Horse racing is an equestrian performance sport involving two or more horses ridden by jockeys over a set distance for competition. It is one of the most ancient of all sports, as its basic premise – to identify which of two or more horses is the fastest over a set course or distance – has been unchanged since at least classical antiquity. Horse races vary in format and many countries have developed their own particular traditions around the sport. Variations include restricting races to particular breeds, running over obstacles, running over different distances, running on different track surfaces and running in different gaits. While horses are sometimes raced purely for sport, a major part of horse racing's interest and economic importance is in the gambling associated with it, an activity that in 2008 generated a worldwide market worth around US$115 billion. Horse racing has a long and distinguished history and has been practised in civilisations across the world since ancient times. Archaeological records indicate that horse racing occurred in Ancient Greece, Babylon and Egypt.
It plays an important part of myth and legend, such as the contest between the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. Chariot racing was one of the most popular ancient Greek and Byzantine sports. Both chariot and mounted horse racing were events in the ancient Greek Olympics by 648 BC and were important in the other Panhellenic Games, it continued although chariot racing was dangerous to both driver and horse, which suffered serious injury and death. In the Roman Empire and mounted horse racing were major industries. From the mid-fifteenth century until 1882, spring carnival in Rome closed with a horse race. Fifteen to 20 riderless horses imported from the Barbary Coast of North Africa, were set loose to run the length of the Via del Corso, a long, straight city street. In times, Thoroughbred racing became, remains, popular with aristocrats and royalty of British society, earning it the title "Sport of Kings". Equestrians honed their skills through games and races. Equestrian sports provided entertainment for crowds and displayed the excellent horsemanship needed in battle.
Horse racing of all types evolved from impromptu competitions between drivers. The various forms of competition, requiring demanding and specialized skills from both horse and rider, resulted in the systematic development of specialized breeds and equipment for each sport; the popularity of equestrian sports through the centuries has resulted in the preservation of skills that would otherwise have disappeared after horses stopped being used in combat. There are many different types of horse racing, including: Flat racing, where horses gallop directly between two points around a straight or oval track. Jump racing, or Jumps racing known as Steeplechasing or, in the UK and Ireland, National Hunt racing, where horses race over obstacles. Harness racing, where horses trot or pace while pulling a driver in a sulky. Saddle Trotting, where horses must trot from a starting point to a finishing point under saddle Endurance racing, where horses travel across country over extreme distances ranging from 25 to 100 miles.
Different breeds of horses have developed. Breeds that are used for flat racing include the Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Arabian and Appaloosa. Jump racing breeds include the Thoroughbred and AQPS. In harness racing, Standardbreds are used in Australia, New Zealand and North America, when in Europe and French Trotter are used with Standardbred. Light cold blood horses, such as Finnhorses and Scandinavian coldblood trotter are used in harness racing within their respective geographical areas. There are races for ponies: both flat and jump and harness racing. Flat racing is the most common form of racing seen worldwide. Flat racing tracks are oval in shape and are level, although in Great Britain and Ireland there is much greater variation, including figure of eight tracks like Windsor and tracks with severe gradients and changes of camber, such as Epsom Racecourse. Track surfaces vary, with turf most common in Europe, dirt more common in North America and Asia, newly designed synthetic surfaces, such as Polytrack or Tapeta, seen at some tracks.
Individual flat races are run over distances ranging from 440 yards up to two and a half miles, with distances between five and twelve furlongs being most common. Short races are referred to as "sprints", while longer races are known as "routes" in the United States or "staying races" in Europe. Although fast acceleration is required to win either type of race, in general sprints are seen as a test of speed, while long distance races are seen as a test of stamina; the most prestigious flat races in the world, such as the Prix de l'Arc de Triomphe, Melbourne Cup, Japan Cup, Epsom Derby, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup, are run over distances in the middle of this range and are seen as tests of both speed and stamina to some extent. In the most prestigious races, horses are allocated the same weight to carry for fairness, with allowances given to younger horses and female horses running against males; these races offer the biggest purses. There is another category of races called handicap races where each horse is assigned a different weight to carry based on its ability.
Beside the weight they carry, horses' performance can be influenced by position relative to the inside barrier, gender and training. Jump racing in Gr
Doncaster was an English Thoroughbred racehorse and sire. He was the sire of the great stallion Bend Or. Through Bend Or he is the direct male-line ancestor of most modern thoroughbreds. Doncaster was foaled at the Sledmere Stud, Great Britain and was sired by "The Emperor of Stallions", who had won both the 2,000 Guineas and the St. Leger Stakes. Doncaster's dam Marigold had a good career on the track, was sired by The Derby winner Teddington. Doncaster, a chestnut with a white blaze named "All Heart and No Peel", was raised at the Sledmere Stud before he was sent to the Tattersalls auction. James Merry bought the colt for 950 guineas, changed his name to Doncaster, sent him to trainer Robert Peck; the colt did not compete as a two-year-old due to a kick to the stifle. Doncaster began racing as a first appearing at the 2,000 Guineas, he won his next race easily. He raced in the Grand Prix de Paris, finishing third to winner Boiard, before being beaten by a head at the St. Leger, he did not do well in his next run, the Grand Duke Michael Stakes, but finished his season second in the Newmarket Derby.
His four-year-old career was respectable, with a dead heat second place with Flageolet in the Ascot Gold Cup, before a win at the Goodwood Cup. As a five-year-old, he won both the Alexandra Plate. Doncaster was retired. Peck purchased him for £10,000 and selling the stallion to the Duke of Westminster for £14,000; the Duke had been searching for a stallion prospect, with a good pedigree and racing record, to stand at his Eaton Stud in Cheshire. Doncaster was bred to the mare Lily Agnes, who produced a 1,000 Guineas winner. Doncaster's most famous son was the Derby winner and prolific sire, he sired Sir Reuben and Cambusmore. Other noted offspring were: Muncaster: sired Saraband, Lady Muncaster, Lady Loverule. Sandiway: won the Coronation Stakes at Royal Ascot. Empress Elisabeth of Austria saw Doncaster while visiting Eaton, fell in love with him, she purchased him, for £5,000, he lived at her Kisber Stud until his death at the age of 22 in January 1892. His blood lives on through Bend Or. Bend Or Stockwell The Baron Bloodlines Thoroughbred Heritage – Doncaster
The Bendor Range is a small but once-famous subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains, about It is 7,000 square kilometres in area and about 40 km long and about 18 km at its widest. It lies between Anderson Lake on the southeast and the Carpenter Lake Reservoir or the Bridge River Power Project on the north, with the gold-rich valley of Cadwallader Creek on its southwest; the range's western flank is the site of a series of now-semi-abandoned mining towns. One of these, Bralorne, is among the deepest mines in Canada and in its heyday was the third-richest gold mine in the world, its shafts plunge a mile beneath sea level under the range. The name "Bendor" is believed by some locally to be a Gaelic-French hybrid - ben d'or - mountain of gold - and while it does mean that, more or less, the name was conferred in honour of Bend Or, a famous racehorse of the 1890s; the range has only a few small icefields, but a number of high and difficult peaks. The highest is Whitecap Mountain 2918 m, visible from the Lillooet end of Seton Lake but, as it is located near the heart of the range, invisible from the towns and lakes around its perimeter.
At the northwest of the range, but invisible from the towns below because of the terrain of its flanks, is Mount Truax 2870 m. East of it are Mount Williams 2775 m and Mount Bobb 2821 m. Note: some classification systems assign the Bendor to the Chilcotin Ranges subgrouping of the Pacific Ranges, but this is incorrect as it is on the south side of the Bridge River, the limit of the Chilcotin Ranges. "Bendor Range". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Bendor Range entry in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
Newmarket Racecourse is a British Thoroughbred horse racing venue in the town of Newmarket, comprising two individual racecourses, the Rowley Mile and the July Course. Newmarket is referred to as the headquarters of British horseracing and is home to the largest cluster of training yards in the country and many key horse racing organisations, including Tattersalls, the National Horseracing Museum and the National Stud. Newmarket hosts two of the country's five Classic Races - the 1,000 Guineas and 2,000 Guineas, numerous other Group races. In total, it hosts 9 of British racing's 36 annual Group 1 races. Racing in Newmarket was recorded in the time of James I. Charles II was known to attend races on Newmarket Heath with his brother, the future James II; the first recorded race was a match for £100 between horses owned by Lord Salisbury and Marquess of Buckingham in 1622. The racecourse itself was founded in 1636. Around 1665, Charles inaugurated the Newmarket Town Plate and in 1671 became the first and only reigning monarch to ride a winner.
Up until 1744, the two most valuable races run at the course were the King's Plate and the Town Plate. Two more Plate races were added in that year, paid for by local traders, both worth 50 guineas - one was a race for five-year-olds carrying 9 stone, one was an open age race in four mile heats. Another paid for by landowners was a four-year-old race over four miles, each carrying 8 stone 7 lbs. At that time, formal races at Newmarket only took place twice a year - once in April, once in October. A second Spring meeting was added in 1753. By 1840, there were seven annual meetings: The Craven Meeting - a week, beginning Easter Monday 1st Spring Meeting - a week, beginning Easter Monday fortnight 2nd Spring Meeting - a week, beginning Easter Monday month July Meeting - a few days, around 10 July 1st October Meeting - a week, beginning Monday before the first Thursday in October 2nd October Meeting - a week, beginning Monday before the third Thursday in October Houghton Meeting - a few days, beginning two weeks Newmarket Racecourse is made up of two courses - the Rowley Mile Course and the July Course.
Both are wide, galloping tracks used for Flat racing only, each with a capacity just over 20,000, though this is met. The Rowley Mile Course has a 1 mile 2 furlong straight with minor undulations towards'The Bushes', two furlongs out; the penultimate furlong is downhill and the last is uphill, forming'The Dip'. Races beyond the distance of 1m 2f start on the'Cesarewitch' or'Beacon' course which turns right-handed into the straight; the July Course sometimes called the Summer Course, has a 1 mile straight, known as'The Bunbury Mile'. After 2 furlongs, there is a long downhill stretch before the uphill furlong to the finish; this course uses the'Cesarewitch/Beacon' course for longer distances, again turning right into the straight. Technically, there is a third course, the Round Course, but this is only used once a year for the Newmarket Town Plate, a race of great historical significance, but limited importance in modern day racing; the Rowley Mile is used for racing in the Spring and Autumn, hosts the majority of the Group 1 races staged at Newmarket, including the 2000 & 1000 Guineas.
Up until 2010, it was the home of the Champion Stakes, Pride Stakes and Jockey Club Cup, which are now run as the Champion Stakes, British Champions Fillies' and Mares' Stakes and British Champions Long Distance Cup at Ascot on British Champions Day. The wide nature of the track means it is able to host races such as the Cambridgeshire Handicap and the Cesarewitch Handicap, which both have a maximum field size of 35, making them the largest fields for races in the UK after the Grand National. In 2005, the Rowley Mile hosted the now defunct Ascot Festival, the premier race of, the Queen Elizabeth II Stakes, whilst the new grandstand at Ascot was being constructed; the July Course is used in Summer, hosts 2 Group 1 races, the July Cup and the Falmouth Stakes, both of which are run at the July Festival, the premier meeting staged at the July Course. The course is used for several evening meetings a year, with live music after racing - these draw a sellout crowd and are the highest attended of any meetings held at Newmarket throughout the year.
In 1999 the entire Newmarket programme was moved to the July Course whilst the new Millennium Grandstand at the Rowley Mile was being constructed. In 2008, due to waterlogging at York, several races from the Ebor Festival were staged at the July Course, including three Group 1 races - the Yorkshire Oaks, the Nunthorpe and the Juddmonte International. Both courses have grass airstrips for use by light aircraft, it was taking off from one of these in June 2000 that a Piper Seneca plane containing jockeys Ray Cochrane and Frankie Dettori crashed, killing the pilot and injuring both jockeys; the plane was headed for Goodwood in Sussex. Cochrane received the Queen's Commendation for Bravery in 2002 for saving Dettori's life; the airstrips on the Rowley Mile were used during the Second World War by the Royal Air Force as RAF Newmarket- the most important races were moved to the July Course during this period, the only racecourse in the UK that remained operational throughout the war. The Devil's Dyke runs past the edge of the July course.
About half of the racecourse complex, including the July and Cesarewitch/Beacon courses, is in the neighbouring county of Cambridgeshire. There are various names that have been given to courses or parts of courses at
In heraldry, a bend is a band or strap running from the upper dexter corner of the shield to the lower sinister. Authorities differ as to how much of the field it should cover, ranging from one-fifth up to one-third; the supposed rule that a bend should occupy a maximum of one-third of the field appears to exclude the possibility of three bends being shown together, but contrary examples exist. Outside heraldry, the term "bend sinister" is sometimes used to imply illegitimacy, though it is never true that a bend sinister has this significance, a "bar sinister" cannot, by its nature, exist. A bend can be modified by most of the lines of partition, such as the bend engrailed in the ancient arms of Fortescue and the bend wavy in the ancient coat of Wallop, Earls of Portsmouth; the diminutives of the bend, being narrower versions, are as follows, in descending order of width: Bendlet: One-half as wide as a bend, as in the arms of Manchester City Council, England. A bendlet couped is known as a baton, as in the coat of Elliot of Stobs Cotise: One-fourth the width of a bend.
Riband or ribbon: Also one-fourth the width of a bend. It is called a cost as in the arms of Abernethie of Auchincloch Scarp: a bend sinister of one-half width; the usual bend is called a bend dexter when it needs to contrast with the bend sinister, which runs in the other direction, like a sash worn diagonally from the left shoulder. The bend sinister and its diminutives such as the baton sinister are rare as an independent motif; the term "bar sinister" is an erroneous term when used in this context, since the "bar" in heraldry refers to a horizontal line. The bend sinister, reduced in size to that of a bendlet or baton, was one of the commonest brisures added to the arms of illegitimate offspring of European aristocratic lords; such royal descent was considered a mark of honour, in most of Europe, illegitimate children of nobles, despite having few legal rights, were customarily regarded as noble and married within the most aristocratic families. This was the usual mark used to identify illegitimate descendants of the English royal family dating from fifteenth century, as in the arms of Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle, illegitimate son of Edward IV of England.
The full-sized bend sinister was used in this way, more recent examples exist of bends sinister that have no connection with illegitimacy, such as in the arms of the Burne-Jones baronets. These markings were never subject to strict rules, the customary English use of the bend and baton sinister to denote illegitimacy in this way gave way to the use of different kinds of bordures. Sir Walter Scott is credited with inventing the phrase bar sinister, which has become a metonymic term for bastardy. Heraldry scholar Arthur Charles Fox-Davies and others state that the phrase derives from a misspelling of barre, the French term for bend. Despite its not being a real heraldic symbol, bar sinister has become a standard euphemism for illegitimate birth; the phrase in bend refers to the appearance of several items on the shield being lined up in the direction of a bend, as in the arms of the ancient Northcote family of Devon: Argent, three crosses-crosslet in bend sable. It is used when something is slanted in the direction of a bend, as in the coat of Surrey County Council in England.
A charge bendwise is slanted like a bend. When a charge is placed on a bend, by default it is shown bendwise. A shield party per bend is divided into two parts by a single line which runs in the direction of a bend. Applies not only to the fields of shields but to charges. Bendy is a variation of the field consisting of an number of parts, most six. Analogous terms are derived from the bend sinister: per bend sinister, bendwise sinister, bendy sinister. Boutell, Charles. Fox-Davies, A. C. ed. The Handbook to English Heraldry. London: Reeves & Turner. OCLC 81124564. Fox-Davies, Arthur Charles. A Complete Guide to Heraldry: Illustrated by Nine Plates and Nearly 800 Other Designs. London: T. C. & E. C. Jack. ISBN 0-517-26643-1. LCCN 09023803. Boutell, Charles. Heraldry and Modern: Including Boutell's Heraldry. London: Frederick Warne. OCLC 6102523 Brooke-Little, J P, Norroy and Ulster King of Arms, An heraldic alphabet, Robson Books, London, 1985. An Introduction to Heraldry, 18th ed.. London: George Bell & Sons.
First published 1775. ISBN 1-4325-3999-X. LCCN 26-5078 Cussans, John E.. Handbook of Heraldry. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-7338-0. LCCN 04-24470 Friar, Stephen A New Dictionary of Heraldry Alphabooks, Sherborne, 1987 Greaves, Kevin, A Canadian Heraldic Primer, Heraldry Society of Canada, Ottawa, 2000, lots but not enough illustrations Heraldry Society, members' arms, with
The Champion Stakes is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to thoroughbreds aged three years or older. It is run at Ascot over a distance of 1 mile and 2 furlongs, it is scheduled to take place as part of British Champions Day each year in October; the event was established in 1877, it was held at Newmarket. The inaugural running was won by Springfield. By the end of the century it had been won by five Classic winners; the present system of race grading was introduced in 1971, the Champion Stakes was classed at the highest level, Group 1. The race was included in the Breeders' Cup Challenge series in 2009 and 2010; the winner earned an automatic invitation to compete in the Breeders' Cup Turf. The Champion Stakes was transferred to Ascot in 2011, it became. It now serves as the middle-distance final of the British Champions Series. With an increased prize fund of £1,300,000, the Champion Stakes was Britain's richest horse race in 2011; the status was reclaimed by The Derby in 2012. Dam of two winners: Kind- Frankel Noble Mission Horse racing in Great Britain List of British flat horse races Paris-Turf: "1978".
"1979". "1980". "1981". "1982". "1983". "1984". "1985". "1986". "1987". Racing Post: 1988, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017 2018
Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design and study of armorial bearings, as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony and pedigree. Armory, the best-known branch of heraldry, concerns the design and transmission of the heraldic achievement; the achievement, or armorial bearings includes a coat of arms on an shield and crest, together with any accompanying devices, such as supporters, heraldic banners, mottoes. Although the use of various devices to signify individuals and groups goes back to antiquity, both the form and use of such devices varied and the concept of regular, hereditary designs, constituting the distinguishing feature of heraldry, did not develop until the High Middle Ages, it is often that the use of helmets with face guards during this period made it difficult to recognize one's commanders in the field when large armies gathered together for extended periods, necessitating the development of heraldry as a symbolic language but there is little actual support for this view.
The beauty and pageantry of heraldic designs allowed them to survive the gradual abandonment of armour on the battlefield during the seventeenth century. Heraldry has been described poetically as "the handmaid of history", "the shorthand of history", "the floral border in the garden of history". In modern times, individuals and private organizations, cities and regions use heraldry and its conventions to symbolize their heritage and aspirations. Various symbols have been used to represent groups for thousands of years; the earliest representations of distinct persons and regions in Egyptian art show the use of standards topped with the images or symbols of various gods, the names of kings appear upon emblems known as serekhs, representing the king's palace, topped with a falcon representing the god Horus, of whom the king was regarded as the earthly incarnation. Similar emblems and devices are found in ancient Mesopotamian art of the same period, the precursors of heraldic beasts such as the griffin can be found.
In the Bible, the Book of Numbers refers to the standards and ensigns of the children of Israel, who were commanded to gather beneath these emblems and declare their pedigrees. The Greek and Latin writers describe the shields and symbols of various heroes, units of the Roman army were sometimes identified by distinctive markings on their shields; until the nineteenth century, it was common for heraldic writers to cite examples such as these, metaphorical symbols such as the "Lion of Judah" or "Eagle of the Caesars" as evidence of the antiquity of heraldry itself. The Book of Saint Albans, compiled in 1486, declares that Christ himself was a gentleman of coat armour, but these fabulous claims have long since been dismissed as the fantasy of medieval heralds, for there is no evidence of a distinctive symbolic language akin to that of heraldry during this early period. The medieval heralds devised arms for various knights and lords from history and literature. Notable examples include the toads attributed to Pharamond, the cross and martlets of Edward the Confessor, the various arms attributed to the Nine Worthies and the Knights of the Round Table.
These too are now regarded as a fanciful invention, rather than evidence of the antiquity of heraldry. The development of the modern heraldic language cannot be attributed to a single individual, time, or place. Although certain designs that are now considered heraldic were evidently in use during the eleventh century, most accounts and depictions of shields up to the beginning of the twelfth century contain little or no evidence of their heraldic character. For example, the Bayeux Tapestry, illustrating the Norman invasion of England in 1066, commissioned about 1077, when the cathedral of Bayeux was rebuilt, depicts a number of shields of various shapes and designs, many of which are plain, while others are decorated with dragons, crosses, or other heraldic figures, yet no individual is depicted twice bearing the same arms, nor are any of the descendants of the various persons depicted known to have borne devices resembling those in the tapestry. An account of the French knights at the court of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I at the beginning of the twelfth century describes their shields of polished metal, utterly devoid of heraldic design.
A Spanish manuscript from 1109 describes both plain and decorated shields, none of which appears to have been heraldic. The Abbey of St. Denis contained a window commemorating the knights who embarked on the Second Crusade in 1147, was made soon after the event. In England, from the time of the Norman conquest, official documents had to be sealed. Beginning in the twelfth century, seals assumed a distinctly heraldic character. A notable example of an early armorial seal is attached to a charter granted by Philip I, Count of Flanders, in 1164. Seals from the latter part of the eleventh and early twelfth centuries show no evidence of heraldic symbolism, but by t