Arteixo is a municipality in the Province of A Coruña, part of the autonomous community of Galicia in northwestern Spain. Its area is 93.76 km² and its population is 31,005. Its population density is 317.43 people/km². It is an industrial town. Notable landmarks are a Repsol refinery - with its associated industry - and the corporate headquarters of Inditex, better known for its worldwide chain of clothing stores, Zara, it has tungsten and tin mines. As of 2007, the Outer Harbour of A Coruña is being built here, in the Punta Langosteira Peninsula, to replace the busy harbour, now in the city centre; the construction is planned to finish in 2020. It is drained by rivers Seixedo and Arteixo
Palencia is a city south of Tierra de Campos, in north-northwest Spain, the capital of the province of Palencia in the autonomous community of Castile and León. The municipality had a population of 78,892 in 2017. Palencia lies in the north of the central Spanish plateau, the Meseta Central, in the middle of the Carrión river valley, near the river's confluence with the Pisuerga, which flows through the town and creating four small islands, Dos Aguas and Sotillo being the largest. Palencia is located 190 km north of Madrid, some 40 km north of Valladolid, capital of Castile and León. Two hills surround the city in its north-east area. On the closest stands the 30-metre high statue of Christ known as the Cristo del Otero, the fourth-tallest statue of Christ in the world. Palencia has a substantial forest of 1,438 hectares 6 km away on a plateau above the city, known locally as the "Monte el Viejo"; this park is a popular amusement area for the locals. The Canal de Castilla runs close to the city.
Palencia's municipality includes the village of Paredes de Monte, 14 km away. The region of Palencia has a Continental Mediterranean climate with cool winters, due to altitude and isolation from maritime influences, chilly winds, including some days of snow in the winter and minimum temperatures below 0 °C. Fogs are frequent because of the Carrion river. Summer tends to be warm with temperatures that surpass 30 °C in July and that can reach 38 °C. Due to Palencia's altitude, nightly temperatures tend to be cooler, leading to a lower average in the summer months. Precipitation levels are moderated. Summer and winter are the driest seasons, with most rainfall occurring in the spring. Light rains are frequent in winter, with infrequent rain and heavy thunderstorms in the summer. Snow is an infrequent occurrence, with only a few days of snowfall each year in December and February, snowfall can occur in November or March; the fortified Celtiberian settlement is mentioned as Pallantia by Strabo and Ptolemy, a version of an Indo-European root pala.
It was the chief town of the Vaccaei. The city was starved into submission by the Romans in the 2nd century BC and incorporated into the province of Hispania Tarraconensis, in the jurisdiction of Colonia Clunia Sulpicia. Though the little Roman garrison city was an active mint, it was insignificant compared to the Roman villas of Late Antiquity in the surrounding territory. Archeologists have uncovered the remains of Roman villas at La Olmeda and at the "Quintanilla de la Cueza", where the fragments of mosaic floors are spectacularly refined. According to the 5th-century Galician chronicler Idatius, the city of Palencia was all but destroyed in the Visigothic wars against the Suevi: the date falls in the reign of Theodoric II, whose power centre still lay far to the east, in Aquitania; when the Visigoths conquered the territory, they retained the Roman rural villa system in establishing the Campos Góticos. The Catholic bishopric of Palencia was founded in the 3rd century or earlier, assuming that its bishop was among those assembled in the 3rd century to depose Basilides, bishop of Astorga.
The Priscillianists which originated in Egypt but came to Spain was declared a heresy by the emperor Gratian. It was mix of Gnostic/Montanist teachings. Priscillian was ordained priest and consecrated bishop of Avila. The'heresy' was strongest in northwestern Spain; the declaration of it as a heresy was a political move by the Catholic usurper emperor Maximus to curry favor with the Catholic emperors Valentinian II and Theodosius I. After the establishment of effective Visigothic power Catholics disputed the bishopric of Palencia with the Arian Visigoths. Maurila, an Arian bishop established in Palencia by Leovigild, followed King Reccared's conversion to Catholicism, in 589 he assisted at the Third Council of Toledo. Bishop Conantius, the biographer of Saint Ildephonsus, assisted at synods and councils in Toledo and composed music and a book of prayers from the Psalms; when the Moors arrived in the early 8th century, resistance was fragmented among bishops in control of the small walled towns and the territorial magnates in their fortified villas.
A concerted resistance seems to have been ineffective, the fragmented system crumbled villa by villa. Palencia was insignificant: Moorish writers only once cite the border city in the division of the provinces previous to the Umayyad dynasty; the diocese of Palencia was but a name— a "titular see"— until Froila, Count of Villafruela, succeeded in retaking the area of the see in 921, but the true restorer of Christian power was Sancho III of Navarre. At Palencia El Cid The first prelate of the restored see is said to have been Bernardo, whom Sancho gave feudal command over the city and its lands, with the various castles and the few abbeys. Bernardo was born in France or Navarre, devoted himself to the reconstruction of the original cathedral built over the crypt of the local Saint Antolín, the patron saint of Palencia, venerated here alone, with his Ferias, a moveable feast in September; the cathedral was rebuilt again three centuries later. Its principal treasures were relics of Antoninus venerated in Aquitania, whence they had been brought.
Alfonso VI conferred many privileges on Raimundo. Pedro of Agen in France
Ferdinand II of León
Ferdinand II was King of León and Galicia from 1157 to his death. Born in Toledo, Castile, he was the son of King Alfonso VII of León and Castile and of Berenguela, of the House of Barcelona. At his father's death, he received León and Galicia, while his brother Sancho received Castile and Toledo. Ferdinand earned the reputation of a good knight and hard fighter, but did not display political or organising faculty, he spent most of his first year as king in a dispute with his powerful nobles and an invasion by his brother Sancho III. In 1158 the two brothers met at Sahagun, peacefully solved the heritage matters. However, Sancho died in the same year, being succeeded by his child son Alfonso VIII, while Ferdinand occupied parts of Castile; the boundary troubles with Castile restarted in 1164: he met at Soria with the Lara family, who represented Alfonso VIII, a truce was established, allowing him to move against the Muslim Almoravids who still held much of southern Spain, to capture the cities of Alcántara and Alburquerque.
In the same year, Ferdinand defeated King Afonso I of Portugal, who, in 1163, had occupied Salamanca in retaliation for the repopulation of the area ordered by the King of León. In 1165 he married daughter of Afonso of Portugal. However, strife with Portugal was not put to an end by this move. In 1168 Afonso again felt menaced by Ferdinand II's repopulation of the area of Ciudad Rodrigo: he attacked Galicia, occupying Tui and the territory of Xinzo de Limia, former fiefs of his mother. However, as his troops were besieging the Muslim citadel of Badajoz, Ferdinand II was able to push the Portuguese out of Galicia and to rush to Badajoz; when Afonso saw the Leonese arrive he tried to flee, but he was disabled by a broken leg caused by a fall from his horse, made prisoner at one the city's gates. Afonso was obliged to surrender as his ransom all the conquests he had made in Galicia in the previous year. In the peace signed at Pontevedra the following year, Ferdinand got back twenty five castles, the cities of Cáceres, Trujillo, Santa Cruz and Montánchez lost by León.
When in the same years the Almoravids laid siege to the Portuguese city of Santarém, Ferdinand II came to help his father-in-law, helped to free the city from the menace. In 1170, Ferdinand created the military-religious Order of Santiago de Compostela, with the task to protect the city of Cáceres. Like the Order of Alcántara, it began as a knightly confraternity and took the name "Santiago" after St. James the apostle. In 1175 Pope Alexander III annulled Ferdinand II and Urraca of Portugal's marriage due to consanguinuity; the King remarried to Teresa Fernández de Traba, daughter of count Fernando Pérez de Traba, widow of count Nuño Pérez de Lara. In 1178 war against Castile broke out. Ferdinand surprised his nephew Alfonso VIII, occupied Castrojeriz and Dueñas, both lands of Teresa's first husband; the war was settled in 1180 with the peace of Tordesillas. In the same year his wife Teresa died. In 1184, after a series of failed attempts, the Almohad caliph Abu Yaqub Yusuf invaded Portugal with an army recruited in Northern Africa and, in May, besieged Afonso I in Santarém.
In 1185 Ferdinand married for the third time to Urraca López de Haro, his mistress since 1180. Urraca tried in vain to have Alfonso IX, first son of Ferdinand II, declared illegitimate, to favour her son Sancho. Ferdinand II died in 1188 at Benavente, while returning from a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, he was buried in the cathedral of Compostela. In 1230 Forty two years after Ferdinand II's death his namesake grandson Ferdinand III of Castile united Castile with Leon permanently. Ferdinand married Urraca of Portugal around 1165, they had one son: Alfonso IX. Following her repudiation, he formed a relationship with Teresa Fernández de Traba, daughter of count Fernando Pérez de Traba, in August 1179 he married her, having: Ferdinand, legitimized through his parents' subsequent marriage child, b. and d. 6 February 1180, whose birth led to the death of its motherHe formed a liaison with Urraca López de Haro, daughter of Lope Díaz I de Haro, whom he married in May 1187, having: García Alfonso, b.1184, legitimized through the subsequent marriage of his parents, died before his father.
Sancho, lord of Fines Busk, M. M; the history of Spain and Portugal from B. C. 1000 to A. D. 1814, Baldwin and Cradock, 1833. Leese, Thelma Anna, Blood royal: issue of the kings and queens of medieval England, 1066–1399, Heritage Books, 1996. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia, Ed. E. Michael Gerlis and Samuel G. Armistead, Taylor & Francis, 2003. Morton, Nicholas; the Medieval Military Orders: 1120-1314. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-31786-147-8. Szabolcs de Vajay, "From Alfonso VIII to Alfonso X" in Studies in Genealogy and Family History in Tribute to Charles Evans on the Occasion of his Eightieth Birthday, 1989, pp. 366–417. Cawley, Fernando II, king of León 1157–1188, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy Cawley, Medieval Lands Project on the kings and counts of Castile & León, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy
Castile and León
Castile and León (UK:, US:. It was constituted in 1983, although it existed for the first time during the First Spanish Republic in the 19th century. León first appeared as a Kingdom in 910, whilst the Kingdom of Castile gained an independent identity in 1065 and was intermittently held in personal union with León before merging with it in 1230. Though the kings of Castile and León continued to take the title King of León as the superior title, to use a lion as part of their standard, power in fact became centralized in Castile, as exemplified by the Leonese language's replacement by Spanish; the Kingdom of León and the Kingdom of Castile kept different parliaments, different flags, different coin and different laws until the Modern Era, when Spain, like other European states, centralized governmental power in 1833. The autonomous community of Castile and León is the result of the union in 1983 of nine provinces: the three that, after the territorial division of 1833, were part of the Region of León and six attached to the Old Castile, except in the latter case the provinces of Santander and Logroño.
It is the largest autonomous community in Spain and the third largest region of the European Union, covering an area of 94,223 square kilometres with an official population of around 2.5 million. From the beginning of the federalist debate in Spain in the 19th century during the First Spanish Republic there were projects of autonomy for a Castile and León region, as the project of Castilian Mancomunity, Bases de Segovia, Castilian Provincial League or Castilian Federal Pact, but including current Cantabria and La Rioja. Same project that continued to exist during the Second Spanish Republic and, carried out after the Constitution of 1978, but without Cantabria and La Rioja that, although it was considered to include them formed uniprovincial autonomies, its Statute of Autonomy declares in its preamble: The Autonomous Community of Castile and León arises from the modern union of the historical territories that composed and gave name to the old crowns of León and Castile. Eleven hundred years ago, the Kingdom of León was constituted, from which that of Castile and Galicia were dislodged as kingdoms throughout the 9th century, and, in 1143, that of Portugal.
During these two centuries the monarchs who held the government of these lands attained the dignity of emperors, as attested by the terms of Alfonso VI and Alfonso VII. In Castile and León, more than 60% of all of Spain's heritage sites are found. All of which translate into: 8 World Heritage sites 1800 classified cultural heritage assets, 112 historic sites, 400 museums, more than 500 castles, of which 16 are considered of high historical value, 12 cathedrals, 1 concathedral, the largest concentration of Romanesque art in the world. With 8 World Heritage sites, Castile and León is the region of the world with more cultural assets distinguished by the highest protection figure granted by UNESCO, ahead of the Italian regions of Tuscany and Lombardy, both with 6 sites; the Montes de Valsaín mountains and the Béjar and Francia mountain ranges, in the Sistema Central, the valleys of Laciana, Omaña y Luna and the Picos de Europa and Los Ancares, in the Cantabrian Mountains, the Iberian Plateau, in the border area with Portugal, have been declared biosphere reserve by UNESCO, which recognizes the geopark of La Lora with this figure of protection.
In addition, Castile and León is related to two of the records of the Memory of the World Programme of UNESCO which are the Decreta of the Cortes of León of 1188, curia regia considered the birthplace of worldwide parliamentarism by the institution itself, the Treaty of Tordesillas. The Index of development of social services reflects that the community has one of the best social services in the country, positioning itself as the third autonomy that offers the best benefits to its citizens, after the Basque Country and Navarre, its education, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment report of 2015, leads the scores in reading and sciences with a score comparable to that of the ten best countries in the study.23 April is designated Castile and León Day, commemorating the defeat of the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar during the Revolt of the Comuneros, in 1521. The Statute of Autonomy of Castile and León, reformed for the last time in 2007, establishes in the sixth article of its preliminary title the symbols of the community's exclusive identity.
These are: the coat of the flag, the banner and the anthem. Its legal protection is the same as that corresponding to the symbols of the State -whose outrages are classified as crime in article 543 of the Penal Code-. In the articulated statuary, the coat of arms is defined as follows: The coat of arms of Castile and León is a stamped shield by open royal crown, barracked in cross; the first and fourth quartering: in the field of gules, a merloned golden castle of three merlons, drafted of sable and rinse of azure. The second and third quartering: in a silver field, a rampant lion of purple, lingued and armed with gules, crowned with gold; the flag is described as follows: The flag of Castile and León is quartered and contains the symbols of Castile and León, as described in the previous section. The flag will fly in all the centres and official acts of the Community, to the right of the Spanish flag. Following the same wording, the banner is constituted by the shield quartered on a traditional crimson background.
The Statute expresses: "The anthem and the other sym
Gijón or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain. It is located on the Bay of Biscay 24 km north-east of Oviedo, the capital of Asturias. Early medieval texts mention it as "Gigia", derived from the identical Greek and Latin term "gigias", meaning "giant", both of which refer to the Greek mythological giant Gigas; the medieval "Gigia" name, in turn, more refers to the ancient Roman wall built on the peninsula of the Cimadevilla district of Gijón. This wall was called the "Gegionem" by the Romans and is itself a compound Latin term being either "geg-ionem", meaning "giant-ness/gigantic", "gegi-onem", meaning "concrete giant", or "gegio-nem" meaning "giant end"; the use of the term meaning "giant" referred to either the pre-Germanic Astur peoples who inhabited the area being of large physical stature or the largeness of the wall itself. The first evidence of human presence in what is known nowadays as the municipality of Gijón is located in Monte Deva, where exists a series of tumulus, in Monte Areo, where there are some neolithic dolmens.
These dolmens were discovered in 1990 and were built around 5000 BC. The first noticed settlement is located in Campa Torres, it has its origin between the 6th and 5th centuries BC. It was populated by Astures and Romanized. Noega was progressively abandoned when the Roman wall in the peninsula of Cimavilla, called the Gegionem, was built. Despite the Barbarian invasions leaving no trace, it seems the territory was submitted to the power of the Visigoth king Sisebut in the 7th century. From this moment there appears the first Christian worship demos, where one of its places was the Roman villa of Veranes. Gijón was capital of the Muslim territories in the Cantabric Sea, under the power of Munuza, who dominated the city between 713 and 718 or 722. In this last year, Asturians won the Battle of Covadonga, started in 718 and led by Pelagius, who would become the first King of the Kingdom of Asturias; until 1270 there were no reliable references to Gijón as a settlement, with only short mentions in some documents.
In this year, Alfonso X of Castile conceded the category of puebla. In the 14th century, the war between Alfonso Enríquez, Count of Gijón and Noreña and Henry III of Castile finished with the village of Gijón fenced and destroyed disappearing. In the 15th and 16th centuries, Gijón was again developed. A new dock was built in the port adding commerce to the area. In the 17th and 18th centuries Gijón started to have great development, growing out of the old city center; this happened. In the 18th century, due to the French invasions, the wars and the financial trouble in the era, the development stopped until late in the century, when the Oviedo-Gijón road was created and the port was recognized as the best one in Asturias, favouring the start of industrial activities in the village; the 19th century brought with it great development, with the commerce of coal, the Gijón–León road and the Langreo–Gijón railway. All this supposed the quick expansion of the port, due to the heavy traffic intensity in it.
A new port, El Musel, was built in 1893 and it was the first coal port of the peninsula. Gijón was going through a conversion to an industrial village with a new bourgeois and an urban development, opening new streets and squares, with new municipal equipments like water, garbage collection, so on. All this industrial development brought new manpower to the city and the creation of new neighbourhoods like Natahoyo, La Calzada, Tremañes or El Humedal. In the 20th century, with the Spanish Civil War, the city supported the Republican faction; the army was located in El Coto. The resistance was eliminated in August 1936; the village was the capital of the Sovereign Council of Asturias and León until 20 October 1937, when the troops of General Francisco Franco occupied the city. Ferrous metallurgy was the main industry of Gijón from the last years of the 19th century until the last decades of the 20th. Uninsa was created in 1971, it merged with Ensidesa. In the last years of the century was converted in Aceralia, integrated in Arcelor.
The last decades of the century brought an industrial crisis affecting the ferrous metallurgy and the local shipbuilding. This facts brought new terrain for the creation of new beaches and new neighbourhoods, it was created a campus of the University of Oviedo. The city is situated on the coast of central Asturias, from sea level to an altitude of 513 metres at Picu Samartín and 672 metres at Peña de los Cuatro Jueces, bordered on the West by Carreño, the East by Villaviciosa, to the South by Siero and Llanera The city is situated along the Asturian coast and is distinguished by the peninsula of Cimavilla which separates the beach of San Lorenzo and adjacent neighbourhoods to the east from the beaches of Poniente and Arbeyal, the shipyards, the recreational port and the Port of El Musel to the west, it is close to the other main Asturian cities and Avilés. Gijón has a temperate oceanic climate typical of the Atlantic coast of Spain, with cool summers and wet and mild winters; the onshore flow from the Atlantic Ocean creates a cool summer and mild winter climate where severe heat and cold temperatures are rare.
The narrow temperature range is demonstrated by the record August temperature being only 6.4 °C warmer than the all-time record January temperature. The climate is wet and cloudy by Spanish standards, but is indeed drier than other locations on the Atlantic in the country. Humidity is high year-round. Summer temperatu
Lugo called Lucus Augusti in Latin, is a city in northwestern Spain in the autonomous community of Galicia. It is the capital of the province of Lugo; the municipality had a population of 98,025 in 2018, making it the fourth most populous city in Galicia. Lugo is the only city in the world to be surrounded by intact Roman walls, which reach a height of 10 to 15 metres along a 2,117-metre circuit ringed with 71 towers; the walk along the top is continuous round the circuit, features ten gates. These 3rd century walls are protected by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site; the bridge over the Minho is of Roman date, though many repairs over the centuries have effaced its Roman character. It is along the Camino Primitivo path of the Camino de Santiago; the population of the city in 2010 was 97,635 inhabitants, growing since the first census in 1842, while the rest of the province is losing population dramatically. The population of the city in 2014 was 98,560 inhabitants. From INE In 2010 there were 5,373 foreigners living in the city, representing a 5.5% of the total population.
The main nationalities are Colombians and Brazilians. By language, according to 2008 data, 47.37% of the population speaks always or in Galician, 52.63% speaks always or in Spanish. The town lies on a hill surrounded by the rivers Minho and Chanca; the difference in altitude between downtown and the river banks is considerable, while in the center of the city's altitude of 465 meters above sea level, at the height of the Miño River Walk is the altitude of only 364 metres. The municipality of Lugo is the second largest in Galicia, with 329.78 square kilometres and 59 parishes. It should be emphasized that the outline of the city was declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO on 7 November 2002, this being the most important recognition at international level regarding the conservation of landscapes and habitats of this Atlantic European region; the area has been divided into more than 54 villages: Adai, Bacurín, Bazar, Bocamaos, Bóveda, O Burgo, Camoira, Coeo, Coeses, Cuíña, Gondar, Lamas, Mazoi, Meilán, Monte de Meda, Ombreiro, Orbazai, O Outeiro das Camoiras, Pedreda, Pías, Piúgos, Poutomillos, Prógalo, Ribas de Miño, Romeán, Rubiás, San Mamede dos Anxos, San Martiño de Piñeiro, San Pedro de Mera, San Román, San Salvador de Muxa, San Xoán de Pena, San Xoán do Alto, San Xoán do Campo, Santa Comba, Santa María de Alta, Santa Marta de Fixós, Santalla de Bóveda de Mera, Santo André de Castro, Soñar, Tirimol, Torible, O Veral, Vilachá de Mera.
Lugo has a humid oceanic climate with drier summers, Cfb in the Köppen climate classification although it could be classified as a mild mediterranean climate depending on favoured summer precipitation threshold. Due to its remoteness from the Atlantic, its annual precipitation of 1,084 millimetres can be considered low compared with areas of the Rias Baixas and Santiago de Compostela; the highest temperature recorded in history, 39.6 °C, occurred in August 1961 and the lowest temperature was −13.2 °C in February 1983. The city has an average of six days of snow per year, a contrast to coastal cities of Galicia which have not received snow in modern times
Puebla de Sanabria
Puebla de Sanabria is a small town located in the north-western part of the province of Zamora in Spain, between the rivers Tera and Castro. It is the political centre of the comarca of Sanabria. Well known as one of the oldest settlements in the province of Zamora, its roots could get to be documented around year 509 where it appears in a record from the Council of Lugo; some authors have the opinion that the information here found refers to the whole region instead referring only to the town. More accurate documentation can be found around the 10th century in which existed as "urbe Senabrie" indicated as organization center for its surrounding area; the castle built around the 15th century by the Count of Benavente Romanesque-Gothic church of Nuestra Señora de Azogue Hermitage of San Cayetano, in Baroque style Isabeline Town Hall. Fort of San Carlos Lago de Sanabria For more information Puebla de Sanabria Town Hall Puebla de Sanabria in Google Maps Fiestas de las Victorias, de Puebla de Sanabria Portal de Turismo de Sanabria