Benjamin Jonson was an English playwright and poet, whose artistry exerted a lasting impact upon English poetry and stage comedy. He popularised the comedy of humours, he is best known for the satirical plays Every Man in His Humour, Volpone, or The Fox, The Alchemist and Bartholomew Fair and for his lyric and epigrammatic poetry. "He is regarded as the second most important English dramatist, after William Shakespeare, during the reign of James I."Jonson was a classically educated, well-read and cultured man of the English Renaissance with an appetite for controversy whose cultural influence was of unparalleled breadth upon the playwrights and the poets of the Jacobean era and of the Caroline era. In midlife, Jonson claimed that his paternal grandfather, who'served King Henry 8 and was a gentleman', was a member of the extended Johnston family of Annandale in the Dumfries and Galloway, a genealogy, attested by the three spindles in the Jonson family coat of arms: one spindle is a diamond-shaped heraldic device used by the Johnston family.
Jonson's father lost his property, was imprisoned, suffered forfeiture under Queen Mary. Jonson's mother married a master bricklayer two years later. Jonson attended school in St Martin's Lane. A family friend paid for his studies at Westminster School, where the antiquarian, historian and officer of arms, William Camden was one of his masters. In the event, the pupil and the master became friends, the intellectual influence of Camden's broad-ranging scholarship upon Jonson's art and literary style remained notable, until Camden's death in 1623. On leaving Westminster School, Jonson was to have attended the University of Cambridge, to continue his book learning but did not, because of his unwilled apprenticeship to his bricklayer stepfather. According to the churchman and historian Thomas Fuller, Jonson at this time built a garden wall in Lincoln's Inn. After having been an apprentice bricklayer, Ben Jonson went to the Netherlands and volunteered to soldier with the English regiments of Francis Vere in Flanders.
The Hawthornden Manuscripts, of the conversations between Ben Jonson and the poet William Drummond of Hawthornden, report that, when in Flanders, Jonson engaged and killed an enemy soldier in single combat, took for trophies the weapons of the vanquished soldier. After his military activity on the Continent, Jonson returned to England and worked as an actor and as a playwright; as an actor, Jonson was the protagonist “Hieronimo” in the play The Spanish Tragedy, by Thomas Kyd, the first revenge tragedy in English literature. Moreover, by 1597, he was a working playwright employed by Philip Henslowe, the leading producer for the English public theatre. Regarding his marriage Jonson described his wife to William Drummond as "a shrew, yet honest"; the identity of Jonson's wife has always been obscure, yet she sometimes is identified as "Ann Lewis", the woman who married a Benjamin Jonson in 1594, at the church of St Magnus-the-Martyr, near London Bridge. Concerning the family of Anne Lewis and Ben Jonson, the St. Martin's Church registers indicate that Mary Jonson, their eldest daughter, died in November 1593, at six months of age.
A decade in 1603, Benjamin Jonson, their eldest son, died of Bubonic plague when he was seven years old. Moreover, 32 years a second son named Benjamin Jonson, died in 1635. In that period, Ann Lewis and Ben Jonson lived separate lives for five years. By summer 1597, Jonson had a fixed engagement in the Admiral's Men performing under Philip Henslowe's management at The Rose. John Aubrey reports, on uncertain authority. By this time Jonson had begun to write original plays for the Admiral's Men. None of his early tragedies survive, however. An undated comedy, may be his earliest surviving play. In 1597 a play which he co-wrote with Thomas Nashe, The Isle of Dogs, was suppressed after causing great offence. Arrest warrants for Jonson and Nashe were issued by Queen Elizabeth I's so-called interrogator, Richard Topcliffe. Jonson was jailed in Marshalsea Prison and charged with "Leude and mutynous behaviour", while Nashe managed to escape to Great Yarmouth. Two of the actors, Gabriel Spenser and Robert Shaw, were imprisoned.
A year Jonson was again imprisoned, this time in Newgate Prison, for killing Gabriel Spenser in a duel on 22 September 1598 in Hogsden Fields. Tried on a charge of manslaughter, Jonson pleaded guilty but was released by benefit of clergy, a legal ploy through which he gained leniency by reciting a brief bible verse, forfeiting his'goods and chattels' and being branded on his left thumb. While in jail Jonson converted to Catholicism through the influence of fellow-prisoner Father Thomas Wright, a Jesuit priest. In 1598 Jonson produced his first grea
The Waterford Bridge designated Bridge L0327 and now Bridge L3275, is a historic steel truss bridge over the Cannon River in Waterford Township, United States. It was constructed in 1909 and is one of the state's earliest surviving bridges to use rigid rather than pinned connections. Moreover, it is Minnesota's only known road bridge in which some of the rigid connections are fastened with bolts rather than rivets; the bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2010 for having state-level significance in the theme of engineering. It was nominated for being a rare surviving example of Minnesota's once-common camelback through truss bridges, for its early and uniquely transitional rigid connections; the Waterford bridge is a eight-panel, camelback through truss. It measures 140 feet long with a 16-foot-wide deck; the setting is rural, despite being just 2 miles northeast of Minnesota. The Waterford Bridge is one of the few remaining camelback through trusses in Minnesota; the others that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places are the Gateway Trail Iron Bridge, the Dodd Ford Bridge, the Long Meadow Bridge.
The Waterford Bridge was constructed in 1909. It replaced a previous bridge of unknown date, there since at least 1896; the new bridge was designed by Dakota County engineer Charles A. Forbes and built by the Hennepin Bridge Company for $5,000. At the time most truss bridges were still being constructed with the structural members held together by pins; the builders of the Waterford Bridge opted for stronger rigid connections though this was not yet required except for state-funded projects. Unusually, many of these connections were made with bolts, a unique intermediate choice proceeding the transition to riveted bridges. In the early 1980s the bridge was threatened by erosion and local citizens raised $40,000 to effect repairs. However, in 1991 the bridge was sufficiently deteriorated that it was closed to vehicular traffic and the road rerouted over a new bridge built nearby. In 2014 the southeast abutment was rebuilt again with a grant from the National Trust for Historic Preservation; as of January 2014 the historic bridge carries a trail used by pedestrians, ATVs, snowmobiles.
List of bridges on the National Register of Historic Places in Minnesota National Register of Historic Places listings in Dakota County, Minnesota Waterford Bridge
James Kirkwood Jr. was an American playwright and actor. In 1976 he received the Tony Award, the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Book of a Musical, the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for the Broadway hit A Chorus Line. Kirkwood was born in Los Angeles, his father James Kirkwood Sr. was an actor and director in silent films, his mother was actress Lila Lee. After their divorce, he spent much of his time with his mother's family in Elyria, where he graduated from high school. From 1953 to 1957, he played Mickey Emerson on the soap opera Valiant Lady. Kirkwood wrote the semi-autobiographical novel There Must Be a Pony, made into a television film starring Elizabeth Taylor and Robert Wagner. Other novels include P. S. Your Cat Is Dead, Good Times/Bad Times, Some Kind of Hero, Hit Me with a Rainbow. In 1959, Kirkwood appeared on Perry Mason as Johnny Baylor, son of Sen. Harriman Baylor, in "The Case of the Foot-Loose Doll." In 1970, Simon & Schuster published Kirkwood's American Grotesque about the trial of Clay Shaw.
Shaw, a New Orleans businessman, was tried by New Orleans District Attorney Jim Garrison on charges that he was involved in a conspiracy to assassinate United States President John F. Kennedy and acquitted. Kirkus Reviews wrote that "Kirkwood's portrait of Shaw as St. Sebastian is overdone to the point of self defeat" and that "the book does clinch the impression that legal grounds for the conspiracy charges were insufficient."Kirkwood won the 1976 Tony Award for Best Book of a Musical, the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Book of a Musical, the New York Drama Critics' Circle Award, the Pulitzer Prize for Drama with collaborator Nicholas Dante for A Chorus Line. Kirkwood wrote the comedic play Legends! which toured the United States with Mary Martin and Carol Channing in 1987. The plot concerns a producer with a sure-fire commercial script, but no credibility, who lures two out-of-work but long-time feuding actresses "of a certain age" to star in his putative Broadway production. Legends! was the most financially successful road production of that season, but when producers insisted on cutting an important speech about breast cancer by Mary Martin's character, the actress declared she would complete her contractual obligation, but would not open the play on Broadway, the show closed on the road.
Kirkwood wrote a book about the production of Legends! Titled Diary of a Mad Playwright: Perilous Adventures on the Road with Mary Martin and Carol Channing. A revival of Legends! was mounted with Joan Collins and Linda Evans of Dynasty fame. It toured more than 30 cities in the United States and Canada beginning in autumn 2006, but did not appear on Broadway as had been planned. In 1968, Kirkwood signed the "Writers and Editors War Tax Protest" pledge, vowing to refuse tax payments in protest against the Vietnam War. Kirkwood died in his Manhattan apartment of AIDS-related complications in 1989. In Kirkwood's memory, his friends and admirers established the James Kirkwood Literary Prize to honor new generations of fiction writers for their literary achievements; the competition is hosted by the UCLA Extension Writers' Program, the winner is determined by Andrew Morse, the prize's benefactor. There Must Be a Pony! Good Times/Bad Times Hit Me with a Rainbow Some Kind of Hero P. S. Your Cat Is Dead I Teach Flying U.
T. B. U. Legends! A Chorus Line Stage Stuck American Grotesque Diary of a Mad Playwright: Perilous Adventures on the Road with Mary Martin and Carol Channing, about production of the play Legends! Egan, Sean. Ponies & Rainbows: The Life of James Kirkwood. Oklahoma: BearManor Media. ISBN 978-1-59393-680-8. James Kirkwood at Library of Congress Authorities, with 16 catalog records James Kirkwood Jr. at the Internet Broadway Database James Kirkwood Jr. on IMDb James Kirkwood Jr. at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Biography at GLBTQ.com The James Kirkwood collection at the Howard Gotlieb Archival Research Center at Boston University The James Leo Herlihy collection at the same location with poems and correspondence