8th BRICS summit
The 2016 BRICS summit was the eighth annual BRICS summit, an international relations conference attended by the heads of country or heads of government of the five member countries Brazil, India and South Africa. The summit was held from 15 to 16 October 2016 at the Taj Exotica hotel in Benaulim, India. India holds the chair of the BRICS from February 2016 to December 2016. In July 2015, during the 7th BRICS summit, it was announced that India will host the 8th BRICS summit in 2016. In March 2016, Goa was announced as the venue of the summit; the first BRICS film festival was held at New Delhi from 2 September to 6 September 2016. The five-day film festival screened four films each from the participating States; the environment ministers of BRICS states held a meeting on 16 September in Goa and they agreed on a memorandum of understanding and announced the setting up of a joint working group institutionalising their mutual cooperation on environment related issues. The agriculture ministers of BRICS nations held a meeting on 23 September in New Delhi.
The first trade fair of the BRICS countries, was held at Pragati Maidan exhibition ground, New Delhi from 12 to 14 October. Controversially, China skipped the event over trade barriers, but was read in the media in India as a snub amidst a diplomatic row following the latter's veto over India's request to name JeM leader Masood Azhar to the UN as a "designated terrorist."The first BRICS U-17 Football Cup was held at Goa from 5 to 15 October. A statement was issued that read the member states "strongly condemn terrorism in all its forms and manifestations and stressed that there can be no justification whatsoever." The group had decided to set up a credit rating agency at some point in the future. They called on the BRICS' New Development Bank to focus on funding specific development priorities and to create a network of angel investors. Other agreements included to set up research centres in the fields of agriculture, railways and a BRICS sports council; the final communique focused on promoting "international norms that promote stability and inclusion in common spaces."
It suggested that with "mega-regional trading agreements have altered the discourse on cross-border trade, the summit stressed the need for co-operation in crucial matters relating to intellectual property rights and the digital economy." They highlighted the "centrality" to the WTO trading system, but their endorsement this year is significant. It further reflected a moment in the group’s history, which has seen "alternative" powers weighing on the side of liberal, multilateral trading institutions that were conceived by the West. Digital spaces were referred to beyond Internet governance alone, but to keep cyberspace open for commerce and prevent its "stratification" by exclusive trading regimes. Amongst other independent statements, Jinping issued a statement that read: "The global economy is still going through a treacherous recovery; because of the impact of both internal and external factors, BRICS countries have somewhat slowed down in economic growth and have faced a number of new challenges in development."
He further warned against a backlash to globalisation: "At present the deep-seated impact of the international financial crisis is still unfolding...deep-seated imbalances that triggered the financial crisis. Some countries are getting more inward-looking in their policies. Protectionism is rising and forces against globalisation are posing an emerging risk." Modi stated that BRICS were a beacon of peace and promise. Leaders of BIMSTEC member countries were invited by India, to hold a joint summit with the BRICS for the latter's regional outreach. Representatives of the BIMSTEC states in attendance Bangladesh - Sheikh Hasina, Prime minister Bhutan – Tshering Tobgay, Prime minister Myanmar – Aung San Suu Kyi, State Counsellor Nepal – Pushpa Kamal Dahal, Prime minister Sri Lanka – Maithripala Sirisena, President Thailand – Virasakdi Futrakul, Vice-Minister Modi was due to meet Putin and Jinping the day before the summit started. On the way to the summit, Jinping stopped in Bangladesh and oversaw deals worth US$13.6 billion being signed, as well as US$20 billion in loan agreements.
Following the summit and Myanmar's representatives met in New Delhi and signed three MOUs: on cooperation in the power sector. On the issue of militancy there was controversy in light of the aftermath of the 2016 Uri attack and the 2016 Kashmir unrest. While Modi said that BRICS members "agreed that those who nurture, shelter and sponsor such forces of violence and terror are as much a threat to us as the terrorists themselves." The final communique did not mention such a consensus or the words "nurture," "shelter" or "sponsor." China did not budge on its stance over both rejecting India's bid for membership in the Nuclear Suppliers Group and over the UNSC veto. Amongst the latter tussle, Pakistan reacted to Modi saying, without naming any state: "Tragically, the mother-ship of terrorism is a country in India's neighborhood." Pakistan said that Indian leaders were misleading BRICS members. China's Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying said: "Everyone knows that India and Pakistan are victims of terrorism.
Pakistan has made great sacrifices in fighting terrorism. I think. We oppose the linking of terrorism to any specific country, ethnicity or religion; this is China's consistent position." She added that China would support its "all-weather ally" amid a campaign by India to isolate Pakistan. Social media in India also
St. Joseph Vaz, CO, was an Oratorian priest and missionary in Sri Lanka known as Ceylon. Vaz arrived in Ceylon during the Dutch occupation, when the Dutch were imposing Calvinism as the official religion after taking over from the Portuguese, he travelled throughout the island bringing the Eucharist and the sacraments to clandestine groups of Catholics. In his mission, he found shelter in the Kingdom of Kandy where he was able to work freely. By the time of his death, Vaz had managed to rebuild the Catholic Church on the island; as a result of his labors, Vaz is known as the Apostle of Ceylon. On 21 January 1995, he was beatified by Pope John Paul II in Colombo, he was canonized on 14 January 2015 by Pope Francis in an open-air Mass ceremony at the Galle Face Green in Colombo. The third of six children, Vaz was born in 1651 at Benaulim, his mother's village in Goa known as Portuguese India, part of the Portuguese Empire, his parents, Cristóvão Vaz and Maria de Miranda, were devout Catholics. Cristóvão belonged to a prominent Naik family of Sancoale.
He was baptised on the eighth day at the Parish Church of St. John the Baptist, Benaulim by its pastor, Jacinto Pereira. Vaz attended the elementary school in Sancoale, he learned Portuguese in Latin in Benaulim. He was a bright pupil and respected by fellow students, he made such rapid progress in his studies that his father decided to send him to the city of Goa for further studies. He further studied philosophy and theology at the St. Thomas Aquinas' Academy of the Dominicans, in Goa city. In 1675, Vaz was ordained a deacon for the Archdiocese of Goa by Custódio de Pinho, the Vicar Apostolic of Bijapur and Golconda. In 1676, he was ordained a priest by the Archbishop of Goa, António Brandão, S. O. Cist. Soon after his ordination, he started going barefoot to live like the poor and acquired a reputation as a popular preacher and confessor, he opened a Latin school in Sancoale for prospective seminarians. In 1677 he consecrated himself as a "slave of Mary", sealing it with a document known as the "Deed of Bondage".
Vaz wanted to serve as a missionary in Ceylon, therefore presented his request to go there to the cathedral chapter, administering the diocese following the vacancy created by the death of Brandão on 6 July 1678. However, the cathedral chapter proposed to him to go to Canara instead, where the Padroado authorities in Goa were in conflict with the local authorities belonging to the Sacred Congregation of Propaganda Fide, the Vatican agency for missionary efforts worldwide. Vaz was appointed the Vicar Forane of Canara by the Padroado in 1681, sent with the purpose of asserting their jurisdiction against the Propaganda Fide; the chapter gave him the esteemed title of "Frame of Canara". Upon his arrival, he found the situation of the Roman Catholic Church there to be explosive; the Padroado authorities in Goa were at conflict with those of the Propaganda Fide in Canara, led by the incumbent Vicar Forane, Bishop Thomas de Castro. The source of the conflict was that De Castro's appointment as Vicar Forane of Canara by Pope Clement X on 30 August 1675 was not recognised by the preceding Padroado archbishop.
They did not cede the jurisdiction to him despite the pope's letter of appointment. The Padroado–Propaganda conflict which ensued divided the Catholics of Canara into two sides—those who recognised the authority of the Padroado archbishop in Goa versus those who supported De Castro; those who recognised the authority of the Padroado were excommunicated by De Castro, while those who recognised the authority of the Propaganda were excommunicated by the Padroado authorities at Goa. Both groups were forbidden from receiving sacraments from the priests of the rival group, on penalty of excommunication. In a letter dated 14 September 1681, Vaz lamented:"Many in fact believe that the Catholic Church is divided, that we and the Bishop's priests are not children of the same Mother Church, thus the Catholic Church is much despised and is not acceptable."With great diplomacy and humility, Vaz met De Castro at Mangalore and after having convinced himself of the legitimacy of the documents, brought about a truce until a direction was received from the new pope, Innocent XI.
In light of the fact that the bishop had legitimate authority, Vaz recognised his authority and while continuing to adhere to the Padroado system, zealously worked for the religious welfare of the people. The bishop further agreed to delegate jurisdiction to him conditionally. Vaz spoke to him and pleaded with him not to issue so many excommunications, but to wait for a final decision from the pope, he pointed out that the Hindus were scandalised and the Christians bewildered by these arguments. During his stay, Vaz undertook serious missionary activities in Canara from 1681 to 1684, carrying out a lot of missionary work in Mangalore, Barcoor, Moolki and other areas, reviving the spirits and faith of the scattered Roman Catholic community, he reconstructed the Rosario Cathedral in Mangalore and built new churches at Onore, Basroor and Gangolim. He set up small schools in some of the villages with the co-operation of their residents. Vaz's most important contribution, was the establishment of a large number of Irmidades throughout Canara, where he would periodically celebrate festive occasions wit
Parashurama is the sixth avatar of Vishnu in Hinduism. Born as a brahmin, Parshuram carried traits of a Kshatriya and is regarded as a Brahmin-Kshatriya, he carried a number of Kshatriya traits, which included aggression and valor. He, along with only Hanuman and Indrajit, is considered to be one of the few Atimaharathi warriors born on Earth. Like other incarnations of Vishnu, he was foretold to appear at a time when overwhelming evil prevailed on earth; the Kshatriya class, with weapons and power, had begun to abuse their power, take what belonged to others by force and tyrannize people. Parashurama corrects the cosmic equilibrium by destroying these Kshatriya warriors, he is referred to as Rama Jamadagnya, Rama Bhargava and Veerarama in some Hindu texts. He is worshipped as the mool purusha by Niyogi Bhumihar Brahmin, Chitpavan Brahmin, Mohyals and Nambudiri Brahmin communities. According to Hindu legends, Parashurama was born to a saraswat Brahmin sage Jamadagni and his wife Renuka, living in a hut.
They have a celestial cow called Surabhi which gives all they desire.. A king named Kartavirya Arjuna -- wants it, he asks Jamadagni to give it to him. While Parashurama is away from the hut, the king takes it by force. Parashurama learns about this crime, is upset. With his axe in his hand, he challenges the king to battle, they fight, Parushama kills the king, according to the Hindu History. The warrior class challenges him, he kills all his challengers; the legend has roots in the ancient conflict between the Brahmin varna, with religious duties, the Kshatriya varna, with warrior and enforcement roles. In some versions of the legend, after his martial exploits, Parashurama returns to his sage father with the Surabhi cow and tells him about the battles he had to fight; the sage does not congratulate Parashurama, but reprimands him stating that a Brahmin should never kill a king. He asks him to expiate his sin by going on pilgrimage. After Parashurama returns from pilgrimage, he is told that while he was away, his father was killed by warriors seeking revenge.
Parashurama again kills many warriors in retaliation. In the end, he takes up Yoga. In Kannada folklore in devotional songs sung by the Devdasis he is referred to as son of Yellamma. Parasurama legends are notable for their discussion of violence, the cycles of retaliations, the impulse of krodha, the inappropriateness of krodha, repentance. According to Madeleine Biardeau, Parasurama is a mythical character constructed in ancient Hindu thought as a fusion of contradictions to emphasize the ease with which those with military power tend to abuse it, the moral issues in circumstances and one's actions violent ones, he is presented as the fifth son of Renuka and rishi Jamadagni, states Thomas E Donaldson. The legends of Parashurama appear in many Hindu texts, in different versions: In chapter 3.33 of the Mahabharata, he is the grandson of Satyavati, the son of princess Renuka after she marries a Vedic scholar living in a forest. In chapter 6 of the Devi Bhagavata Purana, he is born from the thigh with intense light surrounding him that blinds all warriors, who repent their evil ways and promise to lead a moral life if their eyesight is restored.
The boy grants them the boon. In chapter 4 of the Vishnu Purana, Rcika prepares a meal for two women, one simple, another with ingredients that if eaten would cause the woman to conceive a son with martial powers; the latter is accidentally eaten by Renuka, she gives birth to Parashurama. In chapter 2 of the Vayu Purana, he is born after his mother Renuka eats a sacrificial offering made to both Rudra and Vishnu, which gives him dual characteristics of Kshatriya and Brahmin. Parashurama is described in some versions of the Mahabharata as the angry Brahmin who with his axe, killed a huge number of Kshatriya warriors because they were abusing their power. In other versions, he kills his own mother because his father asks him to and claims she had committed a sin by having lustful thoughts after seeing a young couple frolicking in water. After Parasurama obeys his father's order to kill his mother, his father grants him a boon. Parasurama asks for the reward that his mother be brought back to life, she is restored to life.
Parasurama remains filled with sorrow after the violence and expiates his sin. He plays important roles in the Mahabharata serving as mentor to Bhishma and Karna, teaching weapon arts and helping key warriors in both sides of the war. In the Mahabharata, he is the teacher of warrior Karna. In the regional literature of Kerala, he is the founder of the land, the one who brought it out of the sea and settled a Hindu community there, he is known as Rama Jamadagnya and Rama Bhargava in some Hindu texts. Parashurama retired according to chapter 2.3.47 of the Bhagavata Purana. He is the only Vishnu avatar who never dies, never returns to abstract Vishnu and lives in meditative retirement. Further, he is the only Vishnu avatar that co-exists with other Vishnu avatars Rama and Krishna in some versions of the Ramayana and Mahabharata respectively; the region of Konkan is considered as Parashurama Kshetra. The ancient Saptakonkana is a larger region described in the Sahyadrikhanda which refers to it as Parashuramakshetra.
There is a Parshuram Kund, a Hindu pilgrimage centre in Lohit dist
Lonely Planet is a large travel guide book publisher. As of 2011, the company had sold 120 million books since inception and by early 2014, it had sold around 11 million units of its travel apps. Lonely Planet was founded by Tony Wheeler. In 1972, embarked on an overland trip through Europe and Asia to Australia, following the route of the Oxford and Cambridge Far Eastern Expedition; the company name originates from the misheard "lovely planet" in a song written by Matthew Moore. Lonely Planet's first book, Across Asia on the Cheap, had 94 pages, was written by the couple in their home; the original print run consisted of stapled booklets. Tony returned to Asia to write Across Asia on the Cheap: A Complete Guide to Making the Overland Trip, published in 1975; the Lonely Planet guide book series expanded in Asia, with the India guide book in 1981, expanded to rest of the world. Geoff Crowther was renowned for inserting his opinions into the text of the guides he wrote, his writing was instrumental to the rise of Lonely Planet.
The journalist used the term "Geoffness", in tribute to Crowther, to describe a quality, lost in travel guides. By 1999, Lonely Planet had sold 30 million copies of its travel guides; the company's authors benefited from profit-sharing and expensive events were held at the Melbourne office, at which limousines would arrive, filled with Lonely Planet employees. In 2007, the Wheelers and John Singleton sold a 75% stake in the company to BBC Worldwide, worth an estimated £63 million at the time; the company was ventured into television production. BBC Worldwide struggled following the acquisition, registering a £3.2 million loss in the year to the end of March 2009. By the end of March 2010, profits of £1.9 million had been generated, as digital revenues had risen 37% year-on-year over the preceding 12 months, a Lonely Planet magazine had grown and non-print revenues increased from 9% in 2007 to 22%. Lonely Planet's digital presence included 140 apps and 8.5 million unique users for lonelyplanet.com, which hosted the Thorn Tree travel forum.
BBC Worldwide acquired the remaining 25% of the company for £42.1 million from the Wheelers. By 2012 BBC wanted to divest itself of the company and in March 2013 confirmed the sale of Lonely Planet to Kelley's NC2 Media for US$77.8 million —, at nearly an £80 million loss. Lonely Planet's online community, the Thorn Tree, was created in 1996, it is named for a Naivasha thorn tree, used as a message board for the city of Nairobi, Kenya since 1902. The tree still exists in the Stanley Nairobi, it is used by over 600,000 travelers to look for advice. Thorn Tree has many different forum categories including different countries, places to visit depending on one's interests, travel buddies, Lonely Planet support. In 2009, Lonely Planet began publishing a monthly travel magazine called Lonely Planet Traveller, it is available in digital versions for a number of countries. Lonely Planet had its own television production company, which has produced series, such as Globe Trekker, Lonely Planet Six Degrees, Lonely Planet: Roads Less Travelled.
Toby Amies and Asha Gill took part in the Lonely Planet Six degrees. A mention in a Lonely Planet guidebook can draw large numbers of travellers, which changes places mentioned. For example, Lonely Planet has been blamed for the rise of what is sometimes referred to as'the Banana Pancake Trail' in South East Asia. In 1996, in response to a "Visit Myanmar" campaign by the Burmese military government, the Burmese opposition National League for Democracy and its leader Aung San Suu Kyi called for a tourism boycott; as the publication of Lonely Planet's guidebook to Myanmar is seen by some as an encouragement to visit that country, this led to calls for a boycott of Lonely Planet. Lonely Planet's view is that it highlights the issues surrounding a visit to the country, that it wants to make sure that readers make an informed decision. In 2009, the NLD formally dropped its previous stance and now welcomes visitors "who are keen to promote the welfare of the common people". In March 2019, Lonely Planet posted a video in Facebook falsely claiming that the Banaue Rice Terraces in the Philippines were created by "Chinese", leading to criticism.
The magazine tweeted in April 2019 that their Facebook video was indeed "misleading", that they would update the next Philippines book edition, but will not pull out current editions that wrongfully state that the terraces were made by the Chinese. Language education List of Language Self-Study Programs
Uttara Kannada/ North Canara is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka. It is bordered by the state of Goa and Belagavi District to the north, Dharwad District and Haveri District to the east, Shivamogga District and Udupi District to the south, the Arabian Sea to the west; the city of Karwar is the administrative headquarters of the district. Sirsi and Bhatkal are other major towns in the district; the district has 2 agroclimatic divisions, namely: The coastal plain, consisting of Karwar, Kumta and Bhatkal taluks. The Malenadu, consisting of Sirsi, Yellapur, Haliyal and Mundgod taluks; the first known dynasty from Uttar Kannada District are Chutus of Banavasi. Uttara Kannada was the home of the Kadamba kingdom from the 350 to 525, they ruled from Banavasi. After the subjugation of the Kadambas by the Chalukyas, the district came under successive rule of empires like Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagar empire. Famous Moroccan traveler Ibn Battuta is said to have stayed for a time in the district under the protection of Nawayath Sultan Jamal Al-Din at Hunnur.
This place is located in the town of Honnavar. Ruins of an old mosque and its minaret can still be seen in the village; the district came under the rule of Maratha Empire in the 1750s and part of Mysore Kingdom, who ceded it to the British at the conclusion of the Fourth Mysore War in 1799. It was initilally part of Kanara district in Madras Presidency; the district was divided to North and South Kanara districts in 1859. The British transferred Uttara Kannada district to Bombay Presidency in 1862. After India's independence in 1947, Bombay Presidency was reconstituted as Bombay State. In 1956 the southern portion of Bombay State was added to Mysore State, renamed Karnataka in 1972. Significant and picturesque, the Sadashivgad fort of historical importance is now a popular tourist destination located by the Kali river bridge, built at the confluence of the river and the Arabian Sea; the renowned Bengali poet and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore, who visited Uttara Kannada in 1882, dedicated an entire chapter of his memoirs to this town.
The 22-year-old Rabindranath Tagore stayed with his brother, Satyendranath Tagore, the district judge in Uttara Kannada. There is a substantial amount of Chardo families in this area as they had migrated due to the persecution of the Portuguese in Goa. Cintacora known as Chitrakul and Sindpur, was known to the Portuguese as a old port; when Sadashivgad was built in this area, the village came to be known by that name. Pir fort, named for the Dargah of Shahkaramuddin, was captured and burnt by the Portuguese in 1510; the creek at the mouth of the Kali River was a trading center which came into greater prominence after Sadashivgad was built and the Portuguese realised the advantages of its sheltered harbor. In 1638 a rival English trading body, the Courteen Association, established a factory at Uttara Kannada, it was a trade port frequented by traders from Africa. Baitkhol port was famous for its natural harbour; the name Baithkhol is Bait-e-kol, meaning bay of safety. Muslin was the chief commodity purchased but Uttara Kannada was a source for pepper, cardamom and coarse blue cotton cloth.
Situated on India's west coast, 50 miles south-east of Goa, Uttara Kannada was noted for its safe harbour. In 1649 the Courteen Association united with the British East India Company and Uttara Kannada became a company factory. In the Treaty of Mangalore signed in 1784, between Tipu Sultan and the East India Company, one finds reference to Uttara Kannada and Sadashivgad written as Karwar and Sadasewgude respectively. Bhatkal and Honnavar were the chief ports of Tippu Sultan in the district; the British made Uttara Kannada their district headquarters in 1862. Since 1862, the time from which it came under Bombay Presidency, Uttara Kannada was described as a first rate harbor between Bombay and Colombo, it became a part of Maratha territory. It was a part of the Bombay Presidency until 1950; the main geographic feature of the district is the Western Ghats or Sahyadri range, which runs from north to south through the district. Between the Sahyadris and the sea is a narrow coastal strip, known as the Payanghat, which varies from 8 to 24 kilometres in width.
Behind the coastal plain are flat-topped hills from 60 to 100 meters in height, behind the hills are the ridges and peaks of the Sahyadris. East of the Sahyadris is part of the vast Deccan plateau. Moisture-bearing winds come from the west, yearly rainfall averages 3,000 millimetres on the coast, as high as 5,000 millimetres on the west-facing slopes of the Sahyadris. East of the crest is the rain shadow of the Sahyadris, which receive as little as 1,000 millimetres annually. Much of the rain falls in the June–September monsoon. Five major rivers drain westwards from the crest of the Sahyadris to the sea; these rivers form numerous waterfalls, the most famous of, Jog falls, on upper reaches of the Sharavati in neighboring Shimoga district, other famous waterfalls include Unchalli Falls, where the river Aghanashini drops 116 meters, Magod Falls, where the Bedti river plunges 180 meters in two leaps, Shivganga falls, where the river Sonda drops 74 meters, Lalguli falls and Mailmane falls on the river Kali.
In the lowlands, these rivers form wide estuaries, extending several kilometers inland from the coast. The
Kannada is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India in the state of Karnataka, by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Telangana and abroad. The language has 43.7 million native speakers, who are called Kannadigas. Kannada is spoken as a second and third language by over 12.9 million non-Kannada speakers living in Karnataka, which adds up to 56.6 million speakers. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official and administrative language of the state of Karnataka; the Kannada language is written using the Kannada script, which evolved from the 5th-century Kadamba script. Kannada is attested epigraphically for about one and a half millennia, literary Old Kannada flourished in the 6th-century Ganga dynasty and during the 9th-century Rashtrakuta Dynasty. Kannada has an unbroken literary history of over a thousand years. Kannada literature has been presented with 8 Jnanapith awards, the most for any Dravidian language and the second highest for any Indian language.
Based on the recommendations of the Committee of Linguistic Experts, appointed by the ministry of culture, the government of India designated Kannada a classical language of India. In July 2011, a center for the study of classical Kannada was established as part of the Central Institute of Indian Languages at Mysore to facilitate research related to the language. Kannada is a Southern Dravidian language, according to Dravidian scholar Sanford B. Steever, its history can be conventionally divided into three periods: Old Kannada from 450–1200 CE, Middle Kannada from 1200–1700, Modern Kannada from 1700 to the present. Kannada is influenced to an appreciable extent by Sanskrit. Influences of other languages such as Prakrit and Pali can be found in the Kannada language; the scholar Iravatham Mahadevan indicated that Kannada was a language of rich oral tradition earlier than the 3rd century BCE, based on the native Kannada words found in Prakrit inscriptions of that period, Kannada must have been spoken by a widespread and stable population.
The scholar K. V. Narayana claims that many tribal languages which are now designated as Kannada dialects could be nearer to the earlier form of the language, with lesser influence from other languages; the sources of influence on literary Kannada grammar appear to be three-fold: Pāṇini's grammar, non-Paninian schools of Sanskrit grammar Katantra and Sakatayana schools, Prakrit grammar. Literary Prakrit seems to have prevailed in Karnataka since ancient times; the vernacular Prakrit speaking people may have come into contact with Kannada speakers, thus influencing their language before Kannada was used for administrative or liturgical purposes. Kannada phonetics, vocabulary and syntax show significant influence from these languages; some naturalised words of Prakrit origin in Kannada are: baṇṇa derived from vaṇṇa, hunnime from puṇṇivā. Examples of naturalized Sanskrit words in Kannada are: varṇa, arasu from rajan, paurṇimā, rāya from rāja. Like the other Dravidian languages Kannada has borrowed words such as dina, surya, nimiṣa and anna.
Purava HaleGannada: This Kannada term translated means "Previous form of Old Kannada" was the language of Banavasi in the early Common Era, the Satavahana, Chutu Satakarni and Kadamba periods and thus has a history of over 2500 years. The Ashoka rock edict found at Brahmagiri has been suggested to contain words in identifiable Kannada. According to Jain tradition, the daughter of Rishabhadeva, the first Tirthankara of Jainism, invented 18 alphabets, including Kannada, which points to the antiquity of the language. Supporting this tradition, an inscription of about the 9th century CE, containing specimens of different alphabets Dravidian, was discovered in a Jain temple in the Deogarh fort. In some 3rd–1st century BCE Tamil inscriptions, words of Kannada influence such as'nalliyooraa','kavuDi' and posil' have been introduced; the use of the vowel a' as an adjective is not prevalent in Tamil but its usage is available in Kannada. Kannada words such as'gouDi-gavuDi' transform into Tamil's kavuDi' for lack of the usage of Ghosha svana in Tamil.
Hence the Kannada word'gavuDi' becomes'kavuDi' in Tamil.'Posil' was introduced into Tamil from Kannada and colloquial Tamil uses this word as'Vaayil'. In a 1st-century CE Tamil inscription, there is a personal reference to ayjayya', a word of Kannada origin. In a 3rd-century CE Tamil inscription there is usage of'oppanappa vIran'. Here the honorific'appa' to a person's name is an influence from Kannada. Another word of Kannada origin is found in a 4th-century CE Tamil inscription. S. Settar studied the'sittanvAsal' inscription of first century CE as the inscriptions at'tirupparamkunram','adakala' and'neDanUpatti'; the inscriptions were studied in detail by Iravatham Mahadevan also. Mahadevan argues that the words'erumi','kavuDi','poshil' and'tAyiyar' have their origin in Kannada because Tamil cognates are not available. Settar adds the words'nADu' and'iLayar' to this list. Mahadevan feels that some grammatical categories found in these inscriptions are unique to Kannada rather than Tamil. Both these scholars attribute these influences to the movements and spread of Jainas in these regions.
These inscriptions belong to the period between the first century BCE and fourth century CE. These are some examples that are proof of the early usage of a few Kannada origin words in early Tamil inscriptions before the common era and in the
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r