Chalchitra is a part of Bengal Patachitra. It referred to the background of the Durga Pratima or idol; these were used to give a proper proportion to the structure. This tradition is ancient and is still maintained. Chalchitra is a Bengali word, it is drawn in Pratima Chala. So, it is called Chalchitra. Patua, the artists of Chalchitra called it as Pata Lekha, means the writing of Patachitra, it is called Durga Chala, Debi Chala. According to the shape of the Chali, the structure of Durga Pratima it has some varieties like Bangla chali, Mothchouri Chali, Tanachauri Chali, Sorbosundori chali, Khep chali, Markini Chali etc. Among them, the seen Chali is the Markini Chali; the Bangla chali follows the tradition of temple architecture. It stretches on both sides of the idol in a suspended pattern and is long enough to fit all the idols present there; the main content of the chalchitra is Shib-Parboti, Shib attending Nandi-Vringi, Mahish-mardini, Dashabatar etc. Such a special Patachitra is seen in Durga Pot in the Hatsarandi Sutradhar society of Birbhum district, called Durga Pot.
However, instead of Durga idol, it was worshiped in Durga Pot. Durga Pot has a semi-circular Patachitra. Ram, Shib, Nandi-Vringi, Vishnu, Shumbha-Nishumbha are painted on this kind of Chalchitra. Krishnanager Rajrajeshwari Durga is seen to be uniquely noticed. In the middle of the Chalchitra, there is Panchanan Shib and Parvati is beside him, on one side there is Dasha-mahabidya and the other side, there is Dashabatar. Two of the most famous forms of idol making in Bengal are Kansanarayan style. Among them, Kangshonarayan style is most popular. At the time of Kangshonarayan, the Chalchitra is true ingridin of Durga Pratima. 300–400 years old idols of Nabadwip Shakta Rash used Chalchitra as a part of Pratima. At a time, the use of Chalchitra became fade. Chalchitra artist of Nabadwip, Tapan Bhattacharya said- Rajrajeshwari Durga Pratima of Krishnanager Rajbari uses a unique Chalchitra. Baishnavadas Mallik of Kolkata's Darpanarayan Tagore Street and the tradition of writing pot in the Bose family of Ramkrishnapur is still fine.
Bimanbihari Sheel of Ramchan family in Chorabagan, north Kolkata said- Krishnanagar's Chalchitra artist Biswanath Pal wrote pot in various Banedi families of Kolkata. He said- On the upper surface of the idol, a half-domed bamboo structure was strapped on it, the width of the cloth was wrapped in a width of thick cloth and the back part of the cloth was folded behind the bamboo structure; when the clayed cloth dried up, it was given a few layers of Chalk Dust. After that, the planned storyline is drawn on it. Natural color is used in color, one of the characteristics of the Bengal Patachitra. In general, yellow, red, brown and white are used in the Chalchitra. Indeed, the painting illustration has been imitated by the Patachitra of Bengal. Chalk dust is used for white color, pauri for yellow color, cultivated indigo for blue,bhushakali for black and mete sindur for red color in chalchitra. Patua Patachitra
Poush Mela is an annual fair and festival that takes place in Santiniketan, in Birbhum District in the Indian state of West Bengal, marking the harvest season. Commencing on the 7th day of the month of Poush, the fair lasts for three days, although vendors may stay until the month-end as per the university regulations. From 2017 on wards the fair lasted for six days; the key characteristic of this fair include live performances of Bengali folk music, such as baul and Kobigan. Devendranath Tagore with twenty followers accepted the Brahmo creed from Ram Chandra Vidyabagish on 21 December 1843; this was the basis of Poush Utsav at SantiniketanA Brahma mandir was established at Santiniketan on 21 December 1891. A small fair was organised in 1894 in connection with the establishment anniversary of the Brahma mandir, in the ground opposite the mandir. What started as a small homely Poush Mela now attracts attention of not only the people of Birbhum district but tourists from all around. In earlier days the mela was held in the ground on the north side of Brahma mandir.
On that day, a firework display was held in earlier days after evening prayers. As the mela increased in size, it was shifted to the field in Purbapalli. Poush Utsav is inaugurated on 7 Poush. At dawn, Santiniketan wakes up to the soft music of shehnai; the first to enter the scenario is the Vaitalik group. It is followed by a prayer-meeting at Chhatimtala; the entire congregation moves on to Uttarayan singing songs. Poush Mela is characterized by the live performances of Bengali folk music the baul music, it includes folk songs and tribal sports. This fair offers a perfect insight of true heritage of the state; the students of Santiniketan present their magnificent performance and make this festival more enjoyable and glamorous. Each day of this festival is filled with different activities; the last day of this fair is devoted to those. Some 1,500 stalls take part in the fair; the number of tourists pouring in for the three-day fair is around 10,000. Government statistics put the daily inflow of tourists in to Santiniketan at around 3,500 per day.
Many of them do stay back in Santiniketan, which has 85 lodges with accommodation for 1,650. Beside of this, room on rent can be hired for some days. Local printed handicrafts are available in the stalls erected during the fair. Besides materials of household interest, toys are available here. Various food stalls are found. Visva-Bharati University Jaydev Kenduli Fairs in Birbhum Santiniketan travel guide from Wikivoyage
Bengali Muslim wedding
This article is about the wedding in Bangladesh, for wedding in West Bengal, see: Bengali Hindu wedding. A Bengali Muslim wedding includes many ceremonies that can span several days. In most cases, it ends with the Bou Bhat ceremony. A traditional wedding is arranged by ghotoks, who are friends or relatives of the couple; the ghotoks facilitate the couple's introduction to the wedding guests, are given special gifts if the alliance is agreed upon and the marriage is realised. Families traditionally seek their children's matches from the same caste and social standing. In the case of an arranged marriage, if the aforementioned'compatibility' factors are duly matched, only is the pairing deemed an ideal match. In modern English parlance, such a non-Ghotok-arranged alliance is called a "love marriage" and is based more upon the preferences and wishes of the partners than strict traditional norms. Once the arrangement is done, the planning of the wedding itself is done by parents, they start the planning the wedding venue many months ahead.
The bride participates in shopping for her bridal attire and gifts. The official engagement must follow from formal consent given by the family elders from both sides. Through a ceremony called paka-dekha or dekha-dekhi, the alliance is formalised so final wedding preparations can proceed in due course with confidence that it is indeed intentional and assured to take place. Paka-dekha is celebrated on a day when both families convene at either side's home to fix the final date and time of day of the marriage, entertain any demands made by the groom's family in order to ensure that the bride's future is well assured. Sometimes priests may officiate, documenting the marriage's specifications for legal/government purposes, setting the details on paper and signing it from both sides' present eldest guardians. After the legal formalities, the participants are served traditional sweets such as rasgullas and mishti doi catered by the groom's side. Following the paka-dekha, public announcements of "the auspicious alliance" are made in the localities of both sides.
In modern times, this is done using a loudspeaker on a vehicle which drives around the neighbourhood. Paan chini, chini paan or sinifaan is a tradition to give two betel leaves and areca nuts to the guests at any auspicious occasion, thus the name was derived from the servings.'Paan' being served with silver foil signals festivity and during such propitious occasions it is common to bring sweets. These gestures friendship and a heartening promise; this ritual is followed by gaye holud take place before the wedding ceremony. There is another for the groom. For the bride's gaye holud, the groom's family - except the groom himself - travel in procession to the bride's home, they carry with them the bride's wedding dress/outfit, some wedding decorations including turmeric paste, candy/sweetmeats and gifts. They take a large Rohu fish decorated as a bride. After the two'yellowing ceremonies,' the bride and groom are bathed in the water that the women had fetched from the waterway early that morning.
There are local variations on this tradition, such as providing a specific number of fish to the party responsible for cooking them, hence the best time to deliver the fresh fish to the groom's family. The procession traditionally centers on the female relative and friends of bride, the paste is prepared by five married women called'Eyo-stree,' and they traditionally all wear matching clothes orange in colour; the bride is seated on a sheel-nora, the women walk encircling her, showering Ganga water drops upon the bride. The turmeric paste is applied to the bride's skin by her friends; this is said to soften the skin, but it colours her in the distinctive yellow hue that gives its name to this ceremony. The sweets are fed to the bride by all involved, one at a time. A feast for the guests is served. Married women present may stain each other with turmeric paste; the wedding ceremony follows the Gaye Holud ceremonies. The wedding ceremony is arranged by the bride's family; the groom, along with his friends and family, traditionally arrive in the evening.
The groom is sent a car from the bride's side and he rides inside it with two elder male relatives, one from the bride's side and another from his own family, as well as the youngest male member from his family dressed as a groom. Before leaving for the wedding venue, the groom is blessed by his mother and he formally seeks her permission to begin a new life with his soon-to-be "better half"; the groom's mother in a muslim wedding leaves along with the groom and takes him to the Bride's house. However, in contrast in muslim ceremonies the groom's mother presents the bride with jewellery and sarees and she goes to change into her wedding saree and jewellery; the groom and his father and along with the bride's father meet to sign the official mahr contract ritually giving the Bride a set amount of money as her dowry. In a muslim ceremony the bride and groom are s
Ekushey Book Fair
The Ekushey Book Fair or Amar Ekushe Grantha Melā, popularly known as Ekushey Boi Mela is the national book fair of Bangladesh. It takes place for the whole month of February in Dhaka; this event is dedicated to the martyrs who died on 21 February 1952 in a demonstration calling for the establishment of Bengali as one of the state languages of former East Pakistan. Muktodhara Publishing house started a little sale in front of Bangla Academy in the 21 February 1972, the Shaheed Day International Mother Language Day. Chittaranjan Saha of Muktodhara took the initiative. Other book publishers joined unofficially, it became official and the most popular book fair in Bangladesh. Bangla Academy took over organization of the fair in 1978. In 1984, it was named'Amar Ekushey Book Fair'. Notably in 1990s, another national book fair called; this book fair is organized by the government in December every year. Boi Mela started as a book fair. In addition to book sales, Bangla Academy organizes cultural events every fair-day.
Thousands of people gather to purchase books and spend time with the company of books and their authors with a patriotic zeal. There is no entry fee. Publishers of Bangladesh take year-long preparation to publish a huge number of books during this month. In 2008, 362 book stalls were set up by publishers, book sellers and such other organization including Bangla Academy and Nazrul Institute; the venue of the book festival and outside is decorated with banners and placards in conformity with the spirit of'Amar Ekushey'. It is the cultural reunion of Bangladesh. Attracted by discounted price, readers rush there. Given the importance head of the government inaugurates the fair on the first day of February. TV stations live broadcast the inaugural ceremony; the fair continues from 1 February to 28 February. It takes place in Suhrawardi Udyan; the Ministry of Culture is in control of the fair. The Prime Minister inaugurates the fair. Between 300 and 400 publishing houses take part in the fair. Only the Bangladeshi booksellers can join.
There is Nazrul Moncho, a corner dedicated to poet Kazi Nazrul Islam, a fixed place for month-long cultural meetings, a Lekhok Kunjo, a dedicated place for writers and, a media center for the journalists. Free WiFi service has been enabled since 2019. Nowadays it becomes harder to accommodate the increasing number of publishers. In 2008, the theme of daily conference was'Bengali Literature and Culture - Achievement of three decades'. Ekushey Boi Mela 2008 was held from 1 to 29 February 2008; as many as 288 publishers participated. A record number of books were published on the occasion. According to official statistics, the number of books published in connection with the book fair was 2578; the sale proceeds from books sold shot up to a record of Taka 200 million. Video documentary short Ekushey.com.bd - bookstore for books released in 2011 ekushey book fair. List of Published Books in Boi Mela Bangla Academy
Chand Sadagar, was a rich and powerful merchant of Champak Nagar, Mahasthangarh/ Kasba in ancient. Narayan Dev gave an account in his Manasamangal about the merchant ship of the trader Chand Saudagar proceeding to the sea, passing through Saptagram and Tribeni, the tri junction of the Ganges and Yamuna. According to Hindu mythology, Chand Sadagar was an ardent devotee of Shiva but Manasa had set her mind on making him a devotee, she tried all the tricks to force Chand Sadagar to change his mind but he was determined and protected himself with the mantras or mystic words he had received from Shiva. However, when Manasa appeared to him as a beautiful woman, he let. Thereafter, he lost his supernatural powers, he took the help of Sankara, whose capabilities were more than his when he had full powers, but Manasa killed him and made Chand Sadagar helpless again. When Chand Sadagar still refused to be intimidated into worshipping Manasa, she started sending serpents that killed all his six sons, his trading interests collapsed.
In the midst of such adversity his determination revived and he set out on a sea voyage to rebuild his business. After a successful business tour he set sail for home, his ship laden with treasure. Manasa launched a storm, although Chand Sadagar survived with support from Durga, she was asked to withdraw by Shiva on a request from Manasa. Once that happened Chand Sadagar's ship was wrecked, but Manasa swept him ashore at a place where an old friend Chadraketu lived. Chandraketu tried his best to bring him round to the goddess Manasa but Chand Sadagar steadfastly refused, he became a beggar and lost everything but still worshipped only Shiva and Durga, refusing to bow to Manasa, who felt that she could never win over Chand Sadagar on her own and took the help of two friends in heaven – two Apsaras. They agreed to be born on earth, one as Chand Sadagar's son and the other as daughter of Saha, a business associate of Chand Sadagar. Having returned to Champak Nagar, Chand Sadagar managed to rebuild his life.
A son was born to him. They named the boy Lakshmindara. At around the same time Saha's wife gave birth to a daughter. Both the children grew up together and were a perfect made-for-each-other, but when their horoscopes were tallied, it was predicted that Lakshmindara would die of snake-bite on the wedding night. However, as both the children were devotees of Manasa and were so well matched that the marriage went ahead. In spite of all the precautions, Manasa had her way, one of the snakes, sent by her, killed Lakshmindara. To get back her husband's life from the Gods in the heavens, Behula sailed with her dead husband in a raft towards Heaven, she faced many dangers during her long and difficult journey. After she pleaded with the goddess, Manasa said, “You deserve to have him back, but this can only be done if you promise to convert your father-in-law to my worship". Chand Sadagar reluctantly agree. Chand Sadagar worshipped Manasa on the eleventh day of the waning moon every month, he could not forgive the goddess for all the suffering.
He turned his face away from her image. Manasa did not hold anything against him for that. From on Chand Sadagar and his family lived in peace and prosperity. Chand Sadagar's status and prestige ensured that the worship of Manasa became accepted and respectable. Champak Nagar is placed in Chaygaon, about 30 km from Guwahati and few in Anga; the ruins unearthed in the village Gokul, 3 km to the south of the Mahasthangarh citadel, 9 km north of Bogra, off the Bogra-Rangpur road, connected by a narrow motorable road about 1 km, is known as Gokul Medh, but is locally called Behular Basar Ghar or Lakshmindaraer Medh. Excavations in 1934-36 revealed a terraced podium with 172 rectangular blind cells, it is dated 6th-7th century. Local mythology associates it with legendary Lakshmindara-Behula. In the Mahasthangarh area in village Chenghispur, 700 m west of the north-west corner of the citadel has revealed remains of a temple; the mound is named after wife of Chand Sadagar. The Karatoya once now a small stream flows nearby.
Champaknagari is believed to be located near Kasba. There are two mounds there – locals believe one to be Behula’s basarghar and the other to be Santali pahar. Both the mounds are believed to have association with Chand Sadagar. Sundarban Tiger Reserve, is associated as the place where Neta, foster mother of Manasa and worked as a washerwoman. A temple at Howrah, a Kolkata neighborhood, is believed to have been built by Chand Sadagar. Between the citadel and the eastern embankment at Gaur, a ruined structure, is claimed to be the house of Chand Sadagar. In 1927, Manmatha Roy wrote the mythological play Chand Saudagar. In 1934, Prafulla Roy directed a film Chand Saudagar in which Dhiraj Bhattacharya played the role of Lakshmindara, Ahindra Choudhury that of Chand Sadagar, Devbala of Manasa, Sefalika Devi of Behula, Jahar Ganguli of Kalu Sardar, Indubala of a singer, Niharbala of Neta Dhobani, Padmabati of Sanaka and Usharani of Amala, it was written by Manmatha Roy. Film editing was by Akhil Neogi.
In 2010, Star Jalsha create a serial "Behula"
Culture of Bengal
The Culture of Bengal encompasses the Bengal region of South Asia, including Bangladesh and the Indian states of West Bengal and Assam's Barak Valley, where the Bengali language is the official and primary language. Bengal has a recorded history of 1,400 years; the Bengali people are its dominant ethnolinguistic tribe. The region has been a historical melting point, blending indigenous traditions with cosmopolitan influences from Ancient Indian empires. Bengal was the richest part of Medieval India and hosted the subcontinent's most advanced political and cultural centers during the British Raj; the partition of Bengal left its own cultural legacy. Bangladesh is the scene of a dominant Bengali Muslim culture, whereas Indian Bengali-speaking regions have a Bengali Hindu majority. Muslim-majority Bangladesh is home to a significant Hindu minority, whereas West Bengal has a large Muslim minority. Apart from these, there are numerous ethnic and religious minorities. Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal, is a cosmopolitan city which houses a sizeable number of ethnic communities.
Bengal is an important hub of classical South Asian arts. Festivals on the secular Bengali calendar are celebrated. Bengal has one of the most developed literary traditions in Asia. A descent of ancient Sanskrit and Magadhi Prakrit, the Bengali language evolved circa 1000-1200 CE under the Pala Empire and the Sena dynasty, it became an official court language of the Sultanate of Bengal and absorbed influences from Arabic and Persian. Middle Bengali developed secular literature in the 17th centuries, it was spoken in Arakan. The Bengali renaissance in Calcutta developed the modern standardized form of the language in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Rabindranath Tagore became the first Bengali writer to win the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913, was the first non-European Nobel laureate. Kazi Nazrul Islam became known as the Rebel Poet of British India. After the partition of Bengal, a distinct literary culture developed in East Bengal, which became East Pakistan and Bangladesh; the works of ancient philosophers from Bengal have been preserved at libraries in Tibet and Central Asia.
These include the works of Tilopa. Medieval Hindu philosophy featured the works of Chaitanya. Sufi philosophy was influential in Islamic Bengal. Prominent Sufi practitioners were disciples of Jalaluddin Rumi, Abdul-Qadir Gilani and Moinuddin Chishti. One of the most revered Sufi saints of Bengal is Shah Jalal. Bengal has produced leading figures of Indian classical music, including Alauddin Khan, Ravi Shankar and Ali Akbar Khan. Common musical instruments include the sitar and sarod; the Baul tradition is a unique regional folk heritage. The most prominent practitioner was Lalon Shah. Other folk music forms include Gombhira and Bhawaiya. Folk music in Bengal is accompanied by the ektara, a one-stringed instrument. Other instruments include the dotara, bamboo flute, tabla. Songs written by Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam are popular. Bangladesh is the center of Bangla rock, as well as indie, Sufi fusion folk music. Bengali theater traces its roots to Sanskrit drama under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE.
It includes narrative forms and dance forms, supra-personae forms, performance with scroll paintings, puppet theatre and the processional forms like the Jatra. Bengal has an rich heritage of dancing dating back to antiquity, it includes classical and martial dance traditions. In antiquity, Bengal was a pioneer of painting in Asia under the Pala Empire. Miniature and scroll painting flourished during the Mughal Empire. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple of Kolkata, from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. From the depiction of Hindu gods other mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developed to reflect a variety of themes. Modern painting emerged in Calcutta with the Bengal school. East Pakistan developed its own contemporary painting tradition under Zainul Abedin. Modern Bangladeshi art has produced many of South Asia's leading painters, including SM Sultan, Mohammad Kibria, Shahabuddin Ahmed, Kanak Chanpa Chakma, Kafil Ahmed, Saifuddin Ahmed, Qayyum Chowdhury, Rashid Choudhury, Quamrul Hassan, Rafiqun Nabi and Syed Jahangir among others.
One of the prominent painters in his days was Jamini Roy, who brought folk art and " boutique" techniques to the fore. Other notable painters during the Bengali renaissance period were Rabindranath Tagore, Abanindranath Tagore among others; the earliest fortified cities in the region include Wari-Bateshwar and Mahasthangarh. Bengal has a glorious legacy of terracotta architecture from the medieval periods; the style includes many mosques, palaces, forts and caravanserais. Mughal Dhaka was known as the Venice of the East. Indo-Saracenic architecture flourished during the British period among the landed gentry. British Calcutta was known as the City of Palaces. Modernist terracotta architecture in South Asia by architects like Louis Kahn. Bengali village housing is noted as the origin of the bungalow. Ancient Bengal was home to the Pala-Sena school of Sculptural Art. Ivory sculptural art flourished across the region under the Nawabs of Bengal. Notable modernist sculptors include Nitun Kundu. Muslin production in Bengal dates back to the 4th century BCE.
The region exported the fabric to Ancient Rome. Bengali silk was known as Ganges Silk in the 13th cen