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Malbork Voivodeship

The Malbork Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 1454/1466 until the partitions in 1772–1795. Together with the Pomeranian and Chełmno Voivodeships and the Prince-Bishopric of Warmia it formed the historical province of Royal Prussia, its capital was at Marienburg. After the Teutonic Knights during the 13th century had conquered the Prussian territories and incorporated them into the Order's State, the castle of Marienburg served as the seat of the Grand Masters. Following the 1410 Battle of Grunwald, the Knights once again could withstand the Polish Siege of Marienburg. However, after the uprising of the Prussian Confederation in 1454 and the outbreak of the Thirteen Years' War with the Kingdom of Poland, they had to withdraw to Königsberg and after their final defeat lost the castle and the surrounding territory in the 1466 Second Peace of Thorn. King Casimir IV Jagiellon of Poland annexed the territory and established the voivodeship of Marienburg, including the towns of Elbing and Christburg.

Since the 1569 Union of Lublin the Lands of the Polish Crown were part of the larger Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Marienburg Castle was occupied twice by troops of the Swedish Empire: during the Thirty Years' War 1626–1629 and again from 1656 to 1660 during the Second Northern War. In 1772 the voivodeship was annexed by Prussia in the First Partition of Poland and became part of the newly established Province of West Prussia the next year. Zygmunt Gloger in his monumental book Historical Geography of the Lands of Old Poland provides this description of Malbork Voivodeship: “The smallest of three voivodeships of Polish Prussia, it was divided into four counties: Sztum, Kiszpork and Malbork. Local starostas resided at Kiszpork, Sztum and other locations. Sejmiks and courts were not located at Malbork, but at Sztum, which itself was governed by the starosta of Kiszpork. At sejmiks, local nobility elected eight deputies to the Prussian Sejm, e.g. two from each county Malbork Voivodeship’s coat of arms was identical as Chelmno Voivodeship’s, with differences in color of the eagle.

The Prussian Sejm took place alternatively at Malbork and Grudziadz". Voivodeship Governor seat: MalborkVoivodes list: Ścibor Bażyński/Stibor von Baysen 15 June 1467–1480 Mikołaj Bażyński/Niklas von Baysen 23 February 1481 – 27 March 1501 Maciej Raba 21 August 1512–1546 Achacy Czema 1546 – 24 May 1564 Fabian Czema 1566–1580 Fabian Czema 1581-22 August 1605 Jerzy Kostka 1605–1611 Stanisław Działyński 1611–1615 Jan Wejher 1615–1618 Stanisław Konarski 1618–1625 Samuel Żaliński 3 November 1625 – 6 October 1629 Samuel Konarski 30 November 1629–1641 Mikołaj Wejher 11 October 1641 – 20 May 1643 Jakub Wejher 20 May 1643 – 21 February 1657 Stanisław Działyński 30 March 1657–1677 Jan Ignacy Bąkowski 1677–1679 Jan Gniński 1679 Franciszek Jan Bieliński 1681–1685 Ernest Denhoff 1685–1693 Władysław Łoś 1694 Jan Jerzy Przebendowski 17 September 1697 – 9 February 1703 Piotr Kczewski 9 February 1703 – 20 November 1722 Piotr Przebendowski 21 November 1722–1755 Jakub Działyński 27 May 1756 – 17 September 1772Regional council: StuhmThe Voivodeship was divided into four powiats: Sztum County, Kiszpork County, Elbląg County, Malbork County.

Malbork Voivodeship, description by Zygmunt Gloger Map showing borders of Malbork Voivodeship in 1752

Vampire number

In number theory, a vampire number is a composite natural number with an number of digits, that can be factored into two natural numbers each with half as many digits as the original number and not both with trailing zeroes, where the two factors contain all the digits of the original number, in any order, counting multiplicity. The first vampire number is 1260 = 21 × 60. Let N be a natural number with 2 k digits: N = n 2 k n 2 k − 1... N 1 Then N is a vampire number if and only if there exist two natural numbers A and B, each with k digits: A = a k a k − 1... a 1 B = b k b k − 1... B 1 such that A × B = N, a 1 and b 1 are not both zero, the 2 k digits of the concatenation of A and B are a permutation of the 2 k digits of N; the two numbers A and B are called the fangs of N. For example: 1260 is a vampire number, with 21 and 60 as fangs, since 21 × 60 = 1260 and the digits of the concatenation of the two factors are a permutation of the digits of the original number. However, 126000 is not, as 21 and 6000 do not have the correct number of digits, both 210 and 600 have trailing zeroes.

1023 is not, because although 1023 contains all the digits of 31 and 33, the four digits of the pair is not a permutation of the digits of the original number. Vampire numbers were first described in a 1994 post by Clifford A. Pickover to the Usenet group sci.math, the article he wrote was published in chapter 30 of his book Keys to Infinity. The vampire numbers are: 1260, 1395, 1435, 1530, 1827, 2187, 6880, 102510, 104260, 105210, 105264, 105750, 108135, 110758, 115672, 116725, 117067, 118440, 120600, 123354, 124483, 125248, 125433, 125460, 125500... There are many known sequences of infinitely many vampire numbers following a pattern, such as: 1530 = 30×51, 150300 = 300×501, 15003000 = 3000×5001... A vampire number can have multiple distinct pairs of fangs; the first of infinitely many vampire numbers with 2 pairs of fangs: 125460 = 204 × 615 = 246 × 510The first with 3 pairs of fangs: 13078260 = 1620 × 8073 = 1863 × 7020 = 2070 × 6318The first with 4 pairs of fangs: 16758243290880 = 1982736 × 8452080 = 2123856 × 7890480 = 2751840 × 6089832 = 2817360 × 5948208The first with 5 pairs of fangs: 24959017348650 = 2947050 × 8469153 = 2949705 × 8461530 = 4125870 × 6049395 = 4129587 × 6043950 = 4230765 × 5899410 Pseudovampire numbers are similar to vampire numbers, except that the fangs of an n-digit pseudovampire number need not be of length n/2 digits.

Pseudovampire numbers can have an odd number of digits, for example 126 = 6×21. More you can allow more than two fangs. In this case, vampire numbers are numbers n which can be factorized using the digits of n. For example, 1395 = 5×9×31; this sequence starts: 126, 153, 688, 1206, 1255, 1260, 1395... A prime vampire number, as defined by Carlos Rivera in 2002, is a true vampire number whose fangs are its prime factors; the first few prime vampire numbers are: 117067, 124483, 146137, 371893, 536539As of 2006 the largest known is the square 2, found by Jens K. Andersen in 2002. A double vampire number is a vampire number which has fangs that are vampire numbers, an example of such a number is 1047527295416280 = 25198740 * 41570622 = *, the lowest double vampire number. A roman numeral vampire number is roman numerals with the same character, an example of this number is II * IV = VIII. Pickover, Clifford A.. Keys to Infinity. Wiley. ISBN 0-471-19334-8 Pickover's original post describing vampire numbers Andersen, Jens K. Vampire Numbers Rivera, Carlos.

The Prime-Vampire numbers Weisstein, Eric W. "Vampire Numbers". MathWorld. Sweigart, Al. Vampire Numbers Visualized Grime, James. "Vampire numbers". Numberphile. Brady Haran

United States Post Office (St. Johnsville, New York)

US Post Office-St. Johnsville is a historic post office building located at St. Johnsville in Montgomery County, New York, United States, it was built in 1936, is one of a number of post offices in New York State designed by the Office of the Supervising Architect of the Treasury Department under Louis A. Simon, it is a one-story, symmetrical brick building on a stone watertable in the Colonial Revival style. It features a copper clad gable roof with a flat topped cupola with a weathervane; the interior features a 1940 mural by Jirayr H. Zorthian titled "Early St. Johnsville Pioneers."It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1989

Niluvu Dopidi

Niluvu Dopidi is a 1968 Indian Telugu-language comedy-drama film, produced by U. Visweswara directed by C. S. Rao, it stars N. T. Rama Rao, Devika, Jayalalita in the lead roles and music composed by K. V. Mahadevan; the film became a commercial success. Jagapathi Rayalu, the zamindar of the village Rangapuram, has two sons -- Krishna. Before dying, he entrusts their responsibility to his sisters Sheshamma. Here, the avaricious Chukkamma ploys with her distant relative Bhushanam to eliminate the heirs for the property; the boys are rescued by Chukkamma's wise husband Venkataramaiah and they land at an orphanage. Years roll by, Ramu turns into a mechanic. Being incognizant they fall for daughters of Sheshamma and Chukkamma: Janaki and Radha respectively. At Rangapuram, Chukkamma reaps their benefits. Parallelly, Bhushanam emerges as the president of the village who aspires to knit his son Raju with Radha. Thereupon, Bhushanam learns the love affair Radha. So, he thumps Krishna when enraged Ramu revolts on Bhushanam, but pauses after viewing the photograph of the orphanage founder i.e Jagapathi Rayalu.

Soon after, their guardian Swamiji reveals actuality. Right now and Krishna reach Rangapuram in disguise, ceases Bhushanam and teach a lesson to Chukkamma; the film ends with the marriages of Ramu with Janaki, Krishna with Radha. N. T. Rama Rao as Ramu Krishna as Krishna Devika as Janaki Jayalalita as Radha V. Nagaiah as Swamiji Relangi as Venkataramaiah Nagabhushanam as Bhushanam Kanta Rao as the minister Rajanala as Sarpanch Dhulipala Seetarama Sastry as Sarpanch M. Prabhakar Reddy as Sarpanch Padmanabham as Lingam Suryakantham as Chukamma Hemalatha as Sheshamma After the success of the folklore film Kanchu Kota, its producer U. Visweswara Rao and director C. S. Rao decided to make their next venture a contemporary film under the same banner Manjula Cine Syndicate. Kanchu Kota's lead actors N. T. Rama Rao and Devika were retained for the new film, titled Niluvu Dopidi. Visweswara Rao wrote the story which Tripuraneni Maharadhi, the film's screenwriter and noticed was influenced by Gundamma Katha.

Maharadhi felt Visweswara Rao's story was outdated, so he reworked it to its final form. Visweswara Rao's initial choice for the second male lead was Sobhan Babu, but chose Krishna at the insistence of Maharadhi, who felt he would match Rama Rao's "jubilance". J. Jayalalithaa was cast as the second female lead, paired alongside Krishna. Kanta Rao, who appeared in Kanchu Kota, was dismayed upon realising there was no role for him in Niluvu Dopidi and insisted on an appearance; the cinematography was handled by G. K. Ramu and the art direction by S. Krishna Rao, while editing was handled by R. Hanumantha Rao; the song "Aadapillalante Hoi Hoi", choreographed by Thangappa, was shot at the Madras-based Golden Studios in September 1967. The soundtrack was composed by K. V. Mahadevan. Niluvu Dopidi became a commercial success. Niluvu Dopidi on IMDb

Variable star designation

In astronomy, a variable star designation is a unique identifier given to variable stars. It uses a variation on the Bayer designation format, with an identifying label preceding the Latin genitive of the name of the constellation in which the star lies. See List of constellations for a list of constellations and the genitive forms of their names; the identifying label can be a V plus a number. Examples are R YZ Ceti, V603 Aquilae; the current naming system is: Stars with existing Greek letter Bayer designations are not given new designations. Otherwise, start with the letter R and go through Z. Continue with RR... RZ use SS... SZ, TT... TZ and so on until ZZ. Use AA... AZ, BB... BZ, CC... CZ and so on until reaching QZ, omitting J in both the first and second positions. Abandon the Latin script after 334 combinations of letters and start naming stars with V335, V336, so on; the second letter is never nearer the beginning of the alphabet than the first, e.g. no star can be BA, CA, CB, DA and so on. In the early 19th century few variable stars were known, so it seemed reasonable to use the letters of the Latin script.

Because few constellations contained stars with uppercase Latin-letter Bayer designation greater than Q, the letter R was chosen as a starting point so as to avoid confusion with letter spectral types or the Latin-letter Bayer designations. Although Lacaille had used uppercase R to Z letters in a few cases, for example X Puppis, these designations were either dropped or accepted as variable star designations; the star T Puppis was accepted by Argelander as a variable star and is included in the General Catalogue of Variable Stars with that designation but is now classed as non-variable. This variable star naming convention was developed by Friedrich W. Argelander. There is a widespread belief according to which Argelander chose the letter R for German rot or French rouge, both meaning "red", because many variable stars known at that time appear red. However, Argelander's own statement disproves this. By 1836 the letter S had only been used in one constellation, Serpens. With the advent of photography the number of variables piled up and variable star names soon fell into the Bayer trap of reaching the end of the alphabet while still having stars to name.

After two subsequent supplementary double-lettering systems hit similar limits, numbers were introduced. As with all categories of astronomical objects, names are assigned by the International Astronomical Union; the IAU delegates the task to the Sternberg Astronomical Institute in Russia. Sternberg publishes the General Catalog of Variable Stars, periodically amended by the publication of a new "Name-List" of variable stars. For example, in December 2011 the 80th Name-List of Variable Stars, Part II, was released, containing designations for 2,161 discovered variable stars. Among the newly designated objects were V0654 Aurigae, V1367 Centauri, BU Coronae Borealis. Star catalogue Star designation Samus, N. N.. "VizieR Online Data Catalog: General Catalogue of Variable Stars". VizieR On-line Data Catalog: B/GCVS. Published in: 2009yCat....102025S. 1: B/gcvs. Bibcode:2009yCat....102025S. "The names and catalogues of variable stars". Les étoiles variables - The variable stars. Retrieved 2005-11-06