Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices and identity of the Church of England following the English Reformation. Adherents of Anglicanism are called "Anglicans"; the majority of Anglicans are members of national or regional ecclesiastical provinces of the international Anglican Communion, which forms the third-largest Christian communion in the world, after the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church. They are in full communion with the See of Canterbury, thus the Archbishop of Canterbury, whom the communion refers to as its primus inter pares, he calls the decennial Lambeth Conference, chairs the meeting of primates, the Anglican Consultative Council. Some churches that are not part of the Anglican Communion or recognized by the Anglican Communion call themselves Anglican, including those that are part of the Continuing Anglican movement and Anglican realignment. Anglicans base their Christian faith on the Bible, traditions of the apostolic Church, apostolic succession and the writings of the Church Fathers.
Anglicanism forms one of the branches of Western Christianity, having definitively declared its independence from the Holy See at the time of the Elizabethan Religious Settlement. Many of the new Anglican formularies of the mid-16th century corresponded to those of contemporary Protestantism; these reforms in the Church of England were understood by one of those most responsible for them, Thomas Cranmer, the Archbishop of Canterbury, others as navigating a middle way between two of the emerging Protestant traditions, namely Lutheranism and Calvinism. In the first half of the 17th century, the Church of England and its associated Church of Ireland were presented by some Anglican divines as comprising a distinct Christian tradition, with theologies and forms of worship representing a different kind of middle way, or via media, between Protestantism and Roman Catholicism – a perspective that came to be influential in theories of Anglican identity and expressed in the description of Anglicanism as "Catholic and Reformed".
The degree of distinction between Protestant and Catholic tendencies within the Anglican tradition is a matter of debate both within specific Anglican churches and throughout the Anglican Communion. Unique to Anglicanism is the Book of Common Prayer, the collection of services in one Book used for centuries; the Book is acknowledged as a principal tie that binds the Anglican Communion together as a liturgical rather than a confessional tradition or one possessing a magisterium as in the Roman Catholic Church. After the American Revolution, Anglican congregations in the United States and British North America were each reconstituted into autonomous churches with their own bishops and self-governing structures. Through the expansion of the British Empire and the activity of Christian missions, this model was adopted as the model for many newly formed churches in Africa and Asia-Pacific. In the 19th century, the term Anglicanism was coined to describe the common religious tradition of these churches.
The word Anglican originates in Anglicana ecclesia libera sit, a phrase from the Magna Carta dated 15 June 1215, meaning "the Anglican Church shall be free". Adherents of Anglicanism are called Anglicans; as an adjective, "Anglican" is used to describe the people and churches, as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the Church of England. As a noun, an Anglican is a member of a church in the Anglican Communion; the word is used by followers of separated groups which have left the communion or have been founded separately from it, although this is considered as a misuse by the Anglican Communion. The word Anglicanism came into being in the 19th century; the word referred only to the teachings and rites of Christians throughout the world in communion with the see of Canterbury, but has come to sometimes be extended to any church following those traditions rather than actual membership in the modern Anglican Communion. Although the term Anglican is found referring to the Church of England as far back as the 16th century, its use did not become general until the latter half of the 19th century.
In British parliamentary legislation referring to the English Established Church, there is no need for a description. When the Union with Ireland Act created the United Church of England and Ireland, it is specified that it shall be one "Protestant Episcopal Church", thereby distinguishing its form of church government from the Presbyterian polity that prevails in the Church of Scotland; the word Episcopal is preferred in the title of the Episcopal Church and the Scottish Episcopal Church, though the full name of the former is The Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States of America. Elsewhere, the term "Anglican Church" came to be preferred as it distinguished these churches from others that maintain an episcopal polity. Anglicanism, in its structures and forms of worship, is understood as a distinct Christian tradition representing a middle ground between what are perceived to be the extremes of the claims of 16th-century Roman Ca
Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont
Richard Coote, 1st Earl of Bellomont, known as The Lord Coote between 1683–89, was a member of the English Parliament and a colonial governor. Born in Ireland, he was an early supporter of William III and Mary II, siding with them in the Glorious Revolution. In 1695 he was given commissions as governor of the provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, which he held until his death, he did not arrive in the New World until 1698, spent most of his tenure as governor in New York. He spent a little over a year in Massachusetts, only two weeks in New Hampshire, his time in New York was marked by divisive politics resulting from Leisler's Rebellion, difficult and unsuccessful negotiations to keep the Iroquois from engaging in peace talks with New France. Frontier issues were in the forefront during his time in Massachusetts and New Hampshire, where lumber and security from the Abenaki threat dominated his tenure, he was a major financial sponsor of William Kidd, whose privateering was deemed to have descended into piracy.
Bellomont engineered the arrest of Kidd in Boston, had him returned to England, where he was tried and hanged. Richard Coote was born in Ireland in 1636, he was the second son, but the first to survive infancy, of Richard Coote, third son of Sir Charles Coote, 1st Baronet, Mary, daughter of Sir George St George. His father was created Baron Coote of Coloony in 1660, he succeeded his father as Baron Coote on the latter's death on 10 July 1683. Little is recorded of his early years. In 1677 he is known to have killed a man in a duel for the affections of a young lady, he did not marry her, in 1680 he married Catherine, the daughter of Bridges Nanfan and the eventual heir to Birtsmorton Court in Worcestershire. They had two sons. Following the accession of the pro-Catholic James II to the English throne, Coote, a Protestant, moved to the Continent and served as a captain of horse in the Dutch army; because of the family's record of service to Charles II, his absence from court drew the king's attention, he was summoned back to court in 1687.
He was one of the first to join William of Orange in the Glorious Revolution of 1688 that brought William III and Mary II to the throne. He was rewarded for this loyalty with an appointment as Treasurer to the Queen in 1689, a post he held until 1694, it drew unfavourable attention in the Irish Parliament. That body, still under the influence of James, seized his lands; as a result of this, William on 2 November 1689 created him Earl of Bellomont, granted him over 77,000 acres of forfeited Irish lands. The land grant was controversial in Parliament, was rescinded by William, he was rewarded with the governorship of County Leitrim. Bellomont was Member of Parliament for Droitwich from 1688 to 1695. In the 1690s he became involved in the attempts by Jacob Leisler's son to clear his father's name. Leisler had been a leading force in the New York rebellion against the Dominion of New England established by King James. Upon the arrival of Henry Sloughter as governor of New York, Leisler was arrested and executed for treason, his properties were seized.
Leisler's son Jacob Jr. traveled to England to argue the case for restoration of the family properties. Bellomont sat on the Parliamentary committee that examined the evidence, spoke in Parliament in support of the Leisler's case, he stated his view that Leisler and son-in-law Jacob Milborne had been "barbarously murdered" by Sloughter's actions in a letter to Massachusetts colonial agent Increase Mather. Young Leisler's efforts were successful: Parliament voted to reverse the attainder, ordered that the family properties be restored; the death in 1695 of Sir William Phips vacated the governorship of the Province of Massachusetts Bay. Colonial agents lobbied to select either Wait Winthrop or Joseph Dudley, both native sons, to replace Phips, but the king, wanting someone who would better represent crown authority, selected Bellomont. Since William wanted someone who could exert authority over more of New England, he was given the governorships of New Hampshire, New York; the major concern that Bellomont was instructed to address was ongoing problems with piracy, including the open commerce with pirates that went on in New York City and Rhode Island.
Bellomont's commissions were not finalized until 1 June 1697. While they were being worked on, New York colonial agent Robert Livingston proposed to Bellomont that a privateer be outfitted to combat piracy, recommended William Kidd be its captain; this scheme received the assent of King William, who issued a letter of marque to Kidd for the purpose, as well as a special commission for dealing with pirates. Bellomont raised £6,000 to outfit Kidd's ship. Bellomont sailed for New York in late 1697, accompanied by his wife and her cousin, John Nanfan, appointed Lieutenant Governor of New York; the voyage was exceptionally stormy, Bellomont's ship was blown well south putting into Barbados before continuing on to New York. He arrived in New York City on 2 April 1698. Bellomont's stylish dress, good looks, positive relationship with the king predisposed New Yorkers to like him, but he quickly ran into difficulties and began making enemies, his attempts to enforce the Navigation Acts predictably turned traders against him.
These attempts were poorly executed by colonial officials whose interests lay more with those merchants than they did with the crown. He raised the anger of
Jim Dwyer (journalist)
Jim Dwyer is an American journalist, a reporter and columnist with The New York Times, the author or co-author of six non-fiction books. A native New Yorker, Dwyer wrote columns for New York Newsday and the New York Daily News before joining the Times, he graduated from the Loyola School, earned a bachelor's degree in general science from Fordham University in 1979 and a master's degree in journalism from Columbia University in 1980. He appeared in the 2012 documentary film Central Park Five and was portrayed on stage in Nora Ephron's Lucky Guy. In 1992, Dwyer was a member of a team at New York Newsday that won the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Reporting for their coverage of the 1991 Union Square derailment, in 1995, as a columnist with New York Newsday, he received the Pulitzer Prize for Commentary. Besides the Times and Newsday, he has worked at the Hudson Dispatch, the Elizabeth Daily Journal, The Record of Hackensack, The New York Daily News, he joined the Times in May 2001 and contributed to the paper's coverage of 9/11, the invasion of Iraq, how intelligence was manipulated to create the illusion that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction.
He has been the About New York columnist at the Times since April 2007. Dwyer is the co-author of six books, mentioned below. More Awesome Than Money: Four Boys, Three Years, a Chronicle of Ideals and Ambition in Silicon Valley, is a non-fiction account of four boys who set out to save the world from Facebook's monopoly by building an alternative social network called Diaspora. Writing in The Daily Beast, Jake Whitney described the book as "a thrilling read, astoundingly detailed and researched, alternately suspenseful and heartbreaking." The book follows the four New York University undergraduates as they are inspired by the law professor and historian Eben Moglen to create a better social network, through a deluge of support they receive on Kickstarter in 2010, the death of co-founder Ilya Zhitomirskiy in 2011, up until the transfer of the project in 2013 to a community of free software developers who continue to refine it. Their work is placed in the context of the dynamic relationships between the open web, digital surveillance, free society, the continuing efforts of groups like the Mozilla Foundation to prevent domination of the web by commercial interests.
"In the shadows and more idealists express their opposition in code -- hackers with a moral compass," Marcus Brauchli wrote in the Washington Post, calling the book a "lively account" that "finds heroism and success and ultimately, tragedy in the hurtling pursuit of a cause." False Conviction: Innocence and Guilt, is an interactive book created in collaboration with Touch Press, the leading developer of "living books," and the New York Hall of Science. Using video and text, the book explores the science behind errors in the courtroom and criminal investigations and shows routine safeguards that other fields use to guard against them; the reader can play interactive games in the book that show how everyday mistakes can turn into false convictions. "Nonscientists will find the book's discussion of these complex scientific questions clear and accessible, scientists will find them deep and detailed enough to maintain interest and spark further inquiry," Hugh McDonald wrote in the museum journal, Exhibitionist.
"False Conviction makes its case for reform...and does so and engagingly.... These compelling stories of tragedy and the search for the truth are available for a much broader audience than if they were the subject of a classic bricks and mortar exhibition. With False Conviction, The New York Hall of Science proves that museums can move beyond their own walls to create compelling investigations of complex issues at the intersection of science and society." Conceived by Eric Siegel, the chief content officer of the Hall of Science, Peter Neufeld, the co-founder of the Innocence Project, the book was developed by the Hall of Science, in consultation with the Innocence Project, with a grant from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation's program for Public Understanding of Science, Technology & Economics. 102 Minutes: The Untold Story of the Fight to Survive Inside the Twin Towers, co-written with Kevin Flynn, an editor at The New York Times Company, was a 2005 National Book Award finalist. The book chronicled the 102 minutes that the twin towers of the World Trade Center stood after the attacks of September 11, 2001 began.
The sources included interviews with survivors, tapes of police and fire operations, 911 calls, other material obtained under freedom of information requests including 20,000 pages of tape transcripts, oral histories, other documents. Dwyer is the co-author of Actual Innocence: Five Days to Execution and Other Dispatches from the Wrongly Convicted, a "pathbreaking" exploration of the causes of wrongful convictions. More than a decade after its publication, an article in the University of Chicago Law Review said: "As had never been done before,'Actual Innocence' presented story after story of wrongful convictions of the indisputably innocent, with each chapter devoted to exposing each of these flaws in the justice system.'Actual Innocence' was nothing short of a revelation, a wake-up call concerning the reality of wrongful convictions and the truth-telling power of DNA evidence. It was not descriptive, he is co-author of Two Seconds Under the World, an account of the 1993 bombing of the World Trade Center that explored the early signs of fundamentalist terrorism, poor coordination by inves
A privateer is a private person or ship that engages in maritime warfare under a commission of war. The commission known as a letter of marque, empowers the person to carry on all forms of hostility permissible at sea by the usages of war, including attacking foreign vessels during wartime and taking them as prizes. Captured ships were subject to condemnation and sale under prize law, with the proceeds divided between the privateer sponsors, shipowners and crew. A percentage share went to the issuer of the commission. Since robbery under arms was once common to seaborne trade, all merchant ships were armed. During war, naval resources were auxiliary to operations on land so privateering was a way of subsidizing state power by mobilizing armed ships and sailors. In practice the legality and status of privateers has been vague. Depending on the specific government and the time period, letters of marque might be issued hastily and/or the privateers might take actions beyond what was authorized by the letters.
The privateers themselves were simply pirates who would take advantage of wars between nations to gain semi-legal status for their enterprises. By the end of the 19th century the practice of issuing letters of marque had fallen out of favor because of the chaos it caused and its role in inadvertently encouraging piracy. A privateer is similar to a mercenary except that, whereas a mercenary group receives a set fee for services and has a formal reporting structure within the entity that hires them, a privateer acts independently with no compensation unless the enemy's property is captured; the letter of marque of a privateer would limit activity to one particular ship, specified officers. The owners or captain would be required to post a performance bond. In the United Kingdom, letters of marque were revoked for various offences; some crews were treated as harshly as naval crews of the time, while others followed the comparatively relaxed rules of merchant ships. Some crews were made up of professional merchant seamen, others of pirates and convicts.
Some privateers ended up becoming pirates, not just in the eyes of their enemies but of their own nations. William Kidd, for instance, began as a legitimate British privateer but was hanged for piracy. While privateers such as Kidd were commissioned to hunt pirates, privateering itself was blamed for piracy. Privateering commissions were easy to obtain during wartime but when the war ended and privateers were recalled, many refused to give up the lucrative business and turned to piracy. Colonial officials exacerbated the problem by issuing commissions to known pirates, giving them legitimacy in exchange for a share of the profits or open bribes; the French Governor of Petit-Goave gave buccaneer Francois Grogniet blank privateering commissions, which Grogniet traded to Edward Davis for a spare ship so the two could continue raiding Spanish cities under a guise of legitimacy. New York Governors Jacob Leisler and Benjamin Fletcher were removed from office in part for their dealings with pirates such as Thomas Tew, to whom Fletcher had granted commissions to sail against the French, but who ignored his commission to raid Mughal shipping in the Red Sea instead.
Kidd himself committed piracy during his privateering voyage and was tried and executed upon his return. Boston minister Cotton Mather lamented after the execution of pirate John Quelch: "Yea, Since the Privateering Stroke, so degenerates into the Piratical. Privateers who were considered legitimate by their governments include: Francis Drake Pieter van der Does Amaro Pargo Hayreddin Barbarossa Robert Surcouf Lars Gathenhielm Entrepreneurs converted many different types of vessels into privateers, including obsolete warships and refitted merchant ships; the investors would arm the vessels and recruit large crews, much larger than a merchantman or a naval vessel would carry, in order to crew the prizes they captured. Privateers cruised independently, but it was not unknown for them to form squadrons, or to co-operate with the regular navy. A number of privateers were part of the English fleet that opposed the Spanish Armada in 1588. Privateers avoided encounters with warships, as such encounters would be at best unprofitable.
Still, such encounters did occur. For instance, in 1815 Chasseur encountered HMS St Lawrence, herself a former American privateer, mistaking her for a merchantman until too late; the United States used mixed squadrons of privateers in the American Revolutionary War. Following the French Revolution, French privateers became a menace to British and American shipping in the western Atlantic and the Caribbean, resulting in the Quasi-War, a brief conflict between France and the United States, fought at sea, to the Royal Navy's procuring Bermuda sloops to combat the French privateers; the practice dated to at least the 13th century but the word itself was coined sometime in the mid-17th century. England, the United Kingdom, used privateers to great effect and suffered much from other nations' privateering. During the 15th century, "piracy became an increasing problem and merchant communities such as Bristol began to resort to self-hel
Stephanus Van Cortlandt
Stephanus van Cortlandt was the first native-born mayor of New York City, a position which he held from 1677 to 1678 and from 1686 to 1688. He was the patroon of Van Cortlandt Manor and was on the governor's executive council from 1691 to 1700, he was the first resident of Sagtikos Manor in West Bay Shore on Long Island, built around 1697. A number of his descendants married English military leaders and Loyalists active in the American Revolution, their descendants became prominent members of English society. Stephanus van Cortlandt was born on the son of Captain Olof Stevense van Cortlandt, his father had been born at Wijk bij Duurstede, in the Dutch Republic, in 1637 arrived in New Amsterdam. Beginning as a soldier and bookkeeper, Olof Stevense van Cortland rose to high office in the colonial service of the Dutch West India Company, serving many terms as burgomaster and alderman before dying in 1684, his mother was Anna Loockermans van Cortlandt who may have been the person who began the custom of Santa Claus in America.
His parents had four children: Stephanus van Cortlandt. Philipse was married to Margaret Hardenbroeck and during that marriage, had adopted her daughter, Eva de Vries, who thus took the name of Philipse. Eva's father and Margaret's first husband was Peter Rudolphus de Vries. In 1668, he was appointed ensign of one of the militia companies of New York City. In 1677, he was appointed mayor of New York City, at the age of thirty-four, becoming the first mayor of New York City, born in America, he was appointed due to his intelligence, social position in the community, as he was appointed by the English Governor. During his time in office, he remained an adherent of the aristocratic party during the Leisler affair from 1689 to 1691; when Delanoy, the Leisler candidate, was elected to the mayoralty, in place of Van Cortland, the latter refused to deliver up the city seal. It has been said. Van Cortlandt married Gertruj van Schuyler, the daughter of Philip Pieterse Schuyler and the sister of Pieter Schuyler, a colonial governor of New York and mayor of Albany.
They lived at the "Waterside," on the present line of Pearl street, near Broad, where he engaged in business as a merchant. Together, they had: Margaretta van Cortlandt, who married Judge Samuel Bayard, the son of Nicholas Bayard and descendant from the Stuyvesant family. A number of their descendants were Loyalists. Anne van Cortlandt, who married Stephen DeLancey Catherine van Cortlandt, who married New Jersey politician Andrew Johnston, the son of John Johnstone, the 32nd Mayor of New York City. Elizabeth van Cortlandt, who married the Reverend William Skinner Philip Van Cortlandt, who married Catherine de Peyster, daughter of Abraham de Peyster the 20th Mayor of New York City and his wife Catharine de Peyster. Philip and Catherine had six children: Stephen who married Mary W. Ricketts, May 6, 1738. Governor of the State of New York, who married his second cousin, Joanna Livingston, daughter of Cornelia Beekman, niece of Gerardus Beekman and granddaughter of Wilhelmus Beekman, Gilbert Livingston, a son of Robert Livingston the Elder and Alida Schuyler.
His granddaughter, Gertrude Bayard, married Peter Kemble, a prominent New Jersey businessman and politician, his great-granddaughter, Margaret Kemble, married Thomas Gage, General of the British Army during the American Revolutionary War. Descendants of this union are found in England, including amongst the Viscount Gages and the noble Bertie family in England. A grandson, James DeLancey became New York Governor, granddaughter Susannah DeLancey married Vice-Admiral Sir Peter Warren. Another grandson, Oliver De Lancey Sr. married Phila Franks, daughter of a prominent New York Jewish family. Grandson, Lt. General William Skinner, was an American Revolutionary Loyalist whose son, Brig. Gen. Cortlandt Skinner was a Loyalist who married Elizabeth Kearney. Another grandson, Pierre Van Cortlandt was the 1st Lieutenant Governor of New York who married to Joanna Livingston, their descendants include Philip Van Cortlandt and Pierre Van Cortlandt, Jr
First English Civil War
The First English Civil War began the series of three wars known as the English Civil War. "The English Civil War" was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651, includes the Second English Civil War and the Third English Civil War. The wars in England were part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, being fought contemporaneously with equivalents in Scotland and Ireland. Many castles and high-status homes such as Lathom House were slighted after the conflict. Convention uses the name "The English Civil War" to refer collectively to the civil wars in England and the Scottish Civil War, which began with the raising of King Charles I's standard at Nottingham on 22 August 1642, ended on 3 September 1651 at the Battle of Worcester. There was some continued organised Royalist resistance in Scotland, which lasted until the surrender of Dunnottar Castle to Parliament's troops in May 1652, but this resistance is not included as part of the English Civil War.
The English Civil War can be divided into three: the First English Civil War, the Second English Civil War, the Third English Civil War. For the most part, accounts summarise the two sides that fought the English Civil Wars as the Royalist Cavaliers of Charles I of England versus the Parliamentarian Roundheads. However, as with many civil wars, loyalties shifted for various reasons, both sides changed during the conflicts. During this time, the Irish Confederate Wars continued in Ireland, starting with the Irish Rebellion of 1641 and ending with the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, its incidents had little or no direct connection with those of the Civil War, but the wars were mixed with, formed part of, a linked series of conflicts and civil wars between 1639 and 1652 in the kingdoms of England and Ireland, which at that time shared a monarch, but were distinct states in political organisation. These linked conflicts are known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms by some recent historians, aiming to have a unified overview, rather than treating parts of the other conflicts as a background to the English Civil War.
On the side of the King were enlisted: a deep-seated loyalty resulting from two centuries of effective royal protection. The first and last of these motives animated the foot-soldiers of the Royal armies; these troops, who followed their squires to the war saw the enemy as fanatics. The cavalry was composed of the higher social orders; the rebel troops on the other hand were drawn from the ranks of the middle class or bourgeois. The various groups of mercenary troops or soldiers of fortune seeking employ on either side of the conflict since the end of the German wars all felt the well hardened regulars' contempt for citizen militia; the other side of the war saw the causes of the quarrel as a constitutional issue, but as the war progressed they became more radical and religiously focused. Thus, the elements of resistance in Parliament and the nation were at first confused, strong and direct. Democracy, moderate republicanism, the desire for constitutional guarantees could hardly make head way against the various forces of royalism, for the most moderate men of either party were sufficiently in sympathy to admit compromise.
But the backbone of resistance was the Puritan element, this waging war at first with the rest on the political issue, soon brought the religious issue to the front. The Presbyterian system more rigid than that of the Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud and the other bishops, whom few on either side except Charles himself supported, seemed destined for replacement by the Independents and by their ideal of free conscience, but for a generation before the war broke out, the system had disciplined and trained the middle classes of the nation to centre their will on the attainment of their ideals. The ideals changed during the struggle, but not the capacity for striving for them, the men capable of the effort came to the front, imposed their ideals on the rest by the force of their trained wills; the parliamentarians had the stronger material force. They controlled the navy, the nucleus of an army, being organised for the Irish war, nearly all the financial resources of the country, they had the sympathies of most of the large towns, where the trained bands, drilled once a month, provided cadres for new regiments.
By recognising that war was they prepared for war before Royalists did. The Earl of Warwick, the Earl of Essex, the Earl of Manchester, other nobles and gentry of the Parliamentary party had great wealth and territorial influence. On the other hand, Charles could raise men without authority from Parliament by using impressment and the Lords-Lieutenant, but could not raise taxes to support them, thus he depended on financial support from his adherents, such as the Earl of Newcastle and the Earl of Derby. Both the king and the Parliament raised men when and where they could, both claimed legal justification. Parliament claimed to be justified by its own recent "Militia Ordinance", while the king claimed the old-fashion
Thomas Lloyd (lieutenant governor)
Thomas Lloyd was a lieutenant-governor of the Province of Pennsylvania and a Quaker preacher. He was the third son of Charles I Lloyd of Dolobran, in the parish of Meifod, Montgomeryshire in Wales, by his wife Elizabeth Stanley, a member of a junior line of the Stanley family, Earls of Derby, he was educated at Ruthin School. He studied law and medicine at Jesus College, from which he was graduated in 1661, he became a Quaker, in 1664 was arrested and imprisoned in Welshpool until the Royal Declaration of Indulgence in 1672. He enjoyed a large practice, he was chosen to represent Philadelphia County in the provincial council in January 1684, as its president administered the government, after Penn sailed for England in August, till 9 December 1687, when he was one of an executive commission of five that held power for ten months. He was again elected to the council to represent Bucks County in 1689, took his seat in spite of the opposition of the governor, John Blackwell, with whom he and others of the Quaker party had a controversy.
Blackwell was removed from office by Penn, Lloyd was again chosen president of the council and afterward commissioned lieutenant-governor by Penn, holding office from 1690 to 1693. During his administration the schism headed by George Keith took place. Two of his Quaker pamphlets were published: "An epistle to my Dear and well beloved Friends of Dolobran" in 1788 and "A Letter to John Eccles and Wife" in 1805, he married twice, firstly to Mary Jones, daughter of Col. Roger Jones of Welshpool, Governor of Dublin during the reign of King James II, who defeated the Marquess of Ormond in Ireland. Secondly he married Patience Storey, without issue, he may have been the cousin of David Lloyd, the judge and politician in the Province of Pennsylvania. He died in Pennsylvania, 10 September 1694. Genealogical data and biographical notes This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "article name needed". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton