Winchester rifle is a comprehensive term describing a series of lever-action repeating rifles manufactured by the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Developed from the 1860 Henry rifle, Winchester rifles were among the earliest repeaters; the Model 1873 was successful, being marketed by the manufacturer as "The Gun that Won the West". In 1848, Walter Hunt of New York patented his "Volition Repeating Rifle" incorporating a tubular magazine, operated by two levers and complex linkages; the Hunt rifle fired what he called the "Rocket Ball", an early form of caseless ammunition in which the powder charge was contained in the bullet's hollow base. Hunt's design was fragile and unworkable, but in 1849 Lewis Jennings purchased the Hunt patents and developed a functioning, if still complex, version, produced in small numbers by Robbins & Lawrence of Windsor, Vermont until 1852. Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson of Norwich, acquired the Jennings patent from Robbins & Lawrence, as well as shop foreman Benjamin Tyler Henry.
Smith made several improvements to the Jennings design, in 1855 Smith and Wesson together with several investors formed a corporation, the Volcanic Repeating Arms Company, to manufacture Smith's modification of the Hunt-Jennings, the Volcanic lever-action pistol and rifle. Its largest stockholder was Oliver Winchester. For the Volcanic rifle, Smith added a primer charge to Hunt's "Rocket Ball" and thus created one of the first fixed metallic cartridges which incorporated bullet and powder in one self-contained unit. While still with the company Smith went a step further and added a cylindrical copper case to hold the bullet and powder with the primer in the case rim, thus creating one of the most significant inventions in firearms history, the metallic rimfire cartridge. Smith's cartridge, the.22 Short, would be introduced commercially in 1857 with the landmark Smith & Wesson Model 1 revolver and is still manufactured today. The Volcanic rifle had only limited success, attributable to the design and poor performance of the Hunt-derived Volcanic cartridge: a hollow conical ball filled with black powder and sealed by a cork primer.
Although the Volcanic's repeater design far outpaced the rival technology, the unsatisfactory power and reliability of the.25 and.32 caliber "Rocket Balls" were little match for the competitors' larger calibers. Wesson had left Volcanic soon after it was formed and Smith followed eight months to create the Smith & Wesson Revolver Company. Volcanic moved to New Haven in 1856, but by the end of that year became insolvent. Oliver Winchester purchased the bankrupt firm's assets from the remaining stockholders, reorganized it as the New Haven Arms Company in April 1857. Benjamin Henry continued to work with Smith's cartridge concept, perfected the much larger, more powerful.44 Henry cartridge. Henry supervised the redesign of the rifle to use the new ammunition, retaining only the general form of the breech mechanism and the tubular magazine; this became the Henry rifle of 1860, manufactured by the New Haven Arms Company, used in considerable numbers by certain Union army units in the American Civil War.
Confederates called the Henry "that damned Yankee rifle that they load on Sunday and shoot all week!" After the war, Oliver Winchester renamed. The company modified and improved the basic design of the Henry rifle, creating the first Winchester rifle: the Model 1866, it retained the.44 Henry cartridge, was built on a bronze-alloy frame, had an improved magazine and a wooden forearm. In 1873 Winchester introduced the steel-framed Model 1873 chambering the more potent.44-40 centerfire cartridge. In 1876, in a bid to compete with the powerful single-shot rifles of the time, Winchester brought out the Model 1876. While it chambered more powerful cartridges than the 1866 and 1873 models, the toggle link action was not strong enough for the popular high-powered rounds used in Sharps or Remington single-shot rifles. From 1883, John Moses Browning worked in partnership with Winchester, designing a series of rifles and shotguns, most notably the lever-action Winchester Model 1886, Model 1892, Model 1894, Model 1895 rifles, along with the lever-action Model 1887/1901 shotgun, the pump-action Model 1890 rifle, the pump-action Model 1893/1897 shotgun.
The first Winchester rifle – the Winchester Model 1866 – was chambered for the rimfire.44 Henry. Nicknamed the "Yellow Boy" because of its receiver of a bronze/brass alloy called gunmetal, it was famous for its rugged construction and lever-action "repeating rifle" mechanism that allowed the user to fire a number of shots before having to reload. Nelson King's improved patent remedied flaws in the Henry rifle by incorporating a loading gate on the side of the frame and integrating a round, sealed magazine, covered by a forestock. France purchased 6,000 Model 1866 rifles along with 4.5 million.44 Henry cartridges during the Franco-Prussian War. The Ottoman Empire purchased 45,000 Model 1866 rifles and 5,000 carbines in 1870 and 1871; these rifles were used in the 1877 Russo-Turkish War, causing much surprise when outnumbered Turks at the Siege of Plevna inflicted many times more casualties than their opponents armed with single-shot Krnka and Berdan rifles. The Model 1866 compelled Russians to develop the Mosin -- Nagant, after the war.
The Swiss Army selected the Model 1866 to replace their existing single-shot Milbank-Amsler rifles. However, ensuing political pressure to adopt a domestic design resulted in the Vetterli Model 1867, a bolt-action design utilizing a copy of the Winchester's tubular magazine, being adopted instead. Due to public demand, the Model 1866 contin
In cultures that practice marital monogamy, bigamy is the act of entering into a marriage with one person while still married to another. Bigamy is a crime in most Western countries, when it occurs in this context neither the first nor second spouse is aware of the other. In countries that have bigamy laws, consent from a prior spouse makes no difference to the legality of the second marriage, considered void. Before Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire and Maximian passed strict anti-polygamy laws in 285 AD that mandated monogamy as the only form of legal marital relationship, as had traditionally been the case in classical Greece and Rome. In 393, the Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I issued an imperial edict to extend the ban on polygamy to Jewish communities. In 1000, Rabbi Gershom ben Judah ruled polygamy inadmissible within Ashkenazi Jewish communities living in a Christian environment. In ancient China, bigamy was a punishable offence. A man, at any given time, could only be married to one woman, vice versa.
Issue with the wife enjoyed preference in social status. Most western countries do not recognize polygamous marriages, consider bigamy a crime. Several countries prohibit people from living a polygamous lifestyle; this is the case in some states of the United States where the criminalization of a polygamous lifestyle originated as anti-Mormon laws, although they are enforced. In diplomatic law, consular spouses from polygamous countries are sometimes exempt from a general prohibition on polygamy in host countries. In some such countries, only one spouse of a polygamous diplomat may be accredited, however. Australia: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Belgium: Illegal. 5–10 years' imprisonment. Brazil: Illegal. 2–6 years' imprisonment. Canada: Illegal under the Criminal Code, sect 290. China: Illegal. Up to 2 years' imprisonment, up to 3 years for bigamy with soldiers. Colombia Illegal with exceptions. Although bigamy no longer exists as a lone figure in the Colombian judicial code marrying someone new without dissolving an earlier marriage may yield to other felonies such as civil status forgery or suppression of information.
Egypt: Legal if first wife consents Eritrea: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. All the 27 countries of the European Union: Illegal. Iceland: Illegal according to the Icelandic Act on Marriage No. 31/1993, Art. 11. Germany: Illegal. Punishable. Ghana: Illegal. Up to six months' imprisonment. Hong Kong: Illegal. Up to 7 years' imprisonment. Republic of Ireland: Bigamy is a statutory offence, it is committed by a person who, being married to another person, goes through a ceremony capable of producing a valid marriage with a third person. The offence is created by section 57 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861; this section replaces section 26 of the Act 10 Geo. 4 c. 34 for the Republic of Ireland. India: Legal only for Muslims but rarely practiced. Up to ten years of imprisonment for others except in the state of Goa for Hindus due to its own civil code. Indonesia: Depending on the specific tribe in question, bigamy can be legal or illegal. Iran: Legal with consent of first wife. Practiced. Israel: Illegal for members of each confessional community.
Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Italy: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Libya: Legal with conditions. Malaysia: Illegal for non-Muslims under federal jurisdiction. Under section 494 of Chapter XX of the Penal Code, non-Muslim offenders found guilty of bigamy or polygamy shall be punished up to 7 years of imprisonment. Bigamy or polygamy is legal only for Muslims with restrictions under state jurisdiction practiced. Maldives: Permitted for anyone. Malta: Illegal under Marriage Act of 1975, section 6. Netherlands: Illegal. Up to 6 years' imprisonment. If the new partner is aware of the bigamy they can be imprisoned for a maximum of 4 years. New Zealand: Illegal. Up to 7 years' imprisonment, or up to 2 years' imprisonment if the judge is satisfied the second spouse was aware their marriage would be void. Morocco: Permitted for Muslims, restrictions apply. Pakistan: Polygamy in Pakistan is permitted with some restrictions. Philippines: Legal for Muslims. Others face 6–12 years' imprisonment and legal dissolution of marriage.
Romania: Illegal under Romanian Penal Code, art 376 and Civil Code of Romania, art 273. Saudi Arabia: Bigamy or polygamy is legal. South Africa: Legal under the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act, 1998 for customary marriages. Under civil law marriages, any marriage in addition to an existing one is invalid. Somalia: Polygamy is legal at marriage courts. Taiwan: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Thailand: Prior to October 1, 1935, polygamy in Thailand could be practiced and recognised under civil law. Since its abolition, it is still practiced and accepted in Thailand, though no longer recognised, as the law states "A man or a woman cannot marry each other while one of them has a spouse." Tunisia: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Turkey: Illegal. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. United Kingdom: Illegal, although marriages performed abroad may be recognised for some legal purposes. On indictment, up to 7 years' imprisonment or on summary conviction up to 6 months' imprisonment, or to a fine of a prescribed sum, or to both.
United States: Illegal in every state. Up to 5 years' imprisonment. Uzbekistan: Il
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
Watertown is a town in Litchfield County, United States. The population was 22,514 at the 2010 census; the zip code for Watertown is 06795. It is a suburb of Waterbury, it borders the towns of Woodbury, Morris, Plymouth and Thomaston. The urban center of the town is the Watertown census-designated place, with a population of 3,574 at the 2010 census. Around 1657 began the colonization of the area today called Watertown. In that time, the colony was called Mattatock, though it had several variations in spelling through the years; the land where Watertown is now located, having belonged to Mattatock changed its name to Watterbury by record on March 20, 1695, by consensus of a council. The original Colony of Mattatuck, which became Watterbury Waterbury in name, comprised a much greater land area than Waterbury does today; the original name for Watertown was Waterbury. Thomas Judd and other families were among the first investors to buy the land as a group; the Town of Watertown was incorporated in 1780 under a charter within the United States of America.
It is in the Eastern Standard time zone. The elevation is 620 feet. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 29.6 square miles, of which, 29.1 square miles of it is land and 0.4 square miles of it is water. Watertown includes the section known as Oakville, mistaken for a separate town. Although Oakville has its own post office and ZIP code, it does not have a charter or town government of its own. Oakville receives all of its city services from Watertown; as of the census of 2000, there were 21,661 people, 8,046 households, 5,994 families residing in the town. The population density was 743.0 people per square mile. There were 8,298 housing units at an average density of 284.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.46% White, 0.75% African American, 0.12% Native American, 1.27% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.48% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.87% of the population. There were 8,046 households out of which 34.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.7% were married couples living together, 9.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.5% were non-families.
21.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.13. In the town, the population was spread out with 24.8% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 29.9% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.6 males. The median income for a household in the town was $59,420, the median income for a family was $68,761. Males had a median income of $47,097 versus $31,822 for females; the per capita income for the town was $26,044. About 1.1% of families and 2.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.8% of those under age 18 and 3.7% of those age 65 or over. The Route 8 expressway runs with two exits inside the town; the main routes through the town center are Route 6 running east-west and Route 63 running north-south.
Other important highways include Route 73, Route 262. Public transportation is provided by buses of Northeast Transportation Company. Waterbury Republican-American, a Waterbury-based independent daily newspaper Town Times, Prime Publishers Inc. a local newspaper serving Watertown, Bunker Hill in Waterbury and Northfield. Voices, its sister paper, covers Southbury, Oxford, Naugatuck, Bethelhem, New Preston, Washington Depot, Bridgewater, Sandy Hook and Newtown. Macaroni Kid, an online magazine for families in Watertown The Taft School, a private boarding school Mt. Olivet Cemetery Watertown Historical Society The Old Burying Ground is a historical cemetery located on the corner of Main Street and French Street; the first body buried there was Hannah Richards Scovill in 1741 and the last was Martha Beardsly in 1938. It is unknown how many bodies are interred there, since record keeping was not precise in the early days. Many graves went unmarked and gravediggers complained that no matter where they dug, they hit buried coffins.
This overcrowding led to the opening of Evergreen Cemetery on North Street in the 1850s. Crestbrook Park Golf Course, public golf course Rico Brogna, MLB 1st baseman who played for the Detroit Tigers, New York Mets, Philadelphia Phillies, Boston Red Sox, Atlanta Braves from 1992 to 2001 Joe Cipriano, television announcer CBS, radio personality WWCO, WRQX, KIIS FM Erastus L. De Forest, mathematician Edward Fitzsimmons Dunne, 31st mayor of Chicago. Benjamin B. Hotchkiss, for whom The Hotchkiss School was named by his widow, was one of the leading American ordnance engineers of his day, he made his money by founding a successful munitions company in France after the American Civil War. He was born in Watertown but in early childhood moved to Sharon. Leatherman, drifter within the CT and Hudson River Valley areas, known for his leather clothing. Meredith Mallory, former US Congressman Chris McKenna, actor featured in State of Affairs, The Young and the Restless, One Life to Live Thomas Tessier, American writer of horror novels and short stories, current resident of Watertown
Stephen Gardner Birmingham was an American author known for his social histories of wealthy American families focusing on ethnicity — Jews, African-Americans and the Anglo-Dutch. He wrote several novels about wealthy people. Birmingham was born in Andover, Connecticut in 1929 to Editha Birmingham and Thomas Birmingham, a lawyer of Irish descent, he was not born into an upper-class family, but attended the elite Hotchkiss School, of which he recalled "there were no blacks, maybe one Chinese person, the son of a missionary, a quota on Jews."He received a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from Williams College in 1950, worked as an advertising copywriter for Needham Harper Steers in New York City. Among his clients was the popular magazine Ladies' Home Journal, for which Birmingham was credited with coining the slogan "Never underestimate the power of a woman."He was a teacher of writing at the University of Cincinnati and studied for a time in England. He married Janet Tillson in 1953 and they had three children, but divorced.
Birmingham had a great interest in the upper classes, wrote numerous books about the wealthy in the United States focusing on their ethnicity, national origins, geographic locale. His biographies include those of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Wallis Warfield Windsor, novelist John Marquand, his study of the African-American upper class — Certain People — generated some controversy and was panned by The New York Times. His other books, were acclaimed, his trilogy of books on American Jews: Our Crowd: The Great Jewish Families of New York, The Grandees: America's Sephardic Elite, The Rest of Us: The Rise of America's Eastern European Jews are his best known works. Our Crowd was on The New York Times Bestseller List for 47 weeks. Birmingham died on November 15, 2015, from lung cancer. Birmingham, Stephen. "What Made Maria Do It?". In Kolowrat, Ernest. Hotchkiss: A Chronicle of an American School. New York: New Amsterdam Books. Pp. 1–12. ISBN 1-56131-058-1. Birmingham, Stephen. America's Secret Aristocracy.
Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09650-4. Birmingham, Stephen; the Ordeals—and Triumphs—of American Jews. Radnor: Triangle Publications. Birmingham, Stephen; the Rest of Us: The Rise of America's Eastern European Jews. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09647-4. Birmingham, Stephen; the Grandes Dames. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-25585-1. Birmingham, Stephen. Duchess: The Story of Wallis Warfield Windsor. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09643-1. Birmingham, Stephen. California Rich. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-24127-3. Birmingham, Stephen. Life at the Dakota: New York's Most Unusual Address. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-394-41079-3. Birmingham, Stephen; the Golden Dream: Suburbia in the Seventies. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-060-10334-5. Birmingham, Stephen. Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis. New York: Grosset & Dunlap. ISBN 0-448-14306-2. Birmingham, Stephen. Certain People: America's Black Elite. Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09642-3. Birmingham, Stephen; the Right Places. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09641-5.
Birmingham, Stephen. Real Lace: America's Irish Rich. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-060-10336-1. Birmingham, Stephen; the Late John Marquand: A Biography. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. ISBN 0-397-00886-4. Birmingham, Stephen; the Grandees: America's Sephardic Elite. New York: Harper & Row. OCLC 130038. Birmingham, Stephen; the Right People: A Portrait of the American Social Establishment. Boston: Little, Brown. Birmingham, Stephen. Our Crowd: The Great Jewish Families of New York. New York: Harper & Row. Short stories Birmingham, Stephen. Heart Troubles, Short Stories. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-582-10014-3. Novels Birmingham, Stephen; the Wrong Kind of Money. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-451-19304-0. Birmingham, Stephen.. Carriage Trade. Bantam. Birmingham, Stephen; the Rothman Scandal. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-09654-7. Birmingham, Stephen. Shades of Fortune. New York: Jove Books. ISBN 0-515-10844-8. Birmingham, Stephen; the LeBaron Secret. New York: Berkley Publishing Group. ISBN 0-425-09633-5. Birmingham, Stephen.
The Auerbach Will. New York: Berkley Books. ISBN 0-425-07101-4. Birmingham, Stephen; those Harper Women: A Novel. McGraw-Hill. Birmingham, Stephen. Barbara Greer. Little Brown & Co. Birmingham, Stephen. Fast Start, Fast Finish Birmingham, Stephen; the Tower of Love Birmingham, Stephen. Young Mr Keefe Stephen Birmingham's bio Shades of Fortune Four Reviews on Stephen Birmingham's Book: The Grandees
Sharon is a town located in Litchfield County, Connecticut, in the northwest corner of the state. It is bounded on the north by Salisbury, on the east by the Housatonic River, on the south by Kent, on the west by Dutchess County, New York. At the time of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 2,782 a third more than it had had 230 years earlier; the ZIP code for Sharon is 06069. The urban center of the town is the Sharon census-designated place, with a population of 729 at the 2010 census; the first inhabitants of the area they called. These were part of what became known as the Wappinger confederacy which in turn belonged to the loose Algonquian confederacy. Sharon is incorporated in 1739, it is named after the Plain of Sharon. Sharon has 6 sites listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places: Ebenezer Gay House, Main St. Sharon George King House, 12 N. Main St. Sharon Gov. Smith Homestead, South Main St. Sharon James Pardee House, 129 N. Main St. Sharon Sharon Historic District Main St. from Low Rd. to its junction with Mitchelltown, Amenia Union, W. Woods Rds.
Sharon Sharon Valley Historic District According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 59.6 square miles, of which, 58.7 square miles of it is land and 0.9 square miles of it is water. The total area is 1.44% water. Sharon is part of the Northwest Highlands of Connecticut, a region in and around the watershed of the Housatonic River; the Appalachian Trail passes through a few miles east of Sharon, near West Cornwall and U. S. Route 7. Amenia Union Ellsworth Sharon center Sharon Valley Main Street & Green Calkinstown West Woods As of the census of 2000, there were 2,968 people, 1,246 households, 775 families residing in the town; the population density was 50.6 per square mile. There were 1,617 housing units at an average density of 27.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.87% White, 0.94% African American, 0.57% Asian, 0.44% Native American, 0% Pacific Islander, 0.34% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.95% of the population.
There were 1,246 households of which 25.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.9% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.8% were non-families. 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.26 and the average family size was 2.87. In the town, the population was spread out with 21.3% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 24.4% from 25 to 44, 29.1% from 45 to 64, 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.2 males. The median household income was $53,000, the median family income for a family was $71,458. Males had a median income of $42,841 versus $31,375 for females; the per capita income for the town was $45,418. About 3.9% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.4% of those under the age of 18 and none of those 65 and older.
Sharon is a member of Regional School District 01, which includes the towns of Canaan, Kent, North Canaan, Salisbury. Public school students attend Sharon Center School from grades K-8 and Housatonic Valley Regional High School from grades 9-12; the town is served by state highways Route 4, Route 41, Route 343, Route 361. Kevin Bacon and his wife Kyra Sedgwick, actors. Patricia Buckley Bozell was reared in Sharon with her brother, William F. Buckley Jr. at the Buckley family home, "Great Elm". Yancy Butler, former Witchblade actress. Jane Curtin and comedian. Michael J. Fox and his wife Tracy Pollan, actors. Frank R. Fratellenico Medal Of Vietnam War. Arthur Getz, illustrator for The New Yorker magazine. Thomas Hart retired U. S. Navy Admiral and U. S. Senator from Connecticut. Benjamin B. Hotchkiss, ordnance engineer and his wife, Maria Bissell Hotchkiss, educator. Jasper Johns, artist. Elijah Juckett, soldier in the Continental Army. Sam Posey, a retired American racecar driver and sports broadcast journalist.
Campbell Scott, actor. Ansel Sterling was a US Congressman from Connecticut. Bradley Whitford and his wife Jane Kaczmarek, actors. William Coley, prominent New York bone surgeon and inventor of "Coley's toxins," an early form of cancer immunotherapy. Helen Coley Nauts, daughter of William B. Coley, M. D. and co-founder of the Cancer Research Institute. The presence of Sharon Hospital, a sizeable regional hospital, has led to Sharon being birthplace to several people who did not live in the town: Philip Amelio, 1980s child actor. Born in Sharon on November 3, 1977, but raised in nearby Pine Plains, New York. Samuel Berger, U. S. National Security Advisor to President Bill Clinton. Born in Sharon on October 28, 1945, but raised in nearby Millerton, New York. Michael Cole, announcer on WWE Raw and former journalist with CBS Radio. Born in Sharon on December 8, 1966, but raised in nearby Amenia, New York. Alfred Korzybski, founder of the nearby Institute of General Semantics, died at Sharon Hospital March 1, 1950.
Sharon Historical Society Historic USGS map including Sharon, in the southwest corner of the quadrangle 1935 Description of Sharon Housatonic Meadows State Park in Sharon, along the Housatonic River Mudge Pond, a 206-acre lake located in Sharon Sharon
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th