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Benjamin Banneker

Benjamin Banneker was a free African-American almanac author, surveyor and farmer. Born in Baltimore County, Maryland, to a free African-American woman and a former slave, Banneker had little formal education and was self-taught, he is known for being part of a group led by Major Andrew Ellicott that surveyed the original borders of the District of Columbia, the federal capital district of the United States. Banneker's knowledge of astronomy helped, he corresponded with Thomas Jefferson on the topics of slavery and racial equality, Jefferson having earlier drafted the United States Declaration of Independence. Abolitionists and advocates of racial equality praised Banneker's works. Although a fire on the day of Banneker's funeral destroyed many of his papers and belongings, one of his journals and several of his remaining artifacts are presently available for public viewing. Parks, schools and other tributes have commemorated Banneker throughout the years since he lived. However, many accounts of his life falsely attribute his works.

Benjamin Banneker was born on November 9, 1731, in Baltimore County, Maryland to Mary Banneky, a free black, Robert, a freed slave from Guinea. There are two conflicting accounts of Banneker's family history. Banneker himself and his earliest biographers described him as having only African ancestry. None of Banneker's surviving papers describe a white ancestor or identify the name of his grandmother; however biographers have contended that Banneker's mother was the child of Molly Welsh, a white indentured servant, an African slave named Banneka. The first published description of Molly Welsh was based on interviews with her descendants that took place in 1836, long after the deaths of both Molly and Benjamin. A genealogist has noted that the name Bannaker may have had the same origin as the village of Banaka in today's Liberia, which at the time was part of the slave trade. Molly may have purchased Banneka to help establish a farm located near the future site of Ellicott's Mills, west of Baltimore.

One biographer has suggested that Banneka may have been a member of the Dogon people, reputed to have had knowledge of astronomy. Molly freed and married Banneka, who may have shared his knowledge of astronomy with her. Although born after Banneka's death, Benjamin may have acquired some knowledge of astronomy from Molly. In 1737, Banneker was named at the age of 6 on the deed of his family's 100-acre farm in the Patapsco Valley in rural Baltimore County; the remainder of his early life is not well documented. As a young teenager, he may have met and befriended Peter Heinrichs, a Quaker who established a school near the Banneker farm. Quakers were advocates of racial equality. Heinrichs may have shared his personal library and provided Banneker with his only classroom instruction. Banneker's formal education ended when he was old enough to help on his family's farm. Around 1753 at about the age of 21, Banneker completed a wooden clock that struck on the hour, he appears to have modeled his clock from a borrowed pocket watch by carving each piece to scale.

The clock purportedly continued to work until his death. After his father died in 1759, Banneker lived with his mother and sisters. In 1768, he signed a Baltimore County petition to move the county seat from Joppa to Baltimore. An entry for his property in a 1773 Baltimore County tax list identified Banneker as the only adult member of his household. In 1772, brothers Andrew Ellicott, John Ellicott and Joseph Ellicott moved from Bucks County and bought land along the Patapsco Falls near Banneker's farm on which to construct gristmills, around which the village of Ellicott's Mills subsequently developed; the Ellicotts shared the same views on racial equality as did many of their faith. Banneker became acquainted with their proprietors. In 1788, George Ellicott, the son of Andrew Ellicott, loaned Banneker books and equipment to begin a more formal study of astronomy. During the following year, Banneker sent George his work calculating a solar eclipse. In 1790, Banneker prepared an ephemeris for 1791, which he hoped would be placed within a published almanac.

However, he was unable to find a printer, willing to publish and distribute the work. In February 1791, surveyor Major Andrew Ellicott, having left at the request of U. S. Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson a surveying team in western New York that he had been leading, hired Banneker as a replacement to assist in the initial survey of the boundaries of a new federal district. Formed from land along the Potomac River that the states of Maryland and Virginia ceded to the federal government of the United States in accordance with the 1790 federal Residence Act and legislation, the territory that became the original District of Columbia was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Ellicott's team placed boundary marker stones at or near every mile point along the borders of the new capital territory. Biographers have stated that Banneker's duties on the survey consisted of making astronomical observations at Jones Point in Alexandria, Virginia, to ascertain the location of the starting point for the survey.

They have stated that Banneker maintained a clock that he used to relate points on the ground to the

Shawn Mayer

Shawn A. Mayer is a former professional American football defensive back, a Player Development Coach at Rutgers University. Signed as an undrafted free agent by the New England Patriots in 2003, Mayer played in 9 games that season, compiling 15 tackles, including one in Super Bowl XXXVIII; that one Super Bowl tackle remarkably was of Carolina Panthers wide receiver Ricky Proehl, who attended the same Hillsborough High School as Mayer. He would appear in only 3 games in 2004, in February 2005 he signed as a free agent with the Atlanta Falcons who allocated him to NFL Europe. Mayer excelled as a member of the Hamburg Sea Devils, matching the NFL Europe record for interceptions in a game, setting team records for interceptions in a season and in a game and earning All-NFL Europe honors, he would return to play for Hamburg during the 2006 season, this time allocated by the Cleveland Browns. Mayer started 23 games while at Penn State University and finished his career with 252 tackles, 5 interceptions, 1.5 sacks and 8 tackles for loss.

He earned a Bachelor of Science in Administration of Justice from Penn State University in 2003. He grew up in Hillsborough Township, New Jersey and was twice-named a USA Today All-American and New Jersey SuperPrep following his junior and senior seasons at Hillsborough High School where he excelled in track and field. NFL player page Player profile, Transaction history, Sportsnet

L&YR Class 8

The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway class 8 was a four-cylinder 4-6-0 express passenger locomotive designed by George Hughes introduced in 1908. The increased weight of trains in the early 1900s and need for improved power on Liverpool—Manchester—Hull expresses and Leeds—Fleetwood boat trains indicated a need for an engine more powerful that the Aspinall's 442 Atantic of 1899. Hughes described the requirement in a paper read to the Institute of Mechanical Engineers thus:This design was brought about by the further increased weight of trains and the necessity of accurate time-keeping with the accelerated train schedule of the Liverpool and Hull expresses, the Leeds and Fleetwood boat trains, to cope with the gradients on the Bradford and Sheffield sections Hughes created a design with a boiler producing saturated steam, slide valves and Joy valve gear; the first came out of Horwich Works in June 1908, the original batch of 20 was completed in by March 1909. Around the time of their construction, they were nicknamed "Dreadnoughts" on account of their large size, after the then-new Royal Navy battleship HMS Dreadnought.

The locomotives proved "sluggish, poor runners and poor steamers". They were subject to a number of modifications to improve steaming including enlarged blast pipes and an air duct running under the to front and rear of the ashpan to improve the fire burning; the high maintenance demands of the class saw a queue needing attention building up at Horwich Works during World War I. Remedial modifications were restricted but five were fitted with replacement modified boilerstop keep them in service. In 1919–20, fifteen were rebuilt with superheaters, piston valves, Walschaerts valve gear and larger cylinders; the nominal tractive effort of the rebuilds was 28,879 lbf which made these engines for a time the most powerful in Great Britain until 1922 when the Gresley pacifics appeared. The rebuilt locomotives were reported to be "a good workmanlike engine" and "an engine master of its work", although still with a coal consumption on the heavy side. Improved performance of the rebuilt locomotives and favourable test comparisons with the LNWR Prince of Wales Class and LNWR Claughton Class in 1921 and published in The Engineer were a trigger for the L&YR to order more of the type.

Deliveries of the ten locomotives in Lot 80 commenced in August 1921 with the last two being delivered after the amalgamation of the L&YR into the London and North Western Railway in 1922. Deliveries from the 25 locomotives Lot 81 commenced in November 1922 with only four built before grouping and creation of the London and Scottish Railway and the remainder delivered in 1923; the 20 more of Lot 83 were part of the 30-locomotive order for the related L&YR Hughes 4-6-4T and were delivered during 1924 apart from the final locomotive No. 10474 on 5 January 1925. No 10456 was converted to a 4-cylinder compound in July 1926; the original unrebuilt locomotives were described as "poor performers". They were prone to suffering mechanical problems causing poor reliability. By 1918 there was a case of No. 1519, not one of the better of the class, was recording coal consumption of 100 pounds per mile between Southport and York. During the length of the National coal strike of 1912 the unrebuilt Hughes 4-6-0 class were suspended because while able to "shift anything" the amount of coal they used in process was too excessive in a time of shortage.

The rebuilt version of the locomotive has been described as "creditable but not outstanding" and comparable to the LNWR Claughton Class. As well as former L&YR territory the rebuilt class worked the West Coast Main Line between Crewe and Carlisle but increasing less south to Euston as the LMS Royal Scot Class became available; the swansong was an enthusiast special excursion from Blackpool to York by what was described as an "old" locomotive on 1 July 1951. The early withdrawal of most units must be considered in the context that the LMS inherited 393 different locomotive classes at Grouping, LMS chairman Sir Josiah Stamp thought it desirable to reduce this to just 10 classes. Relevant is that while Hughes became chief mechanical engineer of the LNWR following its amalgamation with the L&YR and CME of the LMS at the grouping. With his resignation in 1925 nfluence moved from Horwich to Derby. In a paper presented to the Institute of Locomotive Engineers in 1946 E. S. Cox claimed that while the class were capable of some outstanding performances their "steaming, coal consumption and reliability were not outstanding" and seeming considered not suitable for general use on the Anglo Scottish as had been hoped.

Baxter, Bertram. Baxter, David. British Locomotive Catalogue 1825–1923, Volume 3B: Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway and its constituent companies. Ashbourne, Derbyshire: Moorland Publishing Company. ISBN 0-903485-85-0. Casserley, H. C. & Johnston, Stuart W.. Locomotives at the Grouping 3: London and Scottish Railway. Shepperton, Surrey: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0554-0. Cox, E. S.. "A Modern Locomotive History — Ten Years' Development on the L. M. S. — 1923-1932". Journal of the Institution of Locomotive Engineers. Archived from the original on 27 December 2016. Hunt, David. LMS Locomotive Profiles, no. 7 - The Mixed Traffic Class 5s, Caprotti valve gear engines and class summary. Didcot, Oxon: Wild Swan. ISBN 1-905184-21-2. Lane, Barry C.. Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Locomotives. Pendragon. ISBN 9781899816170. Evans, Martin. From Inverness to Crewe — The British 4-6-0 Locomotive. Hemel Hem

Trebizond during the Armenian Genocide

Trebizond was a city in the Ottoman Empire where the Armenian Genocide occurred. The method employed to kill was by mass drowning resulting in estimated deaths of 50,000 Armenians; the city was an important location of subsequent trials held to prosecute those involved with the systematic massacre. The city was the site of one of the key battles between the Ottoman and Russian armies during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I which resulted in the capture of Trebizond by the Russian Caucasus Army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916; the Russian Army retreated from the city and the rest of eastern and northeastern Anatolia with the Russian Revolution of 1917. Eitan Belkind was a Nili member, he was assigned to the headquarters of Camal Pasha. He claims to have witnessed the burning of 5,000 Armenians, Lt. Hasan Maruf, of the Ottoman army, describes how a population of a village were taken all together, burned; the Commander of the Third Army, Vehib's 12 pages affidavit, dated December 5, 1918, presented in the Trebizond trial series included in the Key Indictment, report such a mass burning of the population of an entire village near Mus. S. S. McClure write in his work, Obstacles to Peace, Houghton Mifflin Company, 1917.

Pp. 400–1, that in Bitlis and Sassoun, "The shortest method for disposing of the women and children concentrated in tile various camps was to burn them." And that, "Turkish prisoners who had witnessed some of these scenes were horrified and maddened at the remembering the sight. They told the Russians that the stench of the burning human flesh permeated the air for many days after." The Germans, Ottoman allies witnessed the way Armenians were burned according to the Israeli historian, Bat Ye’or, who writes: "The Germans, allies of the Turks in the First World War, …saw how civil populations were shut up in churches and burned, or gathered en masse in camps, tortured to death, reduced to ashes,…" During the Trebizond trial series, of the court martial, the Trebizond Health Services Inspector Dr. Ziya Fuad wrote in a report that Dr. Saib, caused the death of children with the injection of morphine, the information was provided by two physicians, both Dr. Saib colleagues at Trebizond's Red Crescent hospital, where those atrocities were said to have been committed.

Dr. Ziya Fuad, Dr. Adnan, public health services director of Trebizond, submitted affidavits, reporting a cases, in which, two school buildings were used to organize children and sent them on the mezzanine, to kill them with a toxic gas equipment; this case was presented during the Session 3, p.m. 1 April 1919 published in the Constantinople newspaper Renaissance, 27 April 1919. The Ottoman surgeon, Dr. Haydar Cemal wrote in No. 45, 23 December 1918 published in Renaissance, 26 December 1918, that "on the order of the Chief Sanitation Office of the IIIrd Army in January 1916, when the spread of typhus was an acute problem, innocent Armenians slated for deportation at Erzincan were inoculated with the blood of typhoid fever patients without rendering that blood ‘inactive’." Jeremy Hugh Baron writes: Individual doctors were directly involved in the massacres, having poisoned infants, killed children and issued false certificates of death from natural causes. Nazim's brother-in-law Dr. Tevfik Rushdu, Inspector-General of Health Services, organized the disposal of Armenian corpses with thousands of kilos of lime over six months.

The psychiatrist, Robert Jay Lifton, writes in a parenthesis when introducing the crimes of Nazi doctors in his book Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, "Perhaps Turkish doctors, in their participation in the genocide against the Armenians, come closest, as I shall suggest)." and drowning. Oscar S. Heizer, the American consul at Trebizond, reports: "This plan did not suit Nail Bey…. Many of the children were loaded into boats and taken out to sea and thrown overboard." The Italian consul of Trebizond in 1915, Giacomo Gorrini, writes: "I saw thousands of innocent women and children placed on boats which were capsized in the Black Sea." Hoffman Philip, the American Charge at Constantinople chargé d'affaires, writes: "Boat loads sent from Zor down the river arrived at Ana, one thirty miles away, with three fifths of passengers missing." Schliefer, Yigal. "Turkish city grapples with violent record". Christian Science Monitor. New York Times

Michael Ring

Michael Ring is an Irish Fine Gael politician who has served as Minister for Rural and Community Development since June 2017. He has been a Teachta Dála for the Mayo constituency since 1997, from 1994 to 1997 for the Mayo West constituency, he served as Minister of State for Regional Economic Development from 2016 to 2017 and Minister of State for Tourism and Sport from 2011 to 2016. Ring was born in Westport, County Mayo, in 1953, he was educated at the local vocational school. He worked as an estate agent and auctioneer in Westport. Ring was unsuccessful as a Fine Gael candidate in the Mayo West constituency in the 1992 general election. However, he was elected at his second attempt in a 1994 by-election. After an initial period on the backbenches, Ring bolstered his political base by securing election to Mayo County Council in 1999, he was appointed to the Fine Gael Front Bench as Spokesperson on Social and Family Affairs. Ring stepped down from the Front Bench in 2004, after a planned demotion, however, he returned in 2007 as Spokesperson on Community and Gaeltacht Affairs.

After the formation of the Coalition Government in March 2011, Ring was appointed Minister of State for Tourism and Sport. Following the formation of a Fine Gael minority government in May 2016, he was appointed Minister of State for Regional Economic Development, he was appointed to cabinet as Minister for Rural and Community Development. Michael Ring's page on the Fine Gael website

Bergkirche, Wiesbaden

The Bergkirche is one of four main Protestant churches in Wiesbaden, the capital of Hesse, Germany. It was completed in 1879 in Gothic Revival based on a design by Johannes Otzen; the church is focused on having the altar and pulpit close to the congregation, following Luther's concept of a universal priesthood. It serves as a concert venue for church music. Plans for a second Protestant church, after the Marktkirche, date back to 1837, but were not realised until decades due to the two wars that Prussia had to fight between 1866 and 1871. Building began in 1876, was completed in 1879; the Protestant Bergkirche was built in Gothic revival style, designed by Johannes Otzen who would write the Wiesbadener Programm. The building process was supervised by Hans Grisebach, it was named Bergkirche because it was built on a high plateau within Wiesbaden's inner city, the surrounding quarter is named after the church. The steeple, with a slate roof, dominates the area; the Wiesbadener Programm was written by Otzen and Emil Veesenmeyer, minister of the Bergkirche, in 1891, aiming at an unobstructed view from every seat in the church to the combined location of altar and organ.

The third Protestant church in Wiesbaden, the Ringkirche, followed this program, completed in 1894 after Otzen's design, as well as the fourth church, the Lutherkirche, opened in 1911. The building recalls elements of a 13th-century parish church. Olten followed the "Eisenacher Regulativ", an official regulation for church buildings which required, as in a Gothic church, a cross as a floorplan and the choir to the east, he shortened the nave and made the transept octagonal, as the central focus for altar and pulpit close to the congregation. The result is a protestantische Predigtkirche according to Martin Luther's concept of a priesthood of all believers; the interior features stained-glass windows and sculptures. A first pipe organ was built in the Bergkirche in 1879 by E. F. Walcker & Cie.. It was replaced in 1931 by G. F. Steinmeyer & Co. from Oettingen in Bayern, but retaining the front and a few stops. Albert Schweitzer was consulted for the rebuilding of the organ. In 1948, the organ was remodelled by Nicolaus Orgelbau.

A new organ was pedal. The church has a mixed choir, Kantorei der Bergkirche, conducted by Christian Pfeifer, which performs in services and in concerts such as in 2019 Arvo Pärt's Johannespassion with Klaus Uwe Ludwig as the organist, Handel's Messiah as part of the Wiesbadener Bachwochen festival. Official website