation of Ethiopian Hebrews. Ben Ammi was working in an airline factory when he was exposed to the Black Hebrew movement and its philosophy.
According to Ben Ammi, in 1966, at the age of 27, he had a "vision" in which the Archangel Gabriel called him to take his people, African Americans, back to the Holy Land of Israel. Ammi and his followers draw on a long tradition in black American culture which holds that black Americans are the descendants of the Ancient Israelites, they are influenced by the teachings of the Jamaican proponent of Black nationalism, Marcus Garvey, the black civil rights milieu in 1960s America, including figures such as the Black Panthers and Malcolm X. From these they have incorporated elements of black separatism as well as the doctrine which advocates the repatriation of the African Diaspora to its ancestral lands in a "return to Africa", of which they consider Israel to be a part. To them, Israel is located in Northeast Africa instead of West Asia; the inspiration to move to Israel was born from several components. One was the hardship black community members faced in America and within American culture in Chicago in the 1960s, at the height of the Civil rights movement.
Another component was the community’s will to form a confident and positive African identity, as opposed to the damaging identity the group felt they carried in America. The last component was this spout of religious and spiritual connection to a long-standing culture and history and promised land. Ben Ammi and 350 of his followers first settled in Liberia in 1967. There, they built a community adhering to “laws of righteousness”. Prince Rakhamim, a community leader at the time, described what living in Liberia did for the community: We chose to stay there about three and a half years in order to get rid of the foolishness of America before making way to the land of Israel. To make a person born again. To die from the hell we came out of, to get rid of it—to learn to get rid of the hate... to get rid of our bitterness... Liberia was always conceived as the place; those of us who wanted to do right came home to Israel. It is unclear whether Israel was always the end-goal for the community, or whether Ben Ammi received another vision in 1969, when the community was in Libera, telling him to take the community to their real promised land: Israel.
The African Hebrew Israelite community holds that this ambiguity does not lessen their motivations for a home in Israel. The group aimed to immigrate to Israel under the Israeli Law of Return, which states that all Jews who emigrate to Israel will be granted citizenship. However, in order to be considered Jewish under the law, a person must have at least one Jewish parent or grandparent; as Ben Ammi and his followers did not fit this requirement, they did not qualify for citizenship. This deterrence did not stop them from moving to Israel. In 1969, the group began moving to Israel using temporary visas. Most Black Hebrews have entered Israel as tourists with these temporary visas, have stayed past the visas’ time allowance; the African Hebrew Israelites asserted that they were the only rightful inheritors of the land of Israel. They refused to convert to Judaism and asserted that most Israeli Jews were not descendants of the ancient Israelites. By the late 1980s, the group tempered their beliefs.
They came to see Israel as a nation of many cultures and religions. Members of the group continued to settle in the desert community of Dimona. For two decades, their population continued to grow through natural increase and illegal immigration. Throughout the 1970s tensions between the group and the government grew as the group faced low employment, inadequate housing, attempted deportations, while the government considered them illegal aliens. Ben Ammi accused the government of racism and usurping the holy land, while claiming that "The greatest conspiracy conceived in the minds of men was the creation of a National Homeland for Jewish People."In 1973, the International League for the Rights of Man rejected the group's claims, stating that the group made little attempt to comply with the citizenship laws of Israel. In 1981, a six-person Black Americans to Support Israel Committee delegation assessed all aspects of the community's treatment and concluded that racism was not the cause of its problems.
Arad is a city in the Southern District of Israel. It is located on the border of the Negev and Judean Deserts, 25 kilometres west of the Dead Sea and 45 kilometres east of Beersheba; the city is home to a diverse population of 25,530, including Ashkenazi and Sephardi Jews, both secular and religious and Black Hebrews, as well as new immigrants. After attempts to settle the area in the 1920s, Arad was founded in November 1962 as an Israeli development town, the first planned city in Israel. Arad's population grew with the Aliyah from the former Soviet Union and peaked in 2002 at 24,500 residents. Landmarks in Arad include the ruins of Tel Arad, Arad Park, a domestic airfield and Israel's first legal race circuit; the city is known for the Arad Festival. Arad is named after the Biblical Bronze Age Canaanite town located at Tel Arad, located 8 kilometers west of modern Arad; the Bible describes it as a Canaanite stronghold whose king kept the Israelites from moving from the Negev to the Judean Mountains, although Tel Arad was destroyed over 1,200 years before the arrival of the Israelites.
However, Shoshenq I's chronicles seem to mention a settlement in Tel Arad. After its destruction during the Canaanite era, the town lay abandoned for centuries before being resettled by the Israelites from the 11th century BC onward; the Israelites settled it as an unwalled piece of land cut off as an official or sacred domain was established on the upper hill. It was a garrison-town known as "The Citadel"; the citadel and sanctuary are believed to have been constructed at the time of Kings David and Solomon. Artifacts found within the sanctuary of the citadel reflect offerings of oil, wheat, etc. brought there by numerous people during the time of the Kingdom of Judah, up to Judah's fall to the Babylonians. Under the Judaean kings, the citadel was periodically refortified and rebuilt, until it was destroyed between 597 BCE and 577 BCE whilst Jerusalem was under siege by Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II. However, during the Persian, Maccabean and early Muslim eras, locals continued to transport these items to the sacred precinct of the upper hill.
Markers of these ancient Israelite rituals remain to this day, with broken pottery littering the entire site. During the Byzantine period, the location was still identified by Eusebius, the name "Arad" was preserved by the Bedouins. Ancient Arad became a Christian bishopric. Stephanus, one of its bishops, was a signatory of the synodal letter of John III of Jerusalem against Severus of Antioch in 518 and took part in the 536 synod of the three Roman provinces of Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda, Palaestina Salutaris against Anthimus I of Constantinople. No longer a residential bishopric, Arad is today listed by the Catholic Church; the first modern attempt to settle the area was made by the Yishuv, the body of Jewish residents in Mandatory Palestine, on 23 February 1921, when the British Mandate government allowed discharged soldiers from the Jewish Legion to settle in the area. Nine men and two women attempted the task, but after four months were forced to leave because water was not found in the area.
On 15 November 1960, a planning team, followed by a full-fledged committee on 29 December, was appointed by the Israeli cabinet to examine the possibility of establishing a city in the northeastern Negev desert and Arad region. An initial budget of 50,000 Israel pounds was granted for the project, headed by Aryeh Eliav. On 31 January 1961, the final location was chosen, plans were approved for roads and water connections. In March 1961, blueprints for a city of 10,000- 20,000 residents were drawn up. Yona Pitelson was planner; the plan took into account topography and climate, with residential buildings constructed with large inner courtyards that offered protection from the desert sun and wind. High density residential areas were built first in order to create an urban milieu and shorten walking distances; the oil company Nefta built a work camp in the area in July 1961, consisting of six temporary sheds, after oil was found there in commercial quantities. The town itself was established in 1962 by a group of young ex-kibbutz and ex-moshav members seeking an environment free of overcrowding, traffic and pollution.
The founding ceremony was held on 21 November, attended by then-Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion. It was one of the last development towns to be founded. According to the city website, Arad was the first pre-planned city in Israel; until 1964 Arad had about 160 families. After 1971 Arad began absorbing olim from the Soviet Union, but from English speaking countries and Latin America, its population increased from 4,000 in 1969 to 10,500 in 1974 and 12,400 in 1983. During the first half of the 1990s, Arad absorbed 6,000 immigrants from the former Soviet Union. In 1995, the city had 20,900 residents. Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin declared Arad a city on 29 June 1995. Arad is located on the western and southwestern Kidod Range, the Arad Plain, which marks the southwestern end of the Judean Desert, it is located 23 kilometers west of the southern end of the Dead Sea, is by road, 45 kilometers east of Beersheva, 111 kilometers south of Jerusalem, 138 kilometers south east of Tel Aviv, 219 kilometers north of the southern-most city of Eilat.
The city spans an area of 93,140
Beersheba Be'er Sheva, is the largest city in the Negev desert of southern Israel. Referred to as the "Capital of the Negev", it is the center of the fourth most populous metropolitan area in Israel, the eighth most populous Israeli city with a population of 207,551, the second largest city with a total area of 117,500 dunams; the Biblical period references to Beersheva refer to a site, Tel Be'er Sheva, lying some 2 and a half miles distant from the modern city, established the start of the 20th century when a permanent settlement was established by the Ottoman Turks. The city was captured by the British led Australian Light Horse during World War I. In 1947, Bir Seb'a, as it was known, was envisioned as part of the Arab state in the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine. Following the declaration of Israel's independence, the Egyptian army amassed its forces in Beersheba as a strategic and logistical base. In the Battle of Beersheba waged in October 1948, it was conquered by the Israel Defense Forces.
Beersheba has grown since Israel's independence. A large portion of the population is made up of the descendants of Sephardi Jews and Mizrahi Jews who immigrated from Arab countries after 1948, as well as smaller communities of Bene Israel and Cochin Jews from India. Second and third waves of immigration have taken place since 1990, bringing Russian-speaking Ashkenazi Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union, as well as Beta Israel immigrants from Ethiopia; the Soviet immigrants have made the game of chess a major sport in Beersheba and the city is now a developing technology center. The city is now Israel's national chess center, with more chess grandmasters per capita than any other city in the world. Beersheba is home to Ben-Gurion University of the Negev; this city serves as a center for Israel's high-tech industry. There are several etymologies for the origin of the name "Beersheba"; the oath of Abraham and Abimelech is the one stated in Genesis 21:31. Others include the seven wells dug by Isaac though four have been identified.
Be'er is the Hebrew word for well. In this case the meaning is "oath", as the ancient Hebrews believed seven to be a lucky number, the Hebrew "shvu'a" means "to seven oneself"; the Arabic toponym can be translated as "seven wells" or, as more believed, "lion's well". During Ottoman administration the city was referred as "بلدية بءرالسبع". Beersheba is dealt with in the Hebrew Bible in connection with the Patriarchs Abraham and Isaac, who both dig a well and close peace treaties with King Abimelech of Gerar at the site. Hence it receives its name twice, first after Abraham's dealings with Abimelech, again from Isaac who closes his own covenant with Abimelech of Gerar and whose servants dig a well there; the place is thus connected to two of the three Wife–sister narratives in the Book of Genesis. According to the Hebrew Bible, Beersheba was founded when Abraham and Abimelech settled their differences over a well of water and made a covenant. Abimelech's men had taken the well from Abraham after he had dug it so Abraham brought sheep and cattle to Abimelech to get the well back.
He set aside seven lambs to swear that it was he that had dug no one else. Abimelech conceded that the well belonged to Abraham and, in the Bible, Beersheba means "Well of Seven" or "Well of the Oath". Beersheba is further mentioned in following Bible passages: Isaac built an altar in Beersheba. Jacob had his dream about a stairway to heaven after leaving Beersheba.. Beersheba was the territory of the tribe of Judah; the sons of the prophet Samuel were judges in Beersheba. Saul, Israel's first king, built a fort there for his campaign against the Amalekites; the prophet Elijah took refuge in Beersheba. The prophet Amos mentions the city in regard to idolatry. Following the Babylonian conquest and subsequent enslavement of many Israelites, the town was abandoned. After the Israelite slaves returned from Babylon, they resettled the town. According to the Hebrew Bible, Beersheba was the southernmost city of the territories settled by Israelites, hence the expression "from Dan to Beersheba" to describe the whole kingdom.
Zibiah, the consort of King Ahaziah of Judah and the mother of King Jehoash of Judah, was from Beersheba. Human settlement in the area dates from the Copper Age; the inhabitants lived in caves, raising cattle. Findings unearthed at Tel Be'er Sheva, an archaeological site east of modern-day Beersheba, suggest the region has been inhabited since the 4th millennium BC; the city has been rebuilt many times over the centuries. Tel Be'er Sheva, an archaeological site containing the ruins of an ancient town believed to have been the Biblical Beersheba, lies a few kilometers east of the modern city; the town dates to the early Israelite period, around the 10th century BC. The site was chosen due to the abundance of water, as evidenced by the numerous wells in the area. According to the Bible, the wells were dug by Isaac when they arrived there; the streets were laid out in a grid, with separate areas for administrative, commercial and residential use. It is believe
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Robert "Rob" Redding, Jr. is an American artist. His practice spans a broad range of media including sound, conceptual and visual, he is a professor, media proprietor, award-winning radio talk show host, bestselling author and independent journalist. Redding is known as the founder and publisher of Redding News Review and host of a talk radio show and podcast. In 2003, he was among few blacks to be named to Talkers Magazine's "100 Most Important Radio Talk Show Hosts in America" and has received a proclamation for his work by the Atlanta City Council the same year, he made history being the only black program director in white-dominated talk radio station in 2009. His web site Redding News Review has earned three consecutive Black Web Awards, he runs the web's oldest black news aggregation outlet and first and most successful stand-alone subscriber-based web site and talk show. Redding is the son of Rev. Robert Redding Sr. a former Atlanta pastor and former president of the Fayette County's Black Voters League, the late Mary Ann Redding, an Atlanta public school teacher and a Fayette school board candidate.
He gained his artistic ability from his mother Mary -, part eastern European Jewish, black and Asian - and his abilities to communicate from his mother and father -, part black and Polynesian. And credits his oldest sister Keena for taking him to many of his early art shows and childhood teacher for her influence, his formal training is in media. He graduated from Marshall University in West Virginia with a Master's in Communication and is known for his work in sound, he began his performative media career as a hip-hop radio personality at KZWA-FM, while at McNeese State University in Lake Charles in 1994. In 1996, he accepted a full-time position as a hip-hop night personality at WIBB-FM in Macon, GA, where he was named "Tony Smoove" by his program director. Macon was the home of another Redding family member,'60s soul singer Otis Redding, he left hip-hop for talk radio and journalism, working at a series of newspapers: The Prince George's Sentinel, The Prince George's Gazette, The Prince George's Journal, The Macon Telegraph, The Washington Times.
During that same time he began his talk radio career filling in for Bernie McCain on Radio-One's WOL in Washington, D. C. in 1999. In 2001, he landed his first full-time job in talk radio doing afternoons at CBS Radio's WAOK-AM, where he started ReddingNewsReview.com. He left the station in 2003 and began syndicating his talk radio show while filling in for Ambrose I. Lane Sr. on SiriusXM 128 The Power. He inked his own weekend syndication deals with GCN and Sirius XM in 2008, while finishing his undergraduate studies at the University of Louisiana-Monroe. On August 30, 2010, he began doing a weekday show for GCN; the weekday show aired in multiple markets and at one time on Sirius XM daily from April 2012 to February 2013. The Sirius XM deal ended after nearly half a decade and more than 420 episodes on Feb. 10, 2013. Redding moved to Brussels Belgium in 2013. Living in Brussels communities of Saint-Gilles and Schaerbeek, he became first to broadcast his afternoon talk show via GCN to American audiences nightly from Europe.
Redding made talk history when he made his program the first and most successful stand-alone spoken word program available to subscribers on his subscriber-supported Web site, at the conclusion of the GCN deal on April 1, 2014. The program celebrated its 1000 episode in June 2018. Radio online said that the show has an "impressive base" of nearly half the country listening as it completed its 1000 show. Redding has used numerous conceptual elements of sound in his talk shows and inserted his performance into popular culture through music. “Not a Nonviolent Negro”On March 5, 2013, he released a performative dance album entitled "Not a Nonviolent Negro" on iTunes and Amazon.com via CD Baby. The album, which takes sound of himself and clips of his talk show and sets them to heavy dance beats, reached No. 1 on Amazon.com. The album is considered a soundtrack to his No. 1 best-selling book "Not a Nonviolent Negro: How I Survived Obama." The book and album were released on the same day. “Unleash the Whip”On Dec. 4, 2012, he released a performative dance album entitled "Unleash the Whip!" on iTunes and Amazon.com via CD Baby.
The album, which takes portions of his talk show and sets them to heavy dance beats, reached No. 2 on Amazon.com and got 3 1/2 stars from former About.com dance music critic Jimi Bruce. “Tony Smoove's Aircheck Vol. 1”Unleash the Whip! was his second album. His first album, published under DJ Tony Smoove, did not chart but was the first recording of rapper Bubba Sparxx. Redding's Web site and talk show, which are both called Redding News Review, are avant-garde creations; the Web site has been called the "vanguard of Internet news sites" by AllAccess.com. The Web site has been called "an Internet clearinghouse for African-American news," by The Atlanta Journal-Constitution; the Web site -, the first subscriber supported and oldest black news aggregation portal - stories are syndicated hourly by Google News. Its stories have been heard on NPR and the Fox News Channel, its comprehensive coverage of the black community became a resource for Fox News during the Don Imus' "nappy-headed ho's" controversy.
Its scoops have been acknowledged or linked to by BET, MSNBC, The Hill, Roll Call, The Baltimore Sun, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, The Washington Post,The Washington Times, The National Newspaper Association. Redding News Review exposed former Atlanta Mayor and United Nations Ambas
Groups claiming affiliation with Israelites
Groups claiming affiliation with Israelites claim descent from the ancient Israelites. The issue has been relevant since the establishment of the State of Israel and in the context of an individual's or group's request to immigrate to Israel under its Law of Return. In that context, claims of affiliation to the Israelites gives raise to questions of "who is a Jew?". Some of these claims have been recognised, while others are still under review and others have been rejected. There have been numerous events in Jewish history that resulted in Jews leaving the Land of Israel and being compelled to disperse throughout the world; the most significant such events recorded in the Hebrew Bible that propelled large numbers of Jewish and pre-Judaic Israelite communities out of the Land of Israel include the fall of the northern Kingdom of Israel in about the 720s BC to the Assyrian Empire and the southern Kingdom of Judah in 586 BC to the Babylonian Empire, but there have been other events and periods when Israelites left the Land, either as individuals or in groups.
These diaspora communities came into existence as a result of Jews and Israelites fleeing the land before the onslaught of invading forces, because of forced deportations, or enslavement, sometimes voluntarily. Some families or whole communities have had to move from one country to another because of persecutions, some just ceased to exist. Although some form of contact had been maintained between most of the main Jewish communities in the diaspora over the millennia, contact had been lost with some communities, which came to be regarded by the mainstream communities as lost; as a result of the isolation of some communities, the practices and observances have diverged in some respects. Several groups of people from diverse parts of the world have claimed an affiliation with or descent from the ancient Israelites; some claim such affiliation on the basis of affinity to the Jewish people, while other groups claim such affiliation independently of such affinity. It is accepted that the Samaritans are descendants of the ancient Israelites.
Israelite traders settled there. Cochin Jews called Malabar Jews, are the descendants of Israelite who settled in the South Indian port city of Cochin, they traditionally spoke Judæo-Malayalam, a form of the Malayalam tongue, native to the state of Kerala. Several rounds of immigration of the Jewish diaspora into Kerala led to a diversity among the Cochin Jews; some sources say that the earliest Jews were those who settled in the Malabar Coast during the reign of Solomon, after the Kingdom of Israel split into two. They are sometimes referred to as the "black Jews." The Paradesi Jews called "White Jews," settled coming to India from Middle Eastern and European nations such as the Netherlands and Spain, bringing with them the Ladino language. A notable settlement of Spanish and Portuguese Jews starting in the 15th century was at Goa, but this settlement disappeared. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Cochin received an influx of Jewish settlers from the Middle East, North Africa and Spain. An old but not reliable tradition says that Cochin Jews came in mass to Cranganore after the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
They had, in effect, their own principality for many centuries until a chieftainship dispute broke out between two brothers in the 15th century. The dispute led neighboring princes to dispossess them. In 1524, the Muslims, backed by the ruler of Calicut, attacked the Jews of Cranganore on the pretext that they were tampering with the pepper trade. Most Jews went under the protection of the Hindu Raja there, he granted them a site for their own town that acquired the name "Jew Town". For the Cochin Jews, the Portuguese occupied Cochin during this same period and they indulged in persecution of the Jews until the Dutch displaced them in 1660; the Dutch Protestants were tolerant, the Jews prospered. In 1795 Cochin passed into the British sphere of influence. In the 19th century, Cochin Jews lived in the towns of Cochin, Ernakulam and Parur; the Bene Israel claim a lineage to descendants of Aaron. According to Bene Israel tradition, the Bene Israel arrived in India in the first century BCE after a shipwreck stranded seven Jewish families at Navagaon near Alibag, just south of Mumbai.
The families grew and integrated with the local Maharashtrian population, adopting their language and food. They were nicknamed the śaniwar telī by the local population as they abstained from work on Saturdays, the Jewish Sabbath. Genetic analysis shows that the Bene Israel of India "cluster with neighbouring autochthonous populations in Ethiopia and western India despite a clear paternal link between the Bene Israel and the Levant." Beta Israel have a tradition of descent from the lost tribe of Dan. Their tradition states that the tribe of Dan attempted to avoid the civil war in the Kingdom of Israel between Rehoboam, son of Solomon and Jeroboam, son of Nebat, by resettling in Egypt. From there they moved southwards up the Nile into Ethiopia, the Beta Israel are descended from these Danites, they have a long history of practicing such Jewish traditions as kashrut and Passover and for this reason their Jewishness was accepted by the Chief Rabbinate of Israel and the Israeli government in 1975.
They emigrated to Israel en masse during the 1980s and 1990s, as Jews, under the Law of Return, during Israel's Operation Moses and Operation Solomon. Some who claim to be Beta Israel still live in Ethiopia, their claims were formally accepted by the Chie