Bengali Hindus are an ethnic and religious population who make up the majority in the Indian states of West Bengal and Nicobar Islands and Tripura. In Bangladesh, they form the largest minority, they are Bengalis adherents of Hinduism, are native to the Bengal region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent. Bengali Hindus speak Bengali, which belongs to the Indo-Aryan language family and adhere to the Shakta and Vaishnava traditions of their native religion, Hinduism. There are significant numbers of Bengali-speaking Hindus in different Indian states. Around the 8th century, the Bengali language branched off from Magadhi Prakrit, a derivative of Sanskrit, prevalent in the eastern region of the Indian Subcontinent at that time. During the Sena period the Bengali culture developed into a distinct culture within the Hindu civilisation. Bengali Hindus were at the forefront of the Bengal Renaissance in the 19th century; the Bengal region was noted for its participation in struggle for the independence from the British rule.
At the time of independence of India in 1947, the province of Bengal was partitioned between India and East Pakistan, part of the Muslim-majority state of Pakistan. Millions of Bengali Hindus migrated from East Bengal and settled in West Bengal and other states of India; the migration continued in waves through the fifties and sixties during the 1950 East Pakistan genocide in which estimated 4.5 million Hindus migrated to Indiaand during 1964 East-Pakistan riots, an estimated 135,000 Hindus migrated to India In 1971, during the Bangladesh Liberation War, an estimated 2.4 million Bengali Hindus were massacred by the Pakistani army. Estimates for the total number of people killed by Pakistan Army range from 300,000 to 3,000,000.. The 1971 massacre again led to exodus of millions of Hindus to India; the Hindus are a religious group, native to the Indian subcontinent, speaking a broad range of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian languages and adhering to the native belief systems, rooted in the Vedas. The word Hindu is popularly believed to be a Persian exonym for the people native to the Indian subcontinent.
The word is derived from Sindhu, the Sanskrit name for the river Indus and it referred to the people residing to the east of the river. The Hindus are constituted into various ethno-linguistic subgroups, which in spite of being culturally diverse, share a common bond of unity; the word Bengali is derived from the Bengali word bangali. The English word Bengali denoting the people as well as the language is derived from the English word Bengal denoting the region, which itself is derived from the Bengali word Vanga, one of the five historical kingdoms of Eastern India. According to Harivamsa, the king of the asuras had five sons from his wife Sudeshna through sage Dirghatama; the five sons namely Anga, Kalinga and Sumha went on to found five kingdoms of the same name in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent. In ancient times Vanga proper consisted of the deltaic region between Bhagirathi and Madhumati, but on extended to include the regions which now comprise the Indian state of West Bengal and Bangladesh.
In India, they tend to identify themselves as Bengalis while in Bangladesh they tend to identify themselves as Hindus. In the global context, the terms Indian Bengali and Bangladeshi Hindu are used. In India, Bengali refers to Bengali Hindus, excluding a significant number of Bengali Muslims who are ethnically Bengalis. The'other' is identified as'non-Bengali', a term that generically refers to the Hindu people who are not Bengali speaking, but sometimes used to denote the Hindi speaking population; the Bengali Hindus constitute of numerous endogamous castes, which are sometimes further subdivided into endogamous subgroups. The caste system became more and more complex with time. In the medieval period, several castes were boycotted by the ruling classes from time to time and this isolation continued till the 19th century; these social boycotts were somewhat discriminatory in nature. After the Renaissance, the rigidity of the caste system ceased to a great extent, so much so that the first celebrated intercaste marriage took place as early as in 1925.
The Bengali Hindu families are patriarchal as well as patrilocal and traditionally follow a joint family system. However, due to the Partition and subsequent urbanisation, the joint families have given way to the nuclear families; the Bengali Hindus were traditionally governed by the Dāyabhāga school of law, as opposed to the Mitākṣarā school of law, which governed the other Hindu ethno-linguistic groups. In India, after the promulgation of the Hindu code bills, the Bengali Hindus along with other Hindus are being governed by a uniform Hindu law. There are two major social subgroups among the Bengali Hindus -- the bangals; the Bengali Hindus who emigrated from East Bengal at the wake of the Partition and settled in West Bengal, came to known as the bangals, while the native Bengali Hindus of West Bengal came to known as ghotis. For several decades after partition, these two social subgroups possessed marked difference in their accents and their rivalry was manifested in many spheres of life, most notably in the support for the football clubs of East Bengal and Mohun Bagan respectively.
Several such differences have eased with passing years. In the ancient times, some of the Bengali Hindus were seafaring people as evident from Vijay Singha's naval conquest of Lanka, the tales of merchants like Chand Sadagar and Dhanapati Saudagor whose ships sailed to far off places for trade and establishment of colonies in South East Asia. By the 3rd c
Nouvion Airfield was a pre-war airport and World War II military airfield in Algeria, located about 5 km west of Camp Militaire d' El Ghomri in Mascara province. The facility was built in the 1930s as a civil airport. In the immediate aftermath of the Allied Operation Torch landings in Algeria on 8 November 1942, the airport was taken over by the United States Army Air Force Twelfth Air Force as a military airfield; when taken over by the USAAF, Nouvion consisted of one long building and a rough airstrip. The Army Corps of Engineers moved in to upgrade the facility to minimum military requirements; the airport's runway was improved and a pierced steel planking parking apron was constructed, utilizing the few permanent existing structures. Tents were used for ground support personnel billeting. After several weeks, the 1st Fighter Group arrived at the field from Oran Tafaraoui Airport on 20 November, operating P-38 Lightnings. During its entire tenure at the airfield, the 1st flew combat operations while ongoing construction continued.
It moved east on 14 December to Biskra. Other units that were assigned to Nouvion were: HQ, 87th Fighter Wing, 11 January-9 February 1944 27th Bombardment Group, January–April 1943, A-20 Havoc 62d Troop Carrier Group, 24 December 1942 – 16 May 1943, C-47 Skytrain 316th Troop Carrier Group, 9–29 May 1943, C-47 SkytrainActive operations at the airfield ended by the end of May 1943, as the front moved east into Tunisia; the Americans dismantled their facilities by the end of July and returned the former airport to French authorities. Today, the airfield is part of the Algerian Military Camp Militaire d' El Ghomri; this article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website http://www.afhra.af.mil/. Maurer, Maurer. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History, 1983. ISBN 0-89201-092-4
Radiance is a 1998 Australian independent film. It is the first feature film by Aboriginal director Rachel Perkins about three indigenous sisters who reunite for their mother's funeral; the film is based on the play written by Louis Nowra. Rachael Maza as Cressy Deborah Mailman as Nona Trisha Morton-Thomas as Mae Rachel Perkins became aware of the play when she saw Trisha Morton-Thomas perform Mae's beach monologue as a part of the Eora College end of year student showcase. Perkins called Louis Nowra to adapt it into a half-hour drama but Nowra suggested they make it as a feature. Australian Film InstituteBest Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role: Deborah Mailman Nominations: Best Achievement in Direction, Best Achievement in Editing, Best Achievement in Production Design, Best Film, Best Screenplay Adapted from Another SourceAustralian Screen Sound GuildBest Achievement in Sound Design & FX Editing for a Feature FilmCanberra International Film FestivalAudience AwardFilm Critics Circle of Australia AwardsBest Actor – Female: Deborah Mailman Nomination: Best Screenplay – AdaptedMelbourne International Film FestivalMost Popular Feature Film
The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and record or broadcast a scene, it is contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. The two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or "crosses" of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a wider master shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action; this is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent in film or video editing. It is a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle.
It reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television. Drawbacks include a less optimized lighting which needs to provide a compromise for all camera angles and less flexibility in putting the necessary equipment on scene, such as microphone booms and lighting rigs; these can be efficiently hidden from just one camera but can be more complicated to set up and their placement may be inferior in a multiple-camera setup. Another drawback is in film usage—a four-camera setup may use up to four times as much film per take, compared with a single-camera setup. While shooting, the director and assistant director create a line cut by instructing the technical director to switch between the feeds from the individual cameras. In the case of sitcoms with studio audiences, this line cut is displayed to them on studio monitors; the line cut might be refined in editing, as the output from all cameras is recorded, both separately and as a combined reference display called the q split.
The camera being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators. The use of multiple film cameras dates back to the development of narrative silent films, with the earliest example being the first Russian feature film Defence of Sevastopol and directed by Vasily Goncharov and Aleksandr Khanzhonkov; when sound came into the picture multiple cameras were used to film multiple sets at a single time. Early sound was recorded onto wax discs; the use of multiple video cameras to cover a scene goes back to the earliest days of television. The BBC used multiple cameras for their live television shows from 1936 onward. Although it is claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos'n Andy Show, filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
The technique was developed for television by Hollywood short-subject veteran Jerry Fairbanks, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, first seen on the anthology series The Silver Theater, another CBS program, in February 1950. Desilu's innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a live studio audience. In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy. Actor Robin Williams could not stay on his marks due to his physically active improvisations during shooting, so Marshall had them add the fourth camera just to stay on Williams so they would have more than just the master shot of the actor. Soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies; the multiple-camera method gives the director less control over each shot but is faster and less expensive than a single-camera setup. In television, multiple-camera is used for sports programs, news programs, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, some sitcoms.
Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, the earliest anthology programs utilized multiple camera methods. Multiple cameras can take different shots of a live situation as the action unfolds chronologically and is suitable for shows which require a live audience. For this reason, multiple camera productions can be taped much faster than single camera. Single camera productions are shot in takes and various setups with components of the action repeated several times and out of sequence. Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, The Cosby Show, Full House, Family Matters, Mad About You, The Drew Carey Show, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Moll
Another cricketer who played for Derbyshire during the 1919 season was named George Ratcliffe. George Ratcliffe was an English cricketer who played for Derbyshire from 1887 to 1889. Ratcliffe was born in Ilkeston, the son of George Ratcliff, a coal miner, his wife Priscilla, he became a butcher. Ratcliffe made his debut for Derbyshire in the 1887 season in a match in June against Surrey. In this he scored 64, but his average fell from this point in his remaining four first-class matches. At the end of the season Derbyshire left the championship but Ratcliffe continued to play for the club in the 1888 and 1889 season. Ratcliffe was a left-handed middle-upper order batsman and played in 10 innings in 5 first-class matches, he did not take a wicket. Ratcliffe died in Nottingham at the age of 71
Frederico Augusto Pieruccini "Freddy" Moojen is a Canadian soccer forward who plays for Longueuil in the PLSQ and for the Dallas Sidekicks in the Major Arena Soccer League. He shared the 2006 Premier Development League goals lead, he was the 2006 PDL MVP and the 2006-2007 Major Indoor Soccer League Rookie of the Year. In 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 he was the PLSQ Golden Boot winner playing for the L'Assomption and Mont-Royal Outremont. Moojen became a Canadian citizen in 2013, has since appeared for the Canadian national futsal team. Born in Balneário Camboriú, Brazil, in 1997 Moojen played for Coritiba Foot Ball Club’s youth team, he was with International FC in 2001 before signing with Avaí Futebol Clube, playing with them from 2001 to 2004. Moojen attended Lincoln Memorial University where he was a two-time Gulf South Conference Player of the Year and a 2005 NCAA Division II third team All American, he transferred to Clemson University. In 2004, he played for the Cocoa Expos in the fourth division Premier Development League.
He returned to the Expos in 2005, scoring 18 goals tying him with Andy Metcalf as the league’s leading scorer. In 2006, Moojen played for the Augusta FireBall, he was the 2006 PDL MVP. On January 25, 2007, the Montreal Impact of the USL First Division drafted Moojen, he signed with the Impact on March 1, 2007 and played fourteen games for the Impact before suffering from a season-ending injury. On April 21, 2008, he transferred from the Impact to the Minnesota Thunder in USL-1. Moojen was released by Thunder during the off-season. On August 28, 2007, he signed with the New Jersey Ironmen of the Major Indoor Soccer League after the Ironmen selected him in the second round in the MISL College Draft, he was the 2007-2008 MISL Rookie of the Year. The MISL collapsed at the end of the season and Moojen and his team mates moved to the newly created Xtreme Soccer League. Moojen, slowed by a toe injury played only seven games, scoring four goals, for the Ironmen before being traded to the Chicago Storm for Randi Patterson on January 31, 2009.
He moved to Poland, where he played in the colors of GKP Gorzów Wielkopolski. In the following year he went to play in the first division in Oman. In 2011–12 he played with the Wichita Wings in the MISL. In the summer of 2012 he played in the first professional league in Quebec, the Première Ligue de soccer du Québec, for the FC L'Assomption where he was the league's leading scorer and third best player. In the winter of 2012–13 he played his second season for the Wichita Wings in the Major Indoor Soccer League where he was the team's captain and leading scorer with 27 goals in 24 games. In 2013, he played again for the FC L'Assomption where he was the team's captain and league's leading scorer for the second consecutive year. In late 2013, Frederico Moojen signed a contract with the Baltimore Blast in the MISL and played with them for one season before the league dissolved, he played outdoor for FC L'Assomption for his third consecutive season in the PLSQ. In late September 2014, Moojen signed a new indoor contract with the Dallas Sidekicks of the Major Arena Soccer League, scoring 41 goals in 20 games for the Sidekicks.
Moojen was part of the Canadian National Arena soccer team that played in the Indoor Soccer World Cup in March 2015 scoring 7 goals in 3 games for Canada. In 2015, he signed with Montreal club Mont-Royal Outremont and was the Première Ligue de soccer du Québec top scorer for the fifth consecutive year. During the 2015/2016 winter he played for the St. Louis Ambush in the Major Arena Soccer League where he was named assistant coach/player scoring 10 goals in 12 games played. In 2016, Moojen began playing for the Florida Tropics SC during the winter in the new Indoor Professional League in the United States as a player-assistant coach. On 27 June 2018, Moojen extended his contract with the Tropics through 2020. Moojen had been the team's captain since its inception and left the team with more appearances than any other player. On 2 November 2017, Moojen signed with CS Longueuil. On 17 January 2019, the Florida Tropics traded Moojen to Utica City FC in exchange for Andre Braithwaite. Moojen was called by the Canadian National Futsal team to play in the 2016 CONCACAF Futsal Championship in Costa Rica.
Moojen was named the Top scorer of the tournament. Florida Tropics SC player profile Minnesota Thunder player profile New Jersey Ironmen player profile