Benjamin Curtis Porter
Benjamin Curtis Porter was an American artist. Porter was born at Melrose, Massachusetts on August 27, 1843, he was the son of Julia Porter. Porter came from an "old Massachusetts family whose scions have been good citizens, soldiers and lawyers in America."He was a pupil of Dr. Rimmer and Albion Harris Bicknell in Boston and of the Paris schools after traveling extensively in America and Europe. Porter, who began his career as a figure painter devoted himself to portraiture entirely, he was elected an associate of the National Academy of Design, New York, in 1878, a full academician in 1880. Porter opened his studio, at 3 Washington Square North, in New York in 1880. Today, he is best known for his portraits. Aside from study at Harvard, Porter's primary education seems to have consisted of several trips to Europe in 1872, 1875, 1878, 1881. Cities which interested him were Paris and Venice. By the early 1870s, Porter had established a successful portrait studio in Boston, his mark was made in New York in 1877 when a group of works he exhibited at the NAD Annual caused something of a critical sensation.
He was soon elected to the Academy's membership, in 1883 he opened a New York studio, dividing his time for several years between Manhattan and Boston. His summers were spent in Newport, Rhode Island. In 1887, Porter married Mary Louise Clark of Connecticut. In 1892, both Benjamin and his wife were included in Ward McAllister's list of "Four Hundred", purported to be an index of New York's best families, published in The New York Times. Conveniently, 400 was the number of people. Porter was the National Arts Tavern Club in Boston, he died at his residence, 22 West 11th Street in New York City, on April 2, 1908. His funeral was held at the Church of the Ascension on West 10th Street. Media related to Benjamin Curtis Porter at Wikimedia Commons
Melrose is a city located in the Greater Boston metropolitan area in Middlesex County, United States. Its population as per the 2010 United States Census is 26,983, it is a suburb located seven miles north of Boston and is situated in the center of the triangle created by Interstates 93, 95 and U. S. Route 1; the land that comprises Melrose was first settled in 1628 and was once part of Charlestown and Malden. It became the Town of Melrose in 1850 and the City of Melrose in 1900. Melrose was called "Ponde Fielde" for its abundance of ponds and streams or "Mystic Side" because of its location in a valley north of the Mystic River; the area was first explored by Richard and Ralph Sprague in 1628, became part of Charlestown in 1633 along with a large area of land encompassing most of the surrounding communities. In 1649, the neighborhood of Charlestown known as Malden was incorporated as a separate town. North Malden remained a populated farming community. In 1845, the Boston and Maine Railroad built three stops.
Boston workers in search of a country atmosphere began commuting to work. The population of North Malden began growing, in 1850 North Malden split from Malden proper and was incorporated as the town of Melrose. Melrose annexed the highlands from neighboring Stoneham in 1853, creating the city's current borders; the population of Melrose continued to grow throughout the second half of the nineteenth century. Farmland was partitioned into smaller parcels for residences and businesses; the fire department and the town's school district were founded and town hall was built in 1873. In 1899, the City of Melrose became the 33rd incorporated city in Massachusetts. Levi S. Gould became the city’s first mayor on January 1, 1900. Melrose reached a peak in population of 33,180 residents in 1970, before beginning a slow decline continuing through 2010. On April 1, 1982, Downtown Melrose was added to the National Register of Historic Places; the name "Melrose" comes from the burgh of Scotland. It was a reference to the hills of Scotland which the new town resembled.
The name was suggested and advocated for by William Bogle, a Scotland native and longtime resident of North Malden. Melrose is located at 42°27′33″N 71°3′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.8 square miles, of which 4.7 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles, or 1.26%, is water. The city's largest body of water is Ell Pond, situated near the center of the city, while other major bodies are Swains Pond and Towners Pond, located on the east side near Mount Hood Golf Club. Melrose is 7 miles north of Boston, Massachusetts, it borders four cities and towns: Malden, Saugus and Wakefield. Major geographic features include Ell Pond, Swains Pond, Sewall Woods, Mount Hood, Boston Rock, Pine Banks Park, the eastern reaches of the Middlesex Fells Reservation; the writer Elizabeth George Speare, born in Melrose, wrote of her hometown: "Melrose was an ideal place in which to have grown up, close to fields and woods where we hiked and picnicked, near to Boston where we had family treats of theaters and concerts."
Cedar Park Downtown Melrose East Side Horace Mann Melrose Highlands Mount Hood Oak Grove/Pine Banks Wyoming Gail Infurna is the Mayor of Melrose as of February 2018. A member of the Board of Alderman since 1998, she was selected by her peers to replace Mayor Robert J. Dolan, who resigned to take a position as Town Administrator in nearby Lynnfield. Melrose is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by Paul Brodeur, by Jason Lewis in the Massachusetts Senate. Melrose is part of the fifth Congressional district of Massachusetts, is represented by Katherine Clark; the current U. S. senators from Massachusetts are Elizabeth Warren. Melrose is served by an eleven-member Board of Aldermen. Four At-Large Aldermen are elected by the entire city, while the seven Ward Aldermen, elected by voters in their individual wards, are John N. Tramontozzi, Jennifer Lemmerman, Francis X. Wright, Jr. Robert A. Boisselle, Shawn M. MacMaster, Peter D. Mortimer and Scott Forbes.. Beginning in the 2007 election, the mayor's position became a four-year term and was given a seat on the School Committee.
All aldermen are elected to two-year terms. City elections are held in odd-numbered years; as of the census of 2010, there were 26,983 people, 11,213 households, 7,076 families residing in the city. The racial makeup of the city was 91.1% White, 2.4% African American, 0.1% Native American, 3.8% Asian, 0.9% from other races, 1.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.5% of the population. There were 11,213 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families. Of all households 31.3% were individuals living alone and 13.5% were composed of an individual 65 years or older living alone. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.05. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.5% under the age of 20, 4.0% from 20 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 15.9% who were 65 years of a
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
An artist is a person engaged in an activity related to creating art, practicing the arts, or demonstrating an art. The common usage in both everyday speech and academic discourse is a practitioner in the visual arts only; the term is used in the entertainment business in a business context, for musicians and other performers. "Artiste" is a variant used in English only in this context. Use of the term to describe writers, for example, is valid, but less common, restricted to contexts like criticism. Wiktionary defines the noun ` artist'. A person who makes and creates art as an occupation. A person, skilled at some activity. A person whose trade or profession requires a knowledge of design, painting, etc; the Oxford English Dictionary defines the older broad meanings of the term "artist": A learned person or Master of Arts One who pursues a practical science, traditionally medicine, alchemy, chemistry A follower of a pursuit in which skill comes by study or practice A follower of a manual art, such as a mechanic One who makes their craft a fine art One who cultivates one of the fine arts – traditionally the arts presided over by the muses The Greek word "techně" translated as "art," implies mastery of any sort of craft.
The adjectival Latin form of the word, "technicus", became the source of the English words technique, technical. In Greek culture each of the nine Muses oversaw a different field of human creation: Calliope: chief of the muses and muse of epic or heroic poetry Clio: muse of history Erato: muse of love or erotic poetry and marriage songs Euterpe: muse of music and lyric poetry Melpomene: muse of tragedy Polyhymnia or Polymnia: muse of sacred song, lyric and rhetoric Terpsichore: muse of choral song and dance Thalia: muse of comedy and bucolic poetry Urania: muse of astronomyNo muse was identified with the visual arts of painting and sculpture. In ancient Greece sculptors and painters were held in low regard, somewhere between freemen and slaves, their work regarded as mere manual labour; the word art derives from the Latin "ars", although defined means "skill method" or "technique" conveys a connotation of beauty. During the Middle Ages the word artist existed in some countries such as Italy, but the meaning was something resembling craftsman, while the word artesan was still unknown.
An artist was someone able to do a work better than others, so the skilled excellency was underlined, rather than the activity field. In this period some "artisanal" products were much more precious and expensive than paintings or sculptures; the first division into major and minor arts dates back at least to the works of Leon Battista Alberti: De re aedificatoria, De statua, De pictura, which focused on the importance of the intellectual skills of the artist rather than the manual skills. With the Academies in Europe the gap between fine and applied arts was set. Many contemporary definitions of "artist" and "art" are contingent on culture, resisting aesthetic prescription, in much the same way that the features constituting beauty and the beautiful cannot be standardized without corruption into kitsch. Artist is a descriptive term applied to a person. An artist may be defined unofficially as "a person who expresses him- or herself through a medium"; the word is used in a qualitative sense of, a person creative in, innovative in, or adept at, an artistic practice.
Most the term describes those who create within a context of the fine arts or'high culture', activities such as drawing, sculpture, dancing, filmmaking, new media and music—people who use imagination, talent, or skill to create works that may be judged to have an aesthetic value. Art historians and critics define artists as those who produce art within a recognized or recognizable discipline. Contrasting terms for skilled workers in media in the applied arts or decorative arts include artisan and specialized terms such as potter, goldsmith or glassblower. Fine arts artists such as painters succeeded in the Renaissance in raising their status similar to these workers, to a decisively higher level; the term may be used loosely or metaphorically to denote skilled people in any non-"art" activities, as well— law, mechanics, or mathematics, for example. Discussions on the subject focus on the differences among "artist" and "technician", "entertainer" and "artisan", "fine art" and "applied art", or what constitutes art and what does not.
The French word artiste has been imported into the English language. Use of the word "artiste" can be a pejorative term; the English word'artiste' has thus a narrower range of meaning than the word'artiste' in French. In Living with Art, Mark Getlein proposes six activities, services or functions of contemporary artists: Create places for some human purpose. Create extraordinary versions of ordinary objects. Record and commemorate. Give tangible form to the unknown. Give tangible form to feelings. Refresh our vision and help see the world in new ways. After looking at years of data on
Church of the Ascension, Episcopal (Manhattan)
The Church of the Ascension is an Episcopal church in the Diocese of New York, located at 36–38 Fifth Avenue and West 10th Street in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan New York City. It was built in 1840–41, the first church to be built on Fifth Avenue and was designed by Richard Upjohn in the Gothic Revival style; the interior was remodeled by Stanford White in 1885–88. The church's parish house, at 12 West 11th Street between Fifth Avenue and the Avenue of the Americas, was built in 1844 as a residence, was altered to its current state in 1888–89 by McKim and White in a Northern Renaissance-inspired style; the church became a National Historic Landmark in 1987. Both the church and parish house are part of the Greenwich Village Historic District, designated by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1969; the Church of the Ascension was first organized in 1827, their first church – located on the north side of Canal Street east of Broadway – was one of the early Greek Revival buildings in the city, designed by the city's first professional architectural firm, Town & Thompson, the partnership of Ithiel Town and Martin Euclid Thompson.
Built in 1828–29, the church burned down in 1839, prompting the move to the parish's current location and church. Until the new church was completed, the parish met in a number of places for two years. Not long after the church opened, on June 26, 1844, United States President John Tyler married Julia Gardiner. Since Gardiner was much younger than Tyler, John Quincy Adams called the couple the "laughing-stock of the city."In 1865, under then-rector James Cotton Smith, the parish began a mission church – the Chapel of the Shepherd's Flock the Ascension Memorial Chapel – at 249 West 43rd Street, building a sanctuary there in 1895. This acquired the nickname of "The Little Brick Church in Times Square". In response to the Wall Street Crash of 1929, the rector Donald Bradshaw Aldrich opened the doors of the church 24-hours a day for prayer and meditation, earning the church the name "The Church of the Open Door"; this policy was in effect for decades: about 30,000 people visited the church in the 1960s.
Although the doors are not still open around the clock, the stained-glass windows are illuminated at night. Richard Upjohn's design for the church is "closely related" to his designs for Trinity Church, which began construction earlier, in 1839, Christ Church in Brooklyn, which came afterwards; the brownstone church is symmetrical, features a square tower. Stanford White's interior design was "one of the great collaborative efforts of the era", features a pulpit designed by Charles Follen McKim; the church has had a series of organs since its construction in 1840–41. The current organ is The Manton Memorial Organ, dedicated on May 1, 2011; the organ was built by Pascal Quoirin of St. Didier in France, it is the first organ built in France to be installed in New York City and replaced a Holtkamp Organ Company instrument built in 1966. Anglicanism portal New York City portal Notes Official website
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
Caroline Schermerhorn Astor
Caroline Webster "Lina" Schermerhorn was a prominent American socialite of the second half of the 19th century who led the Four Hundred. Famous for being referred to in life as "the Mrs. Astor" or "Mrs. Astor", she was the wife of businessman, racehorse breeder/owner, yachtsman William Backhouse Astor Jr.. She was the mother of five children, including Colonel John Jacob Astor IV, who perished on the RMS Titanic. Through her marriage, she was a prominent member of the Astor family and matriarch of the male line of American Astors. Lina was born on September 21, 1830 into a wealthy family who were part of New York City's Dutch aristocracy, descendants of the city's original settlers, her father, Abraham Schermerhorn, the extended Schermerhorn family were engaged in shipping. At the time of Lina's birth, Abraham was worth half a million dollars, her mother was Helen Van Courtlandt Schermerhorn. Lina was the couple's ninth child, her maternal grandparents were Anne White. Her paternal grandparents were Elizabeth Schemerhorn.
At the time of her birth, her family lived at 1 Greenwich Street, near the Bowling Green, but the population growth and increasing urbanization of lower Manhattan in the 1830s led her family to move farther north to 36 Bond Street, near the ultra fashionable "Lafayette Place,", developed by her future husband's paternal grandfather, fur-trader John Jacob Astor. Young Lina was educated at a school run by a French emigree. There she learned to speak French fluently. On September 23, 1853, she married William Backhouse Astor Jr. at Trinity Church. Her husband was the middle son of real estate businessman William Backhouse Astor Sr. and Margaret Alida Rebecca Armstrong. His paternal grandfather was John Jacob Astor and his maternal grandparents were Senator John Armstrong Jr. and Alida Armstrong, daughter of Robert Livingston of the Livingston family. Her husband's family, the Astors, had made a fortune through the fur trade, through investing in New York City real estate. Despite the wealth of the Astor family, Lina had the superior pedigree as a member of an old Knickerbocker family.
Together, they had five children: Emily Astor, who married James John Van Alen, a sportsman/politician, had three children Helen Schermerhorn Astor, who married James Roosevelt "Rosey" Roosevelt, a diplomat and the elder half-brother of future President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, had two children Charlotte Augusta Astor, who married James Coleman Drayton and had four children. She married George Ogilvy Haig Caroline Schermerhorn "Carrie" Astor, who married Marshall Orme Wilson, the brother of banker Richard Thornton Wilson, Jr. and socialite Grace Graham Wilson, in 1884 and had two sons John Jacob "Jack" Astor IV, who married Ava Lowle Willing, a socialite, had two children married socialite Madeleine Talmage Force, sister of real estate businesswoman/socialite Katherine Emmons Force, had one son Although popularly imagined as wholly preoccupied with "Society", for the first several decades of her married life, Lina Astor was principally occupied with raising her five children and running her household, as was typical of women of her class in mid-19th-century New York City.
However, due to an inheritance from her parents, Lina had her own money and she was far less dependent on her husband than most American women of the time. In 1862, she and her husband built a four-bay townhouse in the newly fashionable brownstone style at 350 Fifth Avenue, the present site of the Empire State Building, next door to her husband's older brother, John Jacob Astor III; the Astors maintained a "summer cottage" in Newport, Rhode Island, a mansion called Beechwood, which had a ballroom grand enough to fit "The 400" - the most fashionable socialites of the day. In the decades following the Civil War the population of New York City grew exponentially, immigrants and wealthy arrivistes from the Midwest began challenging the dominance of the old New York Establishment. Aided by the social arbiter Ward McAllister, Lina attempted to codify proper behavior and etiquette, as well as determine, acceptable among the arrivistes for an heterogeneous city, they were the champions of old tradition.
McAllister once stated that, amongst the vastly rich families of Gilded Age New York, there were only 400 people who could be counted as members of Fashionable Society. He did not, as is written, arrive at this number based on the limitations of Mrs. Astor's New York City ballroom, her husband's lack of interest in the social whirl did not stop but instead fueled her burgeoning social activities, which increased in intensity as her children grew older. Lina was the foremost authority on the "Aristocracy" of New York in the late nineteenth century, she held ornate and elaborate parties for herself and other members of the elite New York socialite crowd. None was permitted to attend these gatherings without an official calling card from her. Lina's social groups were dominated by strong-willed "aristocratic" females; these social gatherings were dependent on overly conspicuous publicity. More so than the gatherings themselves, importance was placed upon the group as the upper-crust of New York's elite.
She and her ladies therefore represented the "Aristocratic", or the Old Money, whereas the newly wealthy V