Benedict Arnold was an American military officer who served as a general during the American Revolutionary War, fighting for the American Continental Army before defecting to the British in 1780. George Washington had given him his fullest trust and placed him in command of the fortifications at West Point, New York. Arnold planned to surrender the fort to British forces, but the plot was discovered in September 1780 and he fled to the British, his name became a byword in the United States for treason and betrayal because he led the British army in battle against the men whom he had once commanded. Arnold was born in the Connecticut Colony and was a merchant operating ships on the Atlantic Ocean when the war began in 1775, he joined the growing army outside Boston and distinguished himself through acts of intelligence and bravery. His actions included the Capture of Fort Ticonderoga in 1775, defensive and delaying tactics at the Battle of Valcour Island on Lake Champlain in 1776 which allowed American forces time to prepare New York's defenses, the Battle of Ridgefield, operations in relief of the Siege of Fort Stanwix, key actions during the pivotal Battles of Saratoga in 1777, in which he suffered leg injuries that halted his combat career for several years.
Arnold claimed that he was passed over for promotion by the Continental Congress, while other officers obtained credit for some of his accomplishments. Others in his military and political circles brought charges against him of corruption or other malfeasance, but most he was acquitted in formal inquiries. Congress investigated his accounts and concluded that he was indebted to Congress, he borrowed to maintain a lavish lifestyle. Arnold mingled with Loyalist sympathizers in Philadelphia and married into one such family by marrying Peggy Shippen, she was a close friend of British Major John André and kept in contact with him when he became head of the British espionage system in New York. Many historians point to her as facilitating Arnold's plans to switch sides; the British promised £ 20,000 for the capture of a major American stronghold. His scheme was to surrender the fort to the British, but it was exposed in September 1780 when Patriot militia captured André carrying papers which revealed the plot.
Arnold escaped and André was hanged. Arnold received a commission as a brigadier general in the British Army, an annual pension of £360, a lump sum of over £6,000, he led British forces in the Raid of Richmond and nearby areas, they burned much of New London, Connecticut, to the ground and slaughtered surrendering forces after the Battle of Groton Heights—just a few miles downriver from the town where he had grown up. In the winter of 1782, he and Peggy moved to England, he was well received by King George III and the Tories but frowned upon by the Whigs and most Army officers. In 1787, he moved to Canada to a merchant business with his sons Henry, he was unpopular there and returned to London permanently in 1791. Benedict Arnold was born a British subject, the second of six children of Benedict Arnold and Hannah Waterman King in Norwich, Connecticut Colony on January 14, 1741, he was named after his great-grandfather Benedict Arnold, an early governor of the Colony of Rhode Island, as were his father and grandfather and an older brother who died in infancy.
Only he and his sister Hannah survived to adulthood. His siblings were, in order of birth: Benedict, Mary and Elizabeth. Arnold was a descendant of John Lothropp through his maternal grandmother, an ancestor of six presidents. Arnold's father was a successful businessman, the family moved in the upper levels of Norwich society, he was enrolled in a private school in nearby Canterbury, when he was 10, with the expectation that he would attend Yale University. However, the deaths of his siblings two years may have contributed to a decline in the family fortunes, since his father took up drinking. By the time that he was 14, there was no money for private education, his father's alcoholism and ill health kept him from training Arnold in the family mercantile business, but his mother's family connections secured an apprenticeship for him with her cousins Daniel and Joshua Lathrop, who operated a successful apothecary and general merchandise trade in Norwich. His apprenticeship with the Lathrops lasted seven years.
Arnold was close to his mother, who died in 1759. His father's alcoholism worsened after her death, the youth took on the responsibility of supporting his father and younger sister, his father was arrested on several occasions for public drunkenness, was refused communion by his church, died in 1761. In 1755, Arnold was attracted by the sound of a drummer and attempted to enlist in the provincial militia for service in the French and Indian War, but his mother refused permission. In 1757 when he was 16, he did enlist in the Connecticut militia, which marched off toward Albany, New York and Lake George; the French had besieged Fort William Henry in northeastern New York, their Indian allies had committed atrocities after their victory. Word of the siege's disastrous outcome led the company to turn around, Arnold served for only 13 days. A accepted story that he deserted fro
The Austrian Holocaust Memorial Award was founded by the Austrian Service Abroad in 2006. The prize is annually conferred to a person or an institution, which has shown special endeavors for the memory of the Shoa. Since 1992 Austria has annually sent young Austrians abroad to serve in form of Austrian Holocaust Memorial Servants in many places around the world remembering the crimes of Nazism and commemorating its victims. Example partner institutions are the Auschwitz Jewish Center in Poland, Yad Vashem in Israel, the Simon Wiesenthal Centre in the United States, the Jewish Museum Berlin in Germany, the Jewish Holocaust Centre in Australia, the Russian Research and Educational Holocaust Center in Russia and the Center of Jewish Studies Shanghai in China; this service is rooted in responsibility for the crimes committed by the Austrian National Socialists. On October 17, 2006, the Chinese historian Pan Guang was awarded the first AHMA prize. Michael Prochazka and Austrian Servand Abroad of the Year 2006 Martin Wallner attended the reception in Shanghai.
The Brazilian journalist Alberto Dines was crowned as the AHMA 2007 winner on October 24, 2007 at the Austrian consulate in Rio de Janeiro for his effort to establish Casa Stefan Zweig, a museum devoted to Stefan Zweig in Petropolis, his book Morte no paraíso, a tragédia de Stefan Zweig. In March 2008, Robert Hébras was assigned with the award at the Austrian embassy in Paris in presence of Beate Klarsfeld and Andreas Maislinger, founder of the Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service and initiator of the AHMA. Robert Hébras is one of only six survivors of the massacre of Oradour and is still giving tours at the age of 84. For 2009 Jay M. Ipson received the Austrian Holocaust Memorial Award. Austrian Ambassador to the United States of America Dr. Christian Prosl visited the Virginia Holocaust Museum and presented the award to the co-founder and Executive Director. Ipson is a Holocaust survivor from Lithuania, deported to the Kovno Ghetto at the age of six. On October 28, 2010, the Austrian ambassador to Australia, Dr. Hannes Porias, conferred the award to the Austrian-born Holocaust survivor Eva Marks in Melbourne and read a letter of congratulations from the president of the Austrian parliament, Barbara Prammer.
The prime minister of Australia, Julia Gillard, sent a congratulatory letter, conferred by the Australian MP Michael Danby. 2006 Pan Guang, China 2007 Alberto Dines, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 2008 Robert Hébras, Oradour-sur-Glane, France 2009 Jay M. Ipson, Virginia, United States 2010 Eva Marks, Australia 2011 Auschwitz Jewish Center, Poland 2012 Ladislaus Löb, England 2013 Hugo Höllenreiner, Germany 2014 Marģers Vestermanis, Latvia 2015 Erika Rosenberg, Buenos Aires, Argentina 2016 Giorgio Frassineti, Italy 2017 Ruben Fuks, Serbia 2018 Alla Gerber and Ilya Altman, Russia 2019 Tomislav Dulic, Sweden Austrian Service Abroad Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service Andreas Maislinger Austrian Holocaust Memorial Service Austrian Holocaust Memorial Award
The desert owl or desert tawny owl known as Hume's owl, is a species of owl. It is related to the more widespread tawny owl and to the range-restricted Omani owl; this species is a part of the family Strigidae known as typical owls, which contains most species of owl. The other owl family is Tytonidae; the desert owl breeds in Israel, northeast Egypt and the Arabian peninsula. Its habitat includes desert, semi-desert, rocky ravines, palm groves, it nests in holes in cliffs. Its diet consists of voles and large insects; this is smaller than the tawny owl at 29 -- 33 cm in length. It is nocturnal and sedentary, its stocky body and round head recall a small tawny owl, but it is paler, less streaked on the underparts, has yellow eyes. The call of the desert owl is a hoooo-ho-ho-ho-ho, described as similar in rhythm to Eurasian collared dove; the call of females is less distinct than the call of males. This species was known for over a century by the scientific name Strix butleri, but a 2015 study demonstrated that the holotype of S. butleri was not a member of this species, but was instead most an Omani owl.
Because the allocation of Strix butleri to the Omani owl left the more widespread species without a name, the authors of the study named it S. hadorami after Israeli ornithologist Hadoram Shirihai, gave it the new common name desert tawny owl. Omani owl