Durga Puja called Durgotsava, is an annual Hindu festival in the Indian subcontinent that reveres the goddess Durga. It is popular in West Bengal, Tripura, Odisha and the diaspora from this region, in Nepal where it is called Dashain; the festival is observed in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin September or October of the Gregorian calendar, is a multi-day festival that features elaborate temple and stage decorations, scripture recitation, performance arts and processions. It is a major festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism across Shakta Hindu diaspora. Durga Puja festival marks the battle of goddess Durga with the shape-shifting and powerful buffalo demon Mahishasura, her emerging victorious. Thus, the festival epitomises the victory of good over evil, but it is in part a harvest festival that marks the goddess as the motherly power behind all of life and creation; the Durga Puja festival dates coincide with Vijayadashami observed by other traditions of Hinduism, where the Ram Lila is enacted — the victory of Rama is marked and effigies of demon Ravana are burnt instead.
The primary goddess revered during Durga Puja is Durga, but her stage and celebrations feature other major deities of Hinduism such as goddess Lakshmi, Saraswati and Kartikeya. In the Bengali traditions, the other deities next to her side are considered to be the children of Durga; the Hindu god Shiva, as Durga's husband, is revered during this festival. The festival begins on the first day with Mahalaya, marking Durga's advent in her battle against evil. Starting with the sixth day, the goddess is welcomed, festive Durga worship and celebrations begin in elaborately decorated temples and pandals hosting the statues. Lakshmi and Saraswati are revered on the following days; the festival ends of the tenth day of Vijaya Dashami, when with drum beats of music and chants, Shakta Hindu communities start a procession carrying the colorful clay statues to a river or ocean and immerse them, as a form of goodbye and her return to divine cosmos and Mount Kailash. The festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began.
Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century. The prominence of Durga Puja increased during the British Raj in its provinces of Assam. Durga Puja is a ten-day festival, of which the last five are special and an annual holiday in regions such as West Bengal, Bihar and Tripura where it is popular. In the contemporary era, the importance of Durga Puja is as much as a social festival as a religious one wherever it is observed. In West Bengal, Bihar and Tripura, Durga Puja is called Akalbodhan, Sharadiya Pujo, Maha Pujo, Maayer Pujo, Durga Pujo, or Puja or Pujo. In Bangladesh, Durga Puja used to be celebrated as Bhagabati Puja. Durga puja is called Navaratri Puja elsewhere in India, such as in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Maharashtra, Kullu Dussehra in Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, Mysore Dussehra in Mysore, Bommai Golu in Tamil Nadu and Bommala koluvu in Andhra Pradesh and Bathukamma in Telangana.
Durga is an ancient deity of Hinduism, according to textual evidence available. However, the origins of Durga Puja are undocumented. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga Puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century; the 11th or 12th century Jainism text Yasatilaka by Somadeva mentions a festival and annual dates dedicated to a warrior goddess, celebrated by the king and his armed forces, the description mirrors attributes of a Durga Puja. The word Durga, related terms appear in the Vedic literature, such as in the Rigveda hymns 4.28, 5.34, 8.27, 8.47, 8.93 and 10.127, in sections 10.1 and 12.4 of the Atharvaveda. A deity named Durgi appears in section 10.1.7 of the Taittiriya Aranyaka. While the Vedic literature uses the word Durga, the description therein lacks the legendary details about her or about Durga puja, found in Hindu literature. A key text associated with Durga Puja observations is Devi Mahatmya, recited during the festival.
Durga was well established before the time this Hindu text was composed, which scholars variously estimate to between 400 and 600 CE. The Devi Mahatmya mythology describes the nature of demonic forces symbolized by Mahishasura as shape-shifting and adapting in nature, in form and in strategy to create difficulties and achieve their evil ends. Durga calmly counters the evil in order to achieve her solemn goals. Durga, in her various forms, appears as an independent deity in the Epics period of ancient India, the centuries around the start of the common era. Both Yudhisthira and Arjuna characters of the Mahabharata invoke hymns to Durga, she appears in Harivamsa in the form of Vishnu's eulogy, in Pradyumna prayer. The prominent mention of Durga in this popular epics may have led to her worship; the Indian texts that mention the Durga Puja festival are inconsistent. The King Suratha legend found in some version of the Puranas mention it to be a spring festival, while the Devi-Bhagavata Purana and two othe
Bengali literature denotes the body of writings in the Bengali language. The earliest extant work in Bengali literature is the Charyapada, a collection of Buddhist mystic songs dating back to the 10th and 11th centuries. Thereafter, the timeline of Bengali literature is divided into two periods − modern. Medieval Bengali literature consists of various poetic genres, including Hindu religious scriptures, Islamic epics, translations of Sanskrit and Persian texts, Vaishnava texts, secular texts by Muslim poets. Novels were introduced to Bengali literature in the mid-19th century. Rabindranath Tagore, playwright, painter, essayist and social reformer, is the best known figure of Bengali literature to the world, he won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. After the post-partition era, Bengali literature comprises literature of erstwhile East Pakistan and of West Bengal; the first works in Bengali, written in new Bengali, appeared between 10th and 12th centuries C. E, it is known as the Charyapada.
These are mystic songs composed by various Buddhist seer-poets: Luipada, Kukkuripada, Bhusukupada, Dhendhanpada, Shabarapada etc. The famous Bengali linguist Haraprasad Shastri discovered the palm leaf Charyapada manuscript in the Nepal Royal Court Library in 1907. Pre-Chaitanya or Early Vaishnava literature denotes the literature of the time preceding the time of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the founder of Gaudiya Vaishnavism; these include: Sri Krishna Kritana by Boru Chandidas. Basanta Ranjan Roy Bidyatvallava discovered the torn manuscript of the Sri Krishna Kirtana from the cowshed of Debendranath Chatterjee's house at Kakinlya village, Bankura district in modern-day Paschimbanga. Sri Krishna Kirtana was written by Boru Chandidas in the half of 14th century CE, it is considered as the second oldest work of Bengali literature after Charyapada. The 15th century is marked by the padavali in Bengal; the poetry of Vidyapati, the great Maithili poet, though not written in Bengali, influenced the literature of the time so that it makes him a vital part of Middle Bengali literature.
He flourished in the modern-day Darbhanga district of India in the 14th century. His Vaishnava lyrics became popular among the masses of Bengal; the first major Bengali poet to write Vaishnava lyrics was Chandidas, who belonged to the modern-day Birbhum district, Paschimbanga in the 15th century. Chandidas is known for his humanist proclamation—"Sabar upare manush satya, tahar upare nai" —"The supreme truth is human, there is nothing more important than he is.". The Bengali translations of two great Sanskrit texts the Bhagavata Purana and the Ramayana played a crucial role in the development of Middle Bengali literature. Maladhar Basu's Sri Krishna Vijaya, chiefly a translation of the 10th and 11th cantos of the Bhagavata Purana, is the earliest Bengali narrative poem that can be assigned to a definite date. Maladhar Basu flourished in the modern-day Bardhaman district of Paschimbanga in the 15th century. Composed between 1473 and 1480 C. E. Sri Krishna Vijaya is the oldest Bengali narrative poem of the Krishna legend.
The Ramayana, under the title of Sri Rama Panchali, more popularly known as the Krittibasi Ramayana, was translated by Krittibas Ojha who belonged to the modern-day Nadia district, Paschimbanga. He like Maladhar Basu, flourished in the 15th century. Post-Chaitanya or Late Vaishnava literature denotes the literature of the time succeeding the time of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu; these include: biographies of Chaitanya by Gaudiya Vaishnava scholar-poets and Vaishnava Padavali with a special subgenre based on the life of Chaitanya. Major figures of the Late Vaishnava literature are Krishnadasa Kaviraja, Vrindavana Dasa Thakura, Govindadasa, Balaram Dasa etc. Mangal-Kāvya, a group of Hindu narrative poetry, composed more or less between 13th Century and 18th Century, eulogise the indigenous deities of rural Bengal in the social scenario of the Middle Ages. Mansa Mangal, Chandi Mangal and Dhormo Mangal, the three major genus of Mangal-Kāvya tradition include the portrayal of the magnitude of Manasā, Chandī and Dharmathakur, who are considered the greatest among all the native divinities in Bengal, respectively.
There are minor Mongolkabbosomogro known as Shivāyon, Kālikā Mangal, Rāy Mangal, Shashthi Mangal, Shitol Mangal and Komolā Mangal etc. Major poets of Mangalkavya tradition are Bijay Gupta, Rupram Chakrabarty etc.. In the middle of 19th century, Bengali literature gained momentum. During this period, the Bengali Pandits of Fort William College did the tedious work of translating the text books in Bengali to help teach the British some Indian languages including Bengali; this work played a role in the background in the evolution of Bengali prose. In 1814, Raja Ram Mohan Roy engaged in literary pursuits. Translating from Sanskrit to Bengali, writing essays on religious topics and publishing magazines were some the areas he focussed on, he established a cultural group in the name of'Atmiya Sabha' in 1815. Another significant contributor o
Ekushey Book Fair
The Ekushey Book Fair or Amar Ekushe Grantha Melā, popularly known as Ekushey Boi Mela is the national book fair of Bangladesh. It takes place for the whole month of February in Dhaka; this event is dedicated to the martyrs who died on 21 February 1952 in a demonstration calling for the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former East Pakistan. Muktodhara Publishing house started a little sale in front of Bangla Academy in the 21 February 1972, the Shaheed Day International Mother Language Day. Chittaranjan Saha of Muktodhara took the initiative. Other book publishers joined unofficially, it became official and the most popular book fair in Bangladesh. Bangla Academy took over organization of the fair in 1978. In 1984, it was named'Amar Ekushey Book Fair'. Notably in 1990s, another national book fair called; this book fair is organized by the government in December every year. Boi Mela started as a book fair. In addition to book sales, Bangla Academy organizes cultural events every fair-day.
Thousands of people gather to purchase books and spend time with the company of books and their authors with a patriotic zeal. There is no entry fee. Publishers of Bangladesh take year-long preparation to publish a huge number of books during this month. In 2008, 362 book stalls were set up by publishers, book sellers and such other organization including Bangla Academy and Nazrul Institute; the venue of the book festival and outside is decorated with banners and placards in conformity with the spirit of'Amar Ekushey'. It is the cultural reunion of Bangladesh. Attracted by discounted price, readers rush there. Given the importance head of the government inaugurates the fair on the first day of February. TV stations live broadcast the inaugural ceremony; the fair continues from 1 February to 28 February. It takes place in Suhrawardi Udyan; the Ministry of Culture is in control of the fair. The Prime Minister inaugurates the fair. Between 300 and 400 publishing houses take part in the fair. Only the Bangladeshi booksellers can join.
There is Nazrul Moncho, a corner dedicated to poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, a fixed place for month-long cultural meetings, a Lekhok Kunjo, a dedicated place for writers and, a media center for the journalists. Free WiFi service has been enabled since 2019. Nowadays it becomes harder to accommodate the increasing number of publishers. In 2008, the theme of daily conference was'Bengali Literature and Culture - Achievement of three decades'. Ekushey Boi Mela 2008 was held from 1 to 29 February 2008; as many as 288 publishers participated. A record number of books were published on the occasion. According to official statistics, the number of books published in connection with the book fair was 2578; the sale proceeds from books sold shot up to a record of Taka 200 million. Video documentary short Ekushey.com.bd - bookstore for books released in 2011 ekushey book fair. List of Published Books in Boi Mela Bangla Academy
Nasreddin or Nasreddin Hodja or Molla Nasreddin Hooja was a Seljuq satirist, born in Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskişehir Province, present-day Turkey and died in 13th century in Akşehir, near Konya, a capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, in today's Turkey. He is considered a populist philosopher and wise man, remembered for his funny stories and anecdotes, he appears in thousands of stories, sometimes witty, sometimes wise, but too, a fool or the butt of a joke. A Nasreddin story has a subtle humour and a pedagogic nature; the International Nasreddin Hodja festival is celebrated between the 5th and 10th of July in his hometown every year. Claims about his origin are made by many ethnic groups. Many sources give the birthplace of Nasreddin as Hortu Village in Sivrihisar, Eskişehir Province, present-day Turkey, in the 13th century, after which he settled in Akşehir, in Konya under the Seljuq rule, where he died in 1275/6 or 1285/6 CE; the alleged tomb of Nasreddin is in Akşehir and the "International Nasreddin Hodja Festival" is held annually in Akşehir between 5–10 July.
According to Prof. Mikail Bayram who made an extensive research on Nasreddin, his full name is Nasir ud-din Mahmood al-Khoyi, his title Ahi Evran. According to him, Nasreddin was born in the city of Khoy in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran, had his education in Khorasan and became the pupil of famous Quran mufassir Fakhr al-Din al-Razi in Herat, he was sent to Anatolia by the Khalif in Baghdad to organize resistance and uprising against the Mongol invasion. He served as a kadı in Kayseri; this explains. During the turmoil of the Mongol invasion he became a political opponent of Persian Rumi, he was addressed in Masnavi by juha anecdotes for this reason. He became the vazir at the court of Kaykaus II. Having lived in numerous cities in vast area and being steadfastly against the Mongol invasion as well as having his witty character, he was embraced by various nations and cultures from Turkey to Arabia, from Persia to Afghanistan, from Russia to China, most of which suffered from those invasions.
As generations have gone by, new stories have been added to the Nasreddin corpus, others have been modified, he and his tales have spread to many regions. The themes in the tales have become part of the folklore of a number of nations and express the national imaginations of a variety of cultures. Although most of them depict Nasreddin in an early small-village setting, the tales deal with concepts that have a certain timelessness, they purvey a pithy folk wisdom that triumphs over all tribulations. The oldest manuscript of Nasreddin dates to 1571. Today, Nasreddin stories are told in a wide variety of regions across the Muslim world and have been translated into many languages; some regions independently developed a character similar to Nasreddin, the stories have become part of a larger whole. In many regions, Nasreddin is a major part of the culture, is quoted or alluded to in daily life. Since there are thousands of different Nasreddin stories, one can be found to fit any occasion. Nasreddin appears as a whimsical character of a large Turkish, Albanian, Azerbaijani, Bosnian, Chinese, Gujarati, Judeo-Spanish, Romanian, Serbian and Urdu folk tradition of vignettes, not different from zen koans.
1996–1997 was declared International Nasreddin Year by UNESCO. Some people say that, whilst uttering what seemed madness, he was, in reality, divinely inspired, that it was not madness but wisdom that he uttered. Many peoples of the Near, Middle East, South Asia and Central Asia claim Nasreddin as their own, his name is spelt in a wide variety of ways: Nasrudeen, Nasruddin, Nasr ud-Din, Nasiruddin, Nasr Eddin, Nasreddine, Nusrettin, Nostradin and Nazaruddin. It is sometime preceded or followed by a title or honorific used in the corresponding cultures: "Hoxha", "Khwaje", "Hodja", "Hoja", "Hojja", "Hodscha", "Hodža", "Hoca", "Hocca","Hooka", "Hogea", "Mullah", "Mulla", "Mula", "Molla", "Efendi", "Afandi", "Ependi", "Hajji". In several cultures he is named by the title alone. In Arabic-speaking countries this character is known as "Juha", "Djoha", "Djuha", "Dschuha", "Chotzas", "Goha". Juha was a separate folk character found in Arabic literature as early as the 9th century, was popular by the 11th century.
Lore of the two characters became amalgamated in the 19th century when collections were translated from Arabic into Turkish and Persian. In Sicily and Southern Italy he is known as "Giufà". In the Swahili and Indonesian culture, many of his stories are being told under the name of "Abunuwasi" or "Abunawas", though this confuses Nasreddin with an different man – the poet Abu Nuwas, known for homoerotic verse. In China, where stories of him are well known, he is known by the various transliterations from his Uyghur name, 阿凡提 and 阿方提; the Uyghurs believe while the Uzbeks believe he was from Bukhara. Shanghai Animation Film Studio produced a 13-episode Nasreddin related animation called'The Story of Afanti'/ 阿凡提 in 1979, which became one of the most influential animations in China's history; the musical Nasirdin Apandim features the legend of Nasreddin effendi sourced from Uighur folklore. In Central Asia, he is known as "Afandi"; the Central Asian peoples claim his local origin, as do Uyghurs. The Nasreddin stories are k
History of Bengal
The history of Bengal is intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent and the surrounding regions of South Asia and Southeast Asia. It includes modern-day Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley, located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta; the advancement of civilisation in Bengal dates back four millennia. The region was known to Romans as Gangaridai; the Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers act as a geographic marker of the region, but connects the region to the broader Indian subcontinent. Bengal, at times, has played an important role in the history of the Indian subcontinent; the area's early history featured a succession of Indian empires, internal squabbling, a tussle between Hinduism and Buddhism for dominance. Ancient Bengal was the site of several major Janapadas, while the earliest cities date back to the Vedic period. A thalassocracy and an entrepôt of the historic Silk Road, Ancient Bengal established colonies on Indian Ocean islands and in Southeast Asia.
The region was part including the Mauryans and Guptas. It was a bastion of regional kingdoms; the citadel of Gauda served as capital of the Gauda Kingdom, the Buddhist Pala Empire and Hindu Sena Empire. This era saw the development of Bengali language, literature, music and architecture; the Muslim conquest of the Indian subcontinent absorbed Bengal into the medieval Islamic and Persianate worlds. Between the 1204 and 1352, Bengal was a province of the Delhi Sultanate; this era saw the introduction of the taka as monetary currency, which has endured into the modern era. An independent Bengal Sultanate was formed in 1352 and ruled the region for two centuries, during which a distinct form of Islam based on Sufism and the Bengali language emerged; the ruling elite turned Bengal into the easternmost haven of Indo-Persian culture. The Sultans exerted influence in the Arakan region of Southeast Asia, where Buddhist kings copied the sultanate's governance and fashion. A relationship with Ming China flourished under the sultanate.
The Bengal Sultanate was notable for its Hindu aristocracy, including the rise of Raja Ganesha and his son Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah as usurpers. Hindus served in the royal administration as prime poets. Under the patronage of Sultans like Alauddin Hussain Shah, Bengali literature began replacing the strong influence of Sanskrit in the region. Hindu principalities included the Koch Kingdom, Kingdom of Mallabhum, Kingdom of Bhurshut and Kingdom of Tripura. In the late 16th and early 17th centuries, Isa Khan, a Muslim Rajput chief, who led the Baro Bhuiyans, dominated the Bengal delta. Following the decline of the sultanate, Bengal came under the suzerainty of the Mughal Empire, as its wealthiest province. Under the Mughals, Bengal Subah generated 50% of the empire's gross domestic product and 12% of the world's GDP, According to economic historian Indrajit Ray, it was globally prominent in industries such as textile manufacturing and shipbuilding, with the capital Dhaka having a population exceeding a million people and being more wealthy than all European empires.
The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire led to quasi-independent states under the Nawabs of Bengal, subsequent Maratha expeditions in Bengal, the conquest by the British East India Company. The British took control of the region from the late 18th century; the company consolidated their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey in 1757 and Battle of Buxar in 1764 and by 1793 took complete control of the region. The plunder of Bengal directly contributed to the Industrial Revolution in Britain, with the capital amassed from Bengal used to invest in British industries such as textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution and increase British wealth, while at the same time leading to deindustrialisation in Bengal. Kolkata served for many years as the capital of British controlled territories in India; the early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in the expansion of Western education, culminating in development of science, institutional education, social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali renaissance.
A hotbed of the Indian independence movement through the early 20th century, Bengal was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal—a state of India—and East Bengal—a part of the newly created Dominion of Pakistan that became the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971. The exact origin of the word Bangla is unknown, though it is believed to be derived from the Dravidian-speaking tribe Bang/Banga that settled in the area around the year 1000 BCE. Other accounts speculate that the name is derived from Venga, which came from the Austric word "Bonga" meaning the Sun-god. According to the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Harivamsha, Vanga was one of the adopted sons of King Vali who founded the Vanga Kingdom, it was either under Kalinga Rules except few years under Pals. The earliest reference to "Vangala" has been traced in the Nesari plates of Rashtrakuta Govinda III which speak of Dharmapala as the king of Vangala; the records of Rajendra Chola I of the Chola dynasty, who invaded Bengal in the 11th century, use the term Vangaladesa.
The term Bangalah is one of the precursors to the modern terms Bengal an
Thakurmar Jhuli is a collection of Bengali folk tales and fairy tales. Dakshinaranjan Mitra Majumder was the person who first collected some folk-stories of Bengali and published it under the name of "Thakurmar Jhuli" in 1907; the Nobel-Laureate, Rabindranath Thakur wrote the introduction to the compilation. Since it has become a favourite of Bengali children. Over the years, it has become a household name in West Bangladesh; some characters and stories like "Lalkamal-Nilkamal" and Byangoma-Byangomi have gained a legendary status among the children. Hundreds of edition of the book have been published from Bangladesh and West Bengal since the original publication. An English translation by Rina Pritish Nandy has been available lately; the tales in Thakurmar Jhuli follow the structure of the parable and conclude with a moral. They are known to make use of fantastical scenarios and hyperbolic incidents within the premise of the tales. Binaries of good and evil are common tropes, as is the use of talking animals, demons and other supernatural elements specific to Bengali folklore.
One of the most important aspects that contribute to the popularity of the tales of Thakurmar Jhuli is not only the imagination and fantasy that weaves an element of wonder and surprise, but the amplitude of ‘suspension of reality on the part of the audience.' Thakurmar Jhuli has been adapted to films, audio tapes and CDs, puppet-theatres, over children’s radio shows narrating the stories with the help of child artistes and the compilation of the entire collection of Thakurmar Jhuli into the electronic media with the recent digitization of all the stories into CD-ROMs and DVDs and their broadcast in the form of animation movies on a popular Bengali television channel on prime time Sunday-morning schedule. The vast popularity of the show is estimated through the subsequent running of the show, uninterrupted for three years, still finding a preference among urban children - many of whom may not have been exposed to the book or the stories at all. Kiranmala is a Bengali fantasy television series based on some stories of Thakurmar Jhuli, which airs on STAR Jalsha channel from August 4, 2014.
All the works of Majumdar are titled after a grandparent, the fragile yet robust representative of the bygone era and thereby embody a sense of heritage and historical value. The tales are expressed in a manner that relates to a specific culture and time and subsequently to the culture of a specific region; the original tales of legends, rites and myths were narrated and propagated through oral traditions to provide moral and religious instructions to the young minds. Although certain obvious changes over a period of a century render some of the characters and the situations obsolete, the familiarity of incidents and the problems and the problem-solving methods relate to the contemporary world as well. In the contemporary context the written and digital recordings of these fables seem to have replaced the earlier oral tradition, but Thakurmar Jhuli remains a compilation, not limited to children alone, over the years has found tremendous response among the adults; when the stories are digitized, the same messages are adapted for a more recent and contemporary audience, thus preserving their relevance.
"Tales my Grandmother Told Me" "Watch Thakurmar Jhuli"
Bengali Hindu wedding
Bengali Hindu wedding refers to Bengali wedding with Hindu rites and rituals native to the Indian subcontinent. A traditional wedding is arranged by Ghotoks, who are friends or relatives of the couple; the matchmakers facilitate the introduction among the prospective bride and groom. Bengali weddings are traditionally in four parts: the bride's Gaye Holud, the groom's Gaye Holud, the Beeye and the Bou Bhaat; these take place on separate days. The first event in a wedding is an informal one: the groom presents the bride with a ring marking the "engagement", a system, gaining popularity; this can sometimes be considered as Ashirwaad. There can be subtle differences in Bengali Hindu marriages in West Bangladesh; the rituals sometimes differ. In Paaka Katha, the parents of the bride/groom, along with one or two close relatives/friends go to the other party's house to formally settle the marriage, it may be followed by a lunch / dinner. A Bengali Hindu Marriage can be divided into the following parts: Pre-wedding rituals: Adan Pradan, Patri Patra, Aai Budo Bhaat, Dodhi Mangal, Holud Kota, Adhibas Tatva, Kubi Patta, Sankha Porano Wedding rituals: Bor Boron, Potto Bastra, Saat Paak, Mala Badal, Subho Drishti, Yagna, Saat Pak, Sindur Daan and Ghomta Post-wedding rituals: Bashar Ghar, Bashi Biye, Bou Boron, Kaal Ratri, Bou Bhaat, Phool Sajja, Dira Gaman Ashirbaad – On an auspicious day the elders of the groom's side go to bless the bride and vice versa, by sprinkling husked rice and trefoil on their heads and giving them gold ornaments.
It is a kind of the girl on both sides. Gaye Holud – A ceremony in which five or seven married women of the household grind turmeric with mortar and pestle and anoint the bride with turmeric paste, first it is been applied on groom the same paste will sent to bride's home for applying it on her along with a new Saree and gamchha and other treassaud set from the boy's party; this makes her skin glow. Dodhi Mongol – At dawn on the day of marriage seven married ladies adorn the bride's hands with the traditional bangles Shakha and Paula – one pair of red and one pair of white Conch-shell bangles, feed her a meal of curd and rice, nowadays other dishes as well, the only meal after which the bride and her parents fast the whole day; this ritual is celebrated on groom's side also. Bor Jatri – The members of the groom's house as well as his friends dress in their best attire and journey to the bride's house where the wedding takes place. Bor Boron – When the bor jatri reaches the bride's place the mother of the bride along with other members come out to welcome the groom and his family by showing the holy earthen lamp, sprinkling trefoil, husked rice placed on a bamboo winnow.
They are served sweets and drinks. Potto Bastra – After the groom is seated at the chadnatolla – the sanctum sanctorum where only the groom and the priest takes their place, the groom is offered new clothes by the person, to do the sampradaan – the elderly male member of the family who does sampradan offers the responsibility of the bride to the groom. Saat Paak – The bride seated on a low wooden stool called pidi is lifted by her brothers and is taken round the groom in seven complete circles; the significance is. Subho Dristi – After saat paak the bride and the groom are made to look at each other in front of all the assembled invitees; the bride is told to remove the paan leaves. This exchange of loving glance is to initiate them to be together by the society. Mala Badal – After the circles are completed, still sitting high on the piri, the bride and the groom exchange garlands of fragrant flowers thrice; this is the first step. Sampradan – The bride takes her place at the chadnatolla where an elderly male member of the bride's family hands her over to the groom and the couple's hands are bound by the sacred thread amidst recital of Vedic chants and are placed on the mangal ghot – a brass pitcher filled with water, covered with mango leaves attached to one twig and a green coconut placed on it.
Yagna – The bride and groom sit in front of the sacred fire and chant mantras after the priest. Agni, the fire god is made the divine witness to the marriage. See Vedic marriage. Saptapadi – Seven circular rounds are taken by the couple around the fire thereby solemnising the occasion. Anjali – An offering to the fire is made; the bride's brother puts puffed rice in the hands of the bride, the groom standing close to her holds her hands from the back and extends their arms forward. They pour the offering into the fire together. Sindoor Daan and Ghomta – Once again seated at their respective places in chadnatolla the groom applies sindoor or vermilion on the bride's hair-parting; the bride covers her head with a new sari offered by the groom as ghomta or veil. Bidaay – This is a farewell – mixed moment of joy and sorrow as the bride is bid adieu with blessings of her parents and relatives to start a new life with her beau; the bride has to throw rice in the sari of her mother to fill the responsibility of her mother to her.
Bodhu Boron - This is done when the bride reaches the groom's house. One dish is made full with milk; the bride stands on it enters the room with groom after being welcomed by the mother-in-law. Kaal Ratri – After the couple reaches the groom's house and the initial welcome ceremony is over they are separated for the night, prob