Santa Maria in Via Lata
Santa Maria in Via Lata is a church on the Via del Corso, in Rome, Italy. It stands diagonal from the church of San Marcello al Corso, it is claimed that St. Paul spent two years here, in the crypt under the church, whilst under house arrest waiting for his trial; this conflicts with the tradition regarding San Paolo alla Regola. The same was claimed for St Peter, Paul's secretary Luke, Peter's disciple Martial, St John; the first Christian place of worship here was a 5th-century oratory in the Roman building beneath the present church. This was constructed within the remains of a large Roman warehouse, some 250 metres long, excavated; the church's upper level was added in the 9th century, murals added to the lower level between the 7th and 9th centuries. The cosmatesque pavement from this phase survives; the church's 13th century icon of the Virgin Advocate, said to have performed many miracles, relics of the 3rd century Deacon and martyr Agapitus lie beneath it. The Arcus Novus, which stood on this site were destroyed during reconstruction of the church in the late 15th century, c.
1491. Antonio Tebaldeo and friend of Raphael, was buried at the end of the north aisle in 1537, though his tomb was designed in 1776; the church was renovated in 1639 by Cosimo Fanzago, but the facade, with its Corinthian columns imposing vertical emphasis, was completed based on a design by Pietro da Cortona. He appears to evoke a triumphal arch in the facade; the high altar Madonna Advocata is one of the few paintings in churches attributed to Bernini. The ciborium in the apse is made of lapis-lazuli; the first excavations of the site occurred at this date, as commemorated by a relief in the crypt by Cosimo Fancelli. The families of Joseph and Lucien Bonaparte were buried here in the 19th century. Along the right side of the nave, the first altarpiece is a Martydom of St Andrew by Giacinto Brandi, while the second altarpiece is a Saints Giuseppe and Biagio by Giuseppe Ghezzi. In the chapel to the left of the apse, is a Madonna with child and Saints Cyriac and Catherine by Giovanni Odazzi; the second altar on the left has a Saint Paul baptizes Sabine and children by Pier Leone Ghezzi while the first altarpiece is a Virgin and Saints Lawrence and Anthony by Pietro de Pietri.
Six oval paintings on the right nave include canvases by P. de Agostino Masucci. On the left nave are five ovals, painted by P. de Pietri and Giovanni Domenico Piastrini. An altar in the lower church has a marble bas relief by Cosimo Fancelli. Titi, Filippo. Descrizione delle Sculture e Architetture esposte in Roma. Marco Pagliarini, Rome. Pp. 318–319. Luigi Cavazzi, La diaconia di S. Maria in Via Lata e il monastero di S. Ciriaco: memorie storiche. Richard Krautheimer, Corpus Basilicarum Christianarum Romae: The Early Christian Basilicas of Rome, pp. 72 ff. Santa Maria in Via Lata. Tyrone Joseph Castellarin, The Facade of Santa Maria in Via Lata by Pietro Da Cortona. Carlo Bertelli and Carlo Galassi Paluzzi, S. Maria in via Lata. Ingrid Baumgartner, Regesten aus dem Kapitelarchiv von S. Maria in Via Lata Teil 1, Teil 2. Marcello Villani, La facciata di S. Maria in via Lata: committenza, proporzionamento, ordini. Roberta Pardi, La diaconia di Santa Maria in Via Lata, Roma. Maria Costanza Pierdomenici, La chiesa di Santa Maria in via Lata: note di storia e di restauro
Pietro Alessandro Gaspare Scarlatti was an Italian Baroque composer, known for his operas and chamber cantatas. He is considered the founder of the Neapolitan school of opera, he was the father of Domenico Scarlatti and Pietro Filippo Scarlatti. Scarlatti was born in Palermo part of the Kingdom of Sicily, he is said to have been a pupil of Giacomo Carissimi in Rome, some theorize that he had some connection with northern Italy because his early works seem to show the influence of Stradella and Legrenzi. The production at Rome of his opera Gli equivoci nel sembiante gained him the support of Queen Christina of Sweden, he became her maestro di cappella. In February 1684 he became maestro di cappella to the viceroy of Naples through the influence of his sister, an opera singer, who might have been the mistress of an influential Neapolitan noble. Here he produced a long series of operas, remarkable chiefly for their fluency and expressiveness, as well as other music for state occasions. In 1702 Scarlatti left Naples and did not return until the Spanish domination had been superseded by that of the Austrians.
In the interval he enjoyed the patronage of Ferdinando de' Medici, for whose private theatre near Florence he composed operas, of Cardinal Ottoboni, who made him his maestro di cappella, procured him a similar post at the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome in 1703. After visiting Venice and Urbino in 1707, Scarlatti took up his duties in Naples again in 1708, remained there until 1717. By this time Naples seems to have become tired of his music, his last work on a large scale appears to have been the unfinished Erminia serenata for the marriage of the prince of Stigliano in 1723. He is entombed there at the church of Santa Maria di Montesanto. Scarlatti's music forms an important link between the early Baroque Italian vocal styles of the 17th century, with their centers in Florence and Rome, the classical school of the 18th century. Scarlatti's style, however, is more than a transitional element in Western music, his early operas—Gli equivoci nel sembiante 1679. By 1686, he had established the "Italian overture" form, had abandoned the ground bass and the binary form air in two stanzas in favour of the ternary form or da capo type of air.
His best operas of this period are La Rosaura, Pirro e Demetrio, in which occur the arias "Le Violette", "Ben ti sta, traditor". From about 1697 onwards, influenced perhaps by the style of Giovanni Bononcini and more by the taste of the viceregal court, his opera arias become more conventional and commonplace in rhythm, while his scoring is hasty and crude, yet not without brilliance, the oboes and trumpets being used, the violins playing in unison; the operas composed for Ferdinando de' Medici are lost. Mitridate Eupatore, accounted his masterpiece, composed for Venice in 1707, contains music far in advance of anything that Scarlatti had written for Naples, both in technique and in intellectual power; the Neapolitan operas are showy and effective rather than profoundly emotional. In his opera Teodora he originated the use of the orchestral ritornello, his last group of operas, composed for Rome, exhibit a deeper poetic feeling, a broad and dignified style of melody, a strong dramatic sense in accompanied recitatives, a device which he himself had been the first to use as early as 1686 and a much more modern style of orchestration, the horns appearing for the first time, being treated with striking effect.
Besides the operas and serenatas, which all exhibit a similar style, Scarlatti composed upwards of five hundred chamber-cantatas for solo voice. These represent the most intellectual type of chamber-music of their period, it is to be regretted that they have remained entirely in manuscript, since a careful study of them is indispensable to anyone w
Olimpia Aldobrandini was a member of the Aldobrandini family of Rome, the sole heiress to the family fortune. Donna Olimpia Aldobrandini was born 20 April 1623, the daughter of Giorgio Aldobrandini and Ippolita Ludovisi. In 1638, she married Prince Paolo Borghese of the Borghese family who died in 1646; the following year, in 1647, she married Camillo Pamphili who renounced a cardinalate to become her husband. Part of her dowry of her second marriage was a collection of paintings, villas in Montemagnanapoli and Frascati, the great Aldobrandini estates in Romagna on the Corso in Rome and the Palazzo Aldobrandini; these estates and property thus passed to the Pamphili family and became the nucleus for the Galleria Doria Pamphilj. Aldobrandini and Camillo Pamphili had five children including Giovan Battista Pamphili, Benedetto Pamphili and Anna Pamphili who married the Genoese nobleman Giovanni Andrea III Doria Landi in 1671; when the Roman branch of the Pamphlili family ended in 1760, it was the descendants of Anna and Giovanni who inherited the palazzo in Rome.
Children with Prince Borghese: Giovanni Giorgio Borghese Camillo Borghese Francesco Borghese Giovanni Battista Borghese, Principe Borghese married Eleonora Boncompagni and had issue. Maria Virginia Borghese had issue. Children with Pamphili: Flaminia Pamphili married Bernardino Savelli, Duke of Castelgandolfo and had no children. Teresa Pamphili had children. Anna Pamphili founded the Doria-Pamphili-Landi line. Benedetto cardinal. Giambattista Pamphili, Prince of Carpinetti & of Belvedere married Violante Facchinetti and a daughter Olimpia who married Filippo Colonna, Prince of Paliano, son of Marie Mancini Pamphili family, with inclusive family tree. Doria Pamhpilj Gallery http://www.doriapamphilj.it/roma/la-galleria-doria-pamphilj/ The Will of Olimpia Aldobrandini, transcribed by Maria Gemma Paviolo, kept in Rome Historical Archive, ASR,30 NOTAI, Ufficio 18, Testamenti 1675-1685
The Latin word basilica has three distinct applications in modern English. The word was used to refer to an ancient Roman public building, where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions, it had the door at one end and a raised platform and an apse at the other, where the magistrate or other officials were seated. The basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. Subsequently, the basilica was not built near a forum but adjacent to a palace and was known as a "palace basilica"; as the Roman Empire adopted Christianity, the major church buildings were constructed with this basic architectural plan and thus it became popular throughout Europe. It continues to be used in an architectural sense to describe rectangular buildings with a central nave and aisles, a raised platform at the opposite end from the door. In Europe and the Americas the basilica remained the most common architectural style for churches of all Christian denominations, though this building plan has become less dominant in new buildings since the latter 20th century.
Thirdly, the term refers to an official designation: a large and important Catholic church, given special ceremonial rights by the Pope, whatever its architectural plan. These are divided into four major basilicas, all of which are ancient churches located within Rome, and, as of 2017, 1,757 minor basilicas around the world; some Catholic basilicas are Catholic pilgrimage sites, receiving tens of millions of visitors per year. In December 2009 the Basilica of Our Lady of Guadalupe set a new record with 6.1 million pilgrims during Friday and Saturday for the anniversary of Our Lady of Guadalupe. The Latin word basilica lit. "royal stoa" referring to the tribunal chamber of a king. In Rome the word was at first used to describe an ancient Roman public building where courts were held, as well as serving other official and public functions. To a large extent these were the town halls of ancient Roman life; the basilica was centrally located in every Roman town adjacent to the main forum. These buildings, an example of, the Basilica Ulpia, were rectangular, had a central nave and aisles with a raised platform and an apse at each of the two ends, adorned with a statue of the emperor, while the entrances were from the long sides.
By extension the name was applied to Christian churches which adopted the same basic plan and it continues to be used as an architectural term to describe such buildings, which form the majority of church buildings in Western Christianity, though the basilican building plan became less dominant in new buildings from the 20th century. The Roman basilica was a large public building; the first basilicas had no religious function at all. As early as the time of Augustus, a public basilica for transacting business had been part of any settlement that considered itself a city, used in the same way as the covered market houses of late medieval northern Europe, where the meeting room, for lack of urban space, was set above the arcades, however. Although their form was variable, basilicas contained interior colonnades that divided the space, giving aisles or arcaded spaces on one or both sides, with an apse at one end, where the magistrates sat on a raised dais; the central aisle tended to be wide and was higher than the flanking aisles, so that light could penetrate through the clerestory windows.
The oldest known basilica, the Basilica Porcia, was built in Rome in 184 BC by Cato the Elder during the time he was Censor. Other early examples include the basilica at Pompeii; the most splendid Roman basilica is the one begun for traditional purposes during the reign of the pagan emperor Maxentius and finished by Constantine I after 313 AD. Basilica Porcia: first basilica built in Rome, erected on the personal initiative and financing of the censor Marcus Porcius Cato as an official building for the tribunes of the plebs Aemilian Basilica, built by the censor Aemilius Lepidus in 179 BC Basilica Sempronia, built by the censor Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus in 169 BC Basilica Opimia, erected by the consul Lucius Opimius in 121 BC, at the same time that he restored the temple of Concord Julian Basilica dedicated in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and completed by Augustus 27 BC to 14 AD Basilica Argentaria, erected under Trajan, emperor from 98 AD to 117AD Basilica of Maxentius and Constantine In the Roman Imperial period, a basilica for large audiences became a feature in palaces.
In the 3rd century AD, the governing elite appeared less in the forums. They now tended to dominate their cities from opulent palaces and country villas, set a little apart from traditional centers of public life. Rather than retreats from public life, these residences were the forum made private. Seated in the tribune of his basilica, the great man would meet his dependent clientes early every morning. Constantine's basilica at Trier, the Aula Palatina, is still standing. A private basilica excavated at Bulla Regia, in the "House of the Hunt", dates from the first half of the 5th century, its reception or audience hall is a long rectangular nave-like space, flanked by dependent rooms that also open into one another, ending in a semi-circular apse, with matching transept spaces. Cluster
San Cesareo de Appia
San Cesareo in Palatio or San Caesareo de Appia is a titular church in Rome, near the beginning of the Appian Way. It is dedicated to Saint Caesarius of a 2nd-century deacon and martyr. In the 4th century, Emperor Valentinian was cured at the shrine of Caesarius at Terracina, the site of his martyrdom; the emperor decided to move his relics to Rome. They were taken to a church on the Palatine Hill, when they were moved to a new church, that church got the name "in Palatio", "at the Palace", it is known as San Cesareo de Appia. Excavations have revealed a Roman bath on the site from the 2nd or 3rd century, with a huge black and white mosaic depicting Neptune and marine creatures, along with foundations of what is thought to be the first church here, built in the 8th century. No written evidence exists for the church's origins. In the Middle Ages, the church was part of a hospice and hospital for pilgrims, had a column in front of it to demonstrate this; the present church is the result of reconstruction work undertaken in 1602/3, supervised by the great historian Cardinal Cesare Baronio, titular here and whose house survives.
The coat-of-arms of the reigning Pope Clement VIII, of the Aldobrandini family, was added to the coffered ceiling. The central panel of the latter depicts St Caesarius. Though they have now been lost to pollution, at this same period frescoes were added to the facade, the work of Giacomo della Porta; the Cosmatesque pulpit, the balustrades, the altar frontal and episcopal chair behind the altar may have been brought here at this time from San Giovanni in Laterano, when work was undertaken at this period in the transepts there, although they came from other churches. The paintings between the windows are 17th century, by Cavalier D'Arpino and Cesare Rosetti, depict the martyrdoms of St Caesarius and of several saints named Hippolytus, a compliment to Pope Clement VIII, whose baptismal name was Ippolito, it was Cavalier D'Arpino who produced the design for the rare motif in the mosaic, God the Father. Another restoration occurred in the years 1955 to 1963. John Paul II was the titular cardinal of this church.
Niccolò Pandolfini pro hac vice Louis de Gorrevod pro hac vice Bartolomeo Guidiccioni pro hac vice Cristoforo Madruzzo pro hac vice Pier Francesco Ferrero pro hac vice Archangelo de' Bianchi pro hac vice Silvestro Aldobrandini Carlo Gaudenzio Madruzzo pro hac vice Gian Giacomo Teodoro Trivulzio Carlo Rossetti Friedrich von Hessen-Darmstadt Carlo Barberini Girolamo Casanate Benedetto Pamphili Giovanni Francesco Negroni Giambattista Spinola pro hac vice Thomas Philip Wallrad d’Hénin-Liétard d'Alsace-Boussu de Chimay pro hac vice Giovanni Battista Spinola Gian Francesco Albani Giovanni Costanzio Caracciolo Bernardino De Vecchi Giovanni Cornaro Filippo Campanelli Giuseppe Albani Tommaso Bernetti Giuseppe Bofondi Ignazio Masotti Achille Apolloni Giuseppe Antonio Ermenegildo Prisco Willem Marinus van Rossum Franziskus Ehrle Domenico Mariani Francesco Bracci Karol Jozef Wojtyła pro hac vice Andrzej Maria Deskur pro hac vice Antonio Maria Vegliò
Doria Pamphilj Gallery
The Doria Pamphilj Gallery is a large art collection housed in the Palazzo Doria Pamphilj in Rome, between Via del Corso and Via della Gatta. The principal entrance is on the Via del Corso; the palace façade on Via del Corso is adjacent to Santa Maria in Via Lata. Like the palace, it is still owned by the princely Roman family Doria Pamphili; the large collection of paintings and statuary has been assembled since the 16th century by the Doria, Pamphilj and Aldobrandini families now united through marriage and descent under the simplified surname Doria Pamphilj. The collection includes paintings and furnishings from Innocent X's Palazzo Pamphilj, who bequeathed them to his nephew Camillo Pamphilj; the Palazzo has grown over the centuries. The main collection is displayed in state rooms, including the chapel, complete with the mummified corpse of the family saint. However, the bulk is displayed in a series of four gilded and painted galleries surrounding a courtyard. An extensive suite of further rooms have now been converted to permanent well-lit galleries, containing the more medieval and Byzantine art in the collection.
The palace was renovated for the marriage of Andrea IV Doria Pamphilj Landi to Princess Leopoldina Maria of Savoy, daughter of Louis Victor, Prince of Carignan and Christine of Hesse-Rotenburg in 1767. Work was carried out under the supervision of an architect from Trapani. Velázquez's portrait of Innocent X, who rose to papacy as cardinal Giovan Battista Pamphilj in 1644, is considered the collection's masterpiece. Velázquez while not idealizing the pope's countenance, is not unflattering in the portrait; the portrait painted to commemorate the Holy Year was commissioned by his hedonistic sister-in-law Olimpia Maidalchini, his close confidante and adviser, some say mistress. Since 1927, Velázquez's portrait was placed in a specially designated small room along with a sculptured bust of the same pope by Bernini. Olimpia Maidalchini's son Camillo Pamphilj, defying his powerful mother, renounced the Cardinalship conferred on him by his uncle the Pope and married the widowed Olimpia Borghese. Born an Aldobrandini, she brought the palazzo known as Palazzo Aldobrandini into the Pamphilj family.
Following a period of exile in the country, to avoid confrontation with the Pope and Olimpia Maidalchini, the newly married couple took up permanent residence in the Palazzo Aldobrandini which from 1654 Camillo began to expand on a large scale. The architect in charge of this lengthy project was Antonio Del Grande; the façade facing the Via del Corso, however, is by Gabriele Valvassori. Following Camillo's death in 1666, building continued under the auspices of his two sons Giovanni Battista and Benedetto. One of Camillo and Olimpia's daughters, Anna Pamphilj, married the Genoese aristocrat Giovanni Andrea III Doria Landi in 1671, it was their descendants who inherited the Palazzo when the Roman branch of the Pamphilj family ended in 1760. In 1763 Prince Andrea IV combined his Roman names to the present Doria-Pamphilj-Landi. In 1767 the ceilings of the state rooms were frescoed by late-baroque artists such as Crescenzio Onofri, Aureliano Milani, Stefano Pozzi; the collection was first opened to the public by the three-quarters English Princess Orietta Pogson Doria Pamphilj, whose English husband Commander Frank Pogson added her name to his.
Her own father, Prince Filippo Andrea VI, was half English. Princess Orietta and Commander Frank did much to restore the Palazzo. Along with the possessions of the Colonna and Pallavicini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome; the Family chapel was designed by architect Carlo Fontana in the late 17th century, but since altered. The ivory crucifix was carved by Ercole Ferrata. Saletta Gialla and Rossa contain Gobelins tapestries, including those on Zodiac signs by Claude Audran. Sala del Poussin: Landscapes by Claude Lorraine. Birth of Adonis and the Rape of Adonis by Poussin and Giacomo Eremiti. Main painting galleries: 1st Gallery: Mary Magdalene by Carracci. 2nd Gallery: Velázquez and Bernini portraits, antique Roman statues. Saletta del Seicento: Caravaggio's Penitent Magdalene and The Rest on the Flight into Egypt Saletta del Cinquecento: Double portrait by Raphael. Saletta del Quattrocento: works by Ludovico Mazzolino and Antoniazzo Romano. 3rd Gallery: St Jerome by Lotto.
4th Gallery: bust of Olimpia Aldobrandini by Algardi. Saletta degli Specchi: Landscape by Domenichino. Salone Aldobrandini: antique sculptures and marble reliefs by Duquesnoy. Roo