Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Altadena is an unincorporated area and census-designated place in Los Angeles County, United States 14 miles from the downtown Los Angeles Civic Center, directly north of the city of Pasadena, California. The population was 42,777 at the 2010 census, up from 42,610 at the 2000 census. In the mid-1860s, Benjamin Eaton first developed water sources from the Arroyo Seco and Eaton Canyon to irrigate his vineyard near the edge of Eaton Canyon; this made possible the development of Altadena and South Pasadena. He did the construction for B. D. Wilson and Dr. John Griffin, who jointly owned the Mexican land grant of Rancho San Pascual, about 14,000 acres, the future sites of these three communities, they hoped to sell this land in a real estate plan called the San Pasqual Plantation. Their efforts failed by 1870, despite Eaton's irrigation ditch that drew water from the site of present-day Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Arroyo Seco, they had failed because the land was inaccessible and few believed crops could thrive that close to the mountains.
Eaton tried to sell the land for the partners, in late 1873 he helped broker a deal with Daniel Berry, who represented a group of investors from Indiana, to buy 4,000 acres of the rancho. This included the land of present-day Altadena, but they developed a 2,500 acres section further south as Pasadena. In 1881, the land that would become Altadena was sold to John and Fred Woodbury, brothers who launched the subdivision of Altadena in 1887; the land remained agricultural, though several eastern millionaires built mansions along Mariposa Street, a small community developed through the 1890s and into the next century. In 1880, Capt. Frederick Woodbury, his brother, John Woodbury of Marshalltown, purchased 937 acres known as the Woodbury Ranch. John Woodbury established the Pasadena Improvement Company in 1887, with a plot plan of residential development referred to as the Woodbury Subdivision, they contacted Byron O. Clark, who established a nursery in the foothills in 1875, had since moved away.
He called his nursery "Altadena Nursery", a name he coined from the Spanish "alta" meaning "upper", "dena" from Pasadena. Woodbury asked if he could use the name "Altadena" for his subdivision and Clark agreed; the newly sprouted community of Altadena began to attract millionaires from the East. In 1887 Andrew McNally, the printing magnate from Chicago, his good friend Col. G. G. Green, had built mansions on what was to become Millionaire's Row. Newspaper moguls William Armiger Scripps and William Kellogg built homes side by side just east of Fair Oaks Avenue. A bit farther east, Zane Grey bought a home from Arthur Herbert Woodward, added a second-floor study; the famous Benziger Publishing Company built a mansion on the corner of Santa Rosa Avenue and Mariposa. Mariposa was taken from the Spanish name for a butterfly; the grandson of Andrew McNally, Wallace Neff, became a famous Southern California architect. He started his career in Altadena with the design and construction of St. Elizabeth of Hungary Catholic Church (parish est.1918, dedicated in October 1926.
Redlining policies prevented African Americans from acquiring land or purchasing property in much of California. One of the areas exempt from these policies was Altadena Meadows which thrived and became one of first middle-class African American neighborhoods in the area. Over the years Altadena has been subject to attempted annexation by Pasadena. Annexation was stopped in 1956 by community campaigns, though it has been resurrected several times since by Pasadena without success. Had the annexation succeeded, Pasadena would be the 108th largest city in the United States. While Altadena long refused wholesale annexation by neighboring Pasadena, the larger community nibbled at its edges in several small annexations of neighborhoods through the 1940s. With early 1960s redevelopment in Pasadena, the routing of extensions of 134 and 210 freeways, lawsuits over the desegregation of Pasadena Unified School District, there was white flight and convulsive racial change in Altadena. In 1960, its black population was under four percent.
The name Altadena derives from the Spanish alta, meaning "upper", dena from Pasadena. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 8.7 square miles, over 99% of it land. Altadena experiences dry summers that are followed by warm and windy falls. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Altadena has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps; the wettest calendar year was the driest 1947 with 5.37 inches. The most rainfall in one month was 19.70 inches in February 1980. The most rainfall in 24 hours was 7.70 inches on March 2, 1938. Altadena averages 21.09 inches of rain a year, over 6 inches more than nearby Los Angeles due to the orographic effect created by the San Gabriel Mountains. Because of the slope on which the city is built, sewer lines in the city's northern section have been known to overflow significantly; the 2010 United States Census reported that Altadena had a population of 42,777. The population density was 4,900.4 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Altadena was 22,569 White, 10,136 Afri
Stephen Clark Foster
Stephen Clark Foster was a politician, the first American mayor of Los Angeles under United States military rule. Foster served in the state constitutional convention, was elected to the State Senate, he was elected as mayor of Los Angeles in 1856, elected for four terms to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. Foster was born in Machias, Maine, in 1820, he graduated from Yale College in 1840. He taught at a private academy in the South. In 1845 at age 25, he headed for California, like many other young single men, via El Paso and Santa Fe. While in Santa Fe, Foster joined the Mormon Battalion of Volunteers on its way to California to fight in the Mexican–American War, he served as an interpreter on the Battalion's march across the Southwest. In the stormy period when California was under US military rule after the defeat of the Mexicans, Governor Richard Barnes Mason appointed the 26-year-old Foster alcalde of Los Angeles to replace the dissolved ayuntamiento of the Mexicans. For this reason, Foster has been referred to as the first American mayor of the city.
He served as alcalde from January 1, 1848 to May 21, 1849. For the remainder of that year, or until the city came under United States jurisdiction in 1850, Foster served as prefect. Mason appointed a prominent and mature Californio, as mayor following Foster. During his early years in Los Angeles, Foster made a marriage important to his standing in the community, he married María Merced Lugo, one of the sisters of José del Carmen Lugo above. Their father was a prominent Californio landowner; the Fosters had five children together. Foster was elected a member of the 1849 California Constitutional Convention; the group framed the state Constitution and petitioned Congress for admission of California into the United States. Foster achieved his first political office after statehood in 1850, when he was elected to the Los Angeles Common Council for a one-year term. In 1851 he was elected California state senator from Southern California, served two years. In 1854, Foster was elected mayor of Los Angeles.
He is credited with authorizing construction of the first public school in Los Angeles. Los Angeles was said to be the toughest frontier town in the United States, it had a diverse population with simmering tensions after the war, as well as a "disorderly element". The surrounding territory was overrun by bandits driven from the gold mines of northern California southward into the cattle ranching counties. Numerous gamblers and criminals drifted into the city to escape the vigilantes of San Francisco. Mayor Foster, like most of the city's prominent citizens, was a member of the local vigilance committee and of the Los Angeles Rangers, the mounted body of volunteer police. In early 1854, Foster resigned his official position to lead a lynching mob. After the lynching, the people held a special election and returned Foster to office for the remainder of his regular term. Foster was re-elected mayor in 1856, he resigned Sept. 22, 1856, to act as executor for the large estate of his brother-in-law, Colonel Isaac Williams.
Foster next served as a supervisor on the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors for four terms. He was elected in 1856, 1858 and 1859. In 1857 he replaced Jonathan R. Scott. Foster documented the history of California under the rule of Mexico in articles published by the Southern California Historical Society. In 1888 he wrote A Sketch of Some of the Earliest Pioneers of Los Angeles and Reminiscences: My First Procession in Los Angeles March 16, 1847. At Forefather's Day celebrations on December 21, 1886, Foster read a paper about yankee pioneers, titled First New Englanders Who Came to Los Angeles, which The Los Angeles Times stated was a "historically valuable paper." He died in 1898 and his funeral was held in Downey, California. Former Los Angeles mayor J. R. Toberman was a pall-bearer
Big Bear Lake
Big Bear Lake is a reservoir in the San Bernardino Mountains, in San Bernardino County, United States. It is a snow-fed lake, having no other means of tributaries or mechanical replenishment. At a surface elevation of 6,743 ft, it has an east-west length of 7 mi and is 2.5 mi at its widest measurement, though the lake's width averages a little more than 1⁄2 mi. These approximations are based on the lake having an optimum retainable water level. At dam's end Big Bear measures its deepest water at 72 ft; the region now known as Big Bear Lake was populated by the indigenous Serrano Indian tribe for 2,500 years. They referred to the territory as "Yuhaviat" which translates into "Pine Place", they inhabited small villages of 10 to 30 round buildings located along fresh water sources and subsisted on berries, tubers and plentiful game harvested along the lush valley. The Serrano looked at the native grizzly bears as ancestors and did not eat the meat or wear the fur of these massive animals. Several contemporary communities in the area feature place names reflecting the Big Bear region's rich Native history.
These include Yucaipa and Muscupiabe. The Big Bear Lake area was first discovered by European explorers when an Indian-hunting party was formed by Benjamin Wilson. Wilson moved to California during the days of Mexican territorial Alta California, he married into the Spanish landholder family, the Yorbas, bought a portion of Rancho Jurupa from Juan Bandini. He became a local rancher statesman of great repute. Wilson had signed on as Justice of the Peace of the Inland Territory and was commissioned by the territorial authorities to locate and pursue Native Americans suspected of raiding ranches in nearby Riverside; this group, led by the fierce Chief Walkara, drove the herd into the Lucerne Valley on the north side of the San Bernardinos. Wilson gathered a posse of 44 men, 22 of whom he sent through the Cajon Pass while he engineered a pincer movement with the other 22 men into the headwaters of the Santa Ana River cutting the Utes off at the other end of Lucerne. On the trip Wilson came upon a broad watershed teeming with wildlife bear.
His posse became a hunting party where the men were split into 11 pairs, each pair bringing back a bear hide. Wilson dubbed the grassy expanse "Bear Valley" and one of the nearby shallow seasonal marshes "Big Bear Lake"; this same ephemeral feature is today called Baldwin Lake after Elias J. "Lucky" Baldwin of Rancho Santa Anita fame, who bought the nearby Gold Mountain Mine, renamed for him in 1876. On Wilson's return trip, the party took 11 more bear pelts. In 1859, the newly discovered valley became a venue for gold prospectors. William F. Holcomb, a prospector from Indiana, moved to Los Angeles from the Northern California mines where he heard about the prospecting at Big Bear, he moved to Starvation Flats the first winter. Because of his marksmanship, he was hired by several of the other miners to hunt bear for meat. With his Indian companion, Holcomb tracked and wounded a grizzly bear one ridge north of Bear Valley. There he noticed a vein of quartz flecked with gold; when this discovery was revealed, the Southern California gold rush was on, Holcomb Valley became the largest populated area in San Bernardino County.
In 1884 marshy, nearly flat Bear Valley was dammed with a single arch granite impoundment, which held back some 25,000 acre feet of water for irrigation purposes in the Redlands area. Redlands citrus; the Bear Valley Mutual Water Company hired John S. Eastwood to design a new dam. In 1912 a 72 ft multiple arch dam was constructed about 300 ft downstream of the old dam and increased the lake capacity to 73,000 acre feet; the original granite dam still remains under about 20 feet of water. A highway bridge was built over the arches of the new dam in 1923. A new bypass bridge was built next to the old bridge in 2009, the old bridge on top of the new dam was removed. Elevation at the surface is 6,750 ft, but this level fluctuates according to annual snowmelt and runoff. Big Bear Municipal Water District acquired the dam and other assets from the Mutual Water Company in 1977; the unregulated hunting of grizzly bear in the San Bernardinos took a heavy toll upon the once significant native population, by 1906 all the local Ursus californicus were killed off.
Tourism began with the onset of the automobile and the eventual establishment of highways accessing the remote area. Hollywood soon discovered Big Bear, several movies westerns, have been filmed in the region. Big Bear Lake is geophysically defined by its South Shore. Big Bear Boulevard follows the South Shore and leads into the Big Bear Valley as a continuation of Highway 18. Big Bear Boulevard winds east through Papoose Bay, Boulder Bay and Metcalf Bay leads directly east to the city of Big Bear Lake. At a point called The Village, the road turns toward the lake and curves eastward to Moonridge, the ski resorts at Snow Summit and Bear Mountain, Stanfield Cutoff, a causeway located near the east end of the lake. Big Bear Boulevard continues east into Big Bear City, an unincorporated community despite its name. Bear Creek and Siberia Creek flow into the lake and Bear Creek flows out of the lake, traveling about 9 miles southwest to the Santa Ana R
Riverside County, California
Riverside County is one of fifty-eight counties in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,189,641, making it the 4th-most populous county in California and the 11th-most populous in the United States; the name was derived from the city of Riverside, the county seat. Riverside County is included in the Riverside-San Bernardino-Ontario, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area known as the Inland Empire; the county is included in the Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA Combined Statistical Area. There is a high concentration of sprawling tract housing communities around Riverside and along the Interstate 10, 15, 215 freeways. Rectangular, Riverside County covers 7,208 square miles in Southern California, spanning from the Greater Los Angeles area to the Arizona border. Geographically, the county is desert in the central and eastern portions, but has a Mediterranean climate in the western portion. Most of Joshua Tree National Park is located in the county; the resort cities of Palm Springs, Palm Desert, Indian Wells, La Quinta, Rancho Mirage, Desert Hot Springs are all located in the Coachella Valley region of central Riverside County.
Large numbers of Los Angeles area workers have moved to the county in recent years to take advantage of affordable housing. Along with neighboring San Bernardino County, it was one of the fastest growing regions in the state prior to the recent changes in the regional economy. In addition, but significant, numbers of people have been moving into Southwest Riverside County from the San Diego-Tijuana metropolitan area; the cities of Temecula and Murrieta accounted for 20% of the increase in population of the county between 2000 and 2007. Riverside County was named for the Santa Ana River in 1870; the indigenous peoples of what is now Riverside County are Cupeño and Cahuilla Indians. The Luiseño lived in the Aguanga and Temecula Basins, Elsinore Trough and eastern Santa Ana Mountains and southward into San Diego County; the Cahuilla lived to the east and north of the Luiseño in the inland valleys, in the Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Mountains and the desert of the Salton Sink. The first European settlement in the county was a Mission San Luis Rey de Francia estancia or farm, at the Luiseño village of Temecula.
Grain and grapes were grown here. In 1819, the Mission granted land to Leandro Serrano, mayordomo of San Antonio de Pala Asistencia for the Mission of San Luis Rey for Rancho Temescal. Following Mexican independence and the 1833 confiscation of Mission lands, more ranchos were granted. Rancho Jurupa in 1838, El Rincon in 1839, Rancho San Jacinto Viejo in 1842, Rancho San Jacinto y San Gorgonio in 1843, Ranchos La Laguna, Temecula in 1844, Ranchos Little Temecula, Potreros de San Juan Capistrano in 1845, Ranchos San Jacinto Sobrante, La Sierra, La Sierra, Santa Rosa and San Jacinto Nuevo y Potrero in 1846. New Mexican colonists founded the town of La Placita on the east side of the Santa Ana River at the northern extremity of what is now the city of Riverside in 1843; when the initial 27 California counties were established in 1850, the area today known as Riverside County was divided between Los Angeles County and San Diego County. In 1853, the eastern part of Los Angeles County was used to create San Bernardino County.
Between 1891 and 1893, several proposals and legislative attempts were put forth to form new counties in Southern California. These proposals included one for one for a San Jacinto County. None of the proposals were adopted until a measure to create Riverside County was signed by Governor Henry H. Markham on March 11, 1893; the new county was created from parts of San Diego County. On May 2, 1893, seventy percent of voters approved the formation of Riverside County. Voters chose the city of Riverside as the county seat by a large margin. Riverside County was formed on May 9, 1893, when the Board of Commissioners filed the final canvass of the votes. Riverside County is the birthplace of lane markings, thanks to Dr. June McCarroll in 1915 when she suggested her idea to the state government; the county is the location of the March Air Reserve Base, one of the oldest airfields continuously operated by the United States military. Established as the Alessandro Flying Training Field in February 1918, it was one of thirty-two U.
S. Army Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917; the airfield was renamed March Field the following month for 2d Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr. the deceased son of the then-Army Chief of Staff, General Peyton C. March, killed in an air crash in Texas just fifteen days after being commissioned. March Field remained an active Army Air Service U. S. Army Air Corps installation throughout the interwar period becoming a major installation of the U. S. Army Air Forces during World War II. Renamed March Air Force Base in 1947 following the establishment of the U. S. Air Force, it was a major Strategic Air Command installation throughout the Cold War. In 1996, it was transferred to the Air Force Reserve Command and gained its current name as a major base for the Air Force Reserve and the California Air National Guard. Riverside county was a major focal point of the Civil Rights Movements in the US the African-American sections of Riverside and Mexican-American communities of the Coachella Valley visited by Cesar Chavez of the farm labor union struggle.
Riverside county has been a focus of modern Native American Gaming enterprises. In the early 1980s, the county government attempted to shut down small bingo halls operated by the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission In
John G. Nichols
John G. Nichols was a businessman and politician. John Greg Nichols was born on December 1812 in Canandaigua, New York, his father, William Nicholas, was a Scottish immigrant. He served as the Sheriff of Iowa for two terms in the 1840s, he made the trip to California in 1849, arriving in San Bernardino on December 31, 1849. He served as the third Mayor of Los Angeles from 1852 to 1853 and again from 1856 to 1859, he married Florida Cox. They lived in the first brick house to be built in California, their son was the first American to be born in the city, he was the first mayor to expand the city. He died on January 1898 in Los Angeles, he was buried at the Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery in California. Nichols Canyon was named in his honor
Mayor of Los Angeles
The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, United States. The officeholder is limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the Constitution of California, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan. Eric Garcetti has been the city's 42nd and current mayor since 2013. California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members, but such limits can still be imposed on the local level. Los Angeles has a strong mayor–council form of government, giving the mayor the position of chief executive of the city; the mayor is given the authority to appoint general managers and commissioners, remove officials from city posts, is required to propose a budget each year. Most of the mayor's appointments and proposals are subject to approval by the Los Angeles City Council, but the mayor has the power of veto or approval of City Council legislation; the organization of the mayor's office changes with administration, but is always governed by a chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, director of communications, several deputy mayors.
Each mayor organizes his office into different offices containing the Los Angeles Housing Team, Los Angeles Business Team, International Trade Office, Mayor's Volunteer Corps, Office of Immigrant Affairs, among other divisions. The mayor has an office in the Los Angeles City Hall and resides at the Mayor's Mansion, Getty House, located in Windsor Square; as of 2017, the mayor received a salary of $248,141. The mayor is elected in citywide election. Elections follow a two-round system; the first round of the election is called the primary election. The candidate receiving a majority of the vote in the primary is elected outright. If no candidate receives a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election, called the general election; the City Charter allows for write-in candidates for the primary election, but not for the runoff in the general election. The mayor is elected with a limit of two consecutive terms; the office of Mayor is nonpartisan by state law, although most mayoral candidates identify a party preference.
Elections for mayor were held in odd-numbered years from 1909 until 2013. In October 2014, the Los Angeles City Council recommended consolidating city elections with gubernatorial and presidential elections in even-numbered years in an effort to increase turnout. On March 3, 2015, voters passed a charter amendment to extend the term of the mayor elected in 2017 to five-and-a-half years. From 2022 and onward, mayoral elections will be consolidated with the statewide gubernatorial elections held every four years; the most recent election was held in March 2017. Incumbent mayor Eric Garcetti was re-elected for a second term. In the case of an office vacancy, the City Council has a choice to appoint a new mayor or to hold a special election; the replacement, if appointed, will serve until the next scheduled primary for a city general election. If any portion remains on the term, a special election will be held to elect a candidate to serve the remainder of the term; the mayor is subject to recall by registered voters if at least 15 percent of eligible voters sign a recall petition within 120 days of the first day of circulation.
If the petition is successful, a special election is held asking whether the incumbent should be removed and who among a list of candidates should replace the incumbent. If the recall is successful, the replacement candidate with the majority of votes succeeds the ousted incumbent. If no replacement candidate receives a majority of the votes, a special runoff election is held between the top two candidates; as of April 2019, 42 individuals have served as mayor of Los Angeles since its incorporation as a city in the state of California. Six individuals served non-consecutive terms, the first of which began in 1854 and the last of which ended in 1921; those who served non-consecutive terms are only counted once in the official count of mayoralties. Stephen Clark Foster was appointed as Mayor of Los Angeles in 1848 prior to California statehood and official incorporation of the city; the longest term was that of Tom Bradley, who served for 20 years over five terms prior to the establishment of successive term limits.
The shortest term, not counting city council presidents serving as acting mayor, was that of William Stephens, appointed to serve for less than two weeks after Arthur Cyprian Harper resigned from office. Two mayors died in office: Henry Mellus and Frederick A. MacDougall. Three Hispanics have served as mayor since incorporation: Antonio F. Coronel, Cristobal Aguilar, Antonio Villaraigosa. Many other Hispanics served as mayor prior to California joining the United States including Manuel Requena, who briefly served as acting mayor post-statehood in his role as city council president. Tom Bradley is the only African American to have served as mayor, but was the city's longest-serving mayor. Two French Canadians have served as mayor, including Damien Marchesseault, who served for three distinct periods, Prudent Beaudry; this list includes three Presidents of the City Council who served as Acting Mayor due to a vacancy in the office of the mayor but who were not appointed as mayor. The Council Presidents are not included in the count of mayors.
† Council presidents who temporarily served as acting mayor in case of a vacancy but were not appointed to the position are not included in the count of mayors. As of April 2019, three former Mayors of Los Angeles were alive, the oldest being Richard J. Riordan; the most recent mayor to die was Thomas Bradley, on September 29, 1998. History of Los Angeles T