2000 United States presidential election recount in Florida
The Florida election recount of 2000 was a period of vote recounting in Florida that occurred during the weeks after Election Day in the 2000 United States presidential election between George W. Bush and Al Gore; the Florida vote was settled in Bush's favor by a margin of 537 votes when the U. S. Supreme Court, in Bush v. Gore, stopped a recount, initiated upon a ruling by the Florida Supreme Court; that in turn gave Bush a majority of votes in the Electoral College and victory in the presidential election. The controversy began on election night, when the national television networks, using information provided to them by the Voter News Service, an organization formed by the Associated Press to help determine the outcome of the election through early result tallies and exit polling, first called Florida for Gore in the hour after polls closed in the peninsula but about ten minutes before they closed in the Republican counties of the panhandle. In the evening, the networks reversed their call, moving to "too close to call" later giving it to Bush.
Gore phoned Bush the night of the election to concede retracted his concession after learning how close the Florida count was. Bush led the election-night vote count in Florida by 1,784 votes; the small margin produced an automatic recount under Florida state law, which began the day after the election. That first day's results reduced the margin to just over 900 votes. Once it became clear that Florida would decide the presidential election, the nation's attention focused on the manual recount; the Florida election was scrutinized after Election Day. Due to the narrow margin of the original vote count, Florida Election Code 102.141 mandated a statewide machine recount, which began the day after the election. It was completed on November 10 in the 66 Florida counties that used vote-counting machines and reduced Bush's lead to 327 votes. Once the closeness of the election in Florida was clear, both the Bush and Gore campaigns organized themselves for the ensuing legal process. On November 9, the Bush campaign announced they had hired George H. W. Bush's former Secretary of State James Baker and Republican political consultant Roger Stone to oversee their legal team, the Gore campaign hired Bill Clinton's former Secretary of State Warren Christopher.
Following the statewide machine recount, the Gore campaign requested a manual recount in four counties. Florida state law at the time allowed a candidate to request a manual recount by protesting the results of at least three precincts; the county canvassing board was to decide whether to do a recount, as well as the method of the recount, in those three precincts. If the board discovered an error that in its judgment could affect the outcome of the election, they were authorized to do a full recount of the ballots; this statutory process accommodated recounts for local elections. The Gore campaign requested that disputed ballots in Miami-Dade, Palm Beach and Volusia Counties be counted by hand. Volusia County started its recount on November 12. Florida statutes required that all counties certify and report their returns, including any recounts, by 5:00 p.m. on November 14. The manual recounts were time-consuming, it soon became clear that some counties would not complete their recounts before the deadline.
On November 13 the Gore campaign and Volusia and Palm Beach Counties sued to have the deadlines extended. Meanwhile, the Bush campaign worked to stop the recount. On November 11, it joined a group of Florida voters in suing in federal district court for a preemptive injunction to stop all manual recounting of votes in Florida. Bush's lawyers argued that recounting votes in just four counties violated the 14th Amendment and that punched ballots could be tabulated differently since Florida had no detailed statutory standards for hand-counting votes. On November 13, the federal court ruled against an injunction. On November 14, the original deadline for reporting results, with the Volusia County recount complete, Bush held a 300-vote lead; the same day, a state judge upheld that deadline but ruled that further recounts could be considered later. Florida's secretary of state, Katherine Harris, a Republican gave counties until 2:00 p.m. on November 15 to provide reasons for recounting their ballots.
The next day, the Florida Supreme Court allowed manual recounts in Palm Beach and Broward Counties to continue but left it to a state judge to decide whether Harris must include those votes in the final tally. Miami-Dade County decided on November 17 to conduct a recount but suspended it on November 22; the Gore campaign sued to force Miami-Dade County to continue its recount, but the Florida Supreme Court refused to consider the request. As the manual recounts continued, the battle to certify the results intensified. On November 17, Judge Terry Lewis of Leon County Circuit Court permitted Harris to certify the election results without the manual recounts, but on the same day the Florida Supreme Court stayed that decision until it could consider an appeal by Gore. On November 21, the Florida Supreme Court ruled unanimously that manual counts in Broward, Palm Beach and Miami-Dade Counties must be included and set 5:00 p.m. on November 26 as the earliest time for certification. After that decision, the Bush campaign appealed to the U.
S. Supreme Court, arguing that the state court rewrote state election statutes after the vote; as the manual recounts progressed, most of Florida's counties were considering overseas absentee ballots. That part of the vote count was completed on November 18; the Palm Beach County recount and the M
The Daily Pennsylvanian
The Daily Pennsylvanian is the award-winning independent daily student newspaper of the University of Pennsylvania. It is published in print two days per week when the university is in session, by a staff of more than 250 students. Content is published online on a daily basis; the DP publishes a weekly arts and entertainment magazine called 34th Street Magazine and a weekly newspaper mailed to parents and alumni called The Weekly Pennsylvanian. The spring semester of 2018 will be the final semester that The Weekly Pennsylvanian will be published; the DP operates three principal websites—thedp.com, 34st.com, underthebutton.com—as well as a variety of opinion and sports blogs. The Daily Pennsylvanian was founded in 1885 as a successor to the University Magazine, a publication by the Philomathean Society; the newspaper has been published daily since 1894, except for a hiatus from May 1943 to November 1945 on account of World War II. The DP broke away from the university in 1962 to become an independent publication, incorporating in 1984 to solidify its financial and editorial independence from the university.
In 1962 the all-male daily began to accept female students. Among the early few women were Mary Selman Hadar an editor at The Washington Post. Today the newspaper's budget is funded through the sale of advertising by a student business staff; the DP is sometimes called Penn's "unofficial journalism department", because the university has no journalism department, because many of its staff members go on to pursue careers in the print and electronic media. DP alumni can be found at a number of major daily newspapers and national magazines, including The Wall Street Journal, The New York Times, The Washington Post, the Los Angeles Times, The Philadelphia Inquirer and Business Week; the Daily Pennsylvanian has won many of the most prestigious awards in college journalism. In 2008, the newspaper was awarded the Society of Professional Journalists' National Mark of Excellence Award. In the same year, the paper won the Spring 2008 Columbia Gold Crown, awarded to only eight college newspapers nationwide, an award it has won many times before.
It received first place in the Associated Collegiate Press's Kansas City Convention Best of Show Competition in 2008. In 2004, the DP won the Pacemaker, awarded by the Associated Collegiate Press and the Newspaper Association of America Foundation, for a fourth consecutive year, it won the award in 1990, 1997, 1998, 2007, most in 2017. Several of its writers win Gold Circles from the Columbia Scholastic Press Association every year, it was ranked as the "most read" college newspaper by The Princeton Review in 1990, 1997, 1998, 2001. In 2006, College Publisher awarded the DP first place in the category of Best Online Sports Coverage and, in 2008, it was awarded an online Gold Crown for thedp.com. George Wharton Pepper 1887, U. S. Senator from Pennsylvania Josiah Penniman 1890, Provost of the University of Pennsylvania Owen Roberts 1895, associate justice, U. S. Supreme Court Josiah McCracken 1900, physician. S. Representative from Pennsylvania Charles Addams'33, cartoonist Robert Elegant'46, journalist known for his coverage of the Korean and Vietnam Wars Leonard Lauder'54, chairman and CEO, Estée Lauder Companies Frank Dolson,'54, Philadelphia Inquirer sports writer Gaeton Fonzi,'57, reporter and editor for Philadelphia Magazine Michael Stuart Brown'62, geneticist and physician.
S. ambassador Erik Larson'76, The Devil in the White City Steve Stecklow'76, staff writer, The Wall Street Journal. S. Representative from Tennessee Matt Selman'93, The Simpsons Stephen Glass'94, disgraced former New Republic writer Josh Tyrangiel'94, Bloomberg Businessweek Charles Ornstein'96, senior reporter, ProPublica.
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal Government of the United States. The legislature consists of two chambers: the House of the Senate; the Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D. C.. Both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Congress has 535 voting members: 100 senators; the House of Representatives has six non-voting members representing Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the U. S. Virgin Islands, the District of Columbia in addition to its 435 voting members. Although they cannot vote in the full house, these members can address the house and vote in congressional committees, introduce legislation; the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a "district". Congressional districts are apportioned to states by population using the United States Census results, provided that each state has at least one congressional representative.
Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators. There are 100 senators representing the 50 states; each senator is elected at-large in their state for a six-year term, with terms staggered, so every two years one-third of the Senate is up for election. To be eligible for election, a candidate must be aged at least 25 or 30, have been a citizen of the United States for seven or nine years, be an inhabitant of the state which they represent; the Congress was created by the Constitution of the United States and first met in 1789, replacing in its legislative function the Congress of the Confederation. Although not mandated, in practice since the 19th century, Congress members are affiliated with the Republican Party or with the Democratic Party and only with a third party or independents. Article One of the United States Constitution states, "All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives."
The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers. However, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers; the Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills. The House initiates impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before an impeached person can be forcibly removed from office; the term Congress can refer to a particular meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years; the Congress ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators. Scholar and representative Lee H. Hamilton asserted that the "historic mission of Congress has been to maintain freedom" and insisted it was a "driving force in American government" and a "remarkably resilient institution". Congress is the "heart and soul of our democracy", according to this view though legislators achieve the prestige or name recognition of presidents or Supreme Court justices.
One analyst argues that it is not a reactive institution but has played an active role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure. Several academics described Congress: Congress reflects us in all our strengths and all our weaknesses, it reflects our regional idiosyncrasies, our ethnic and racial diversity, our multitude of professions, our shadings of opinion on everything from the value of war to the war over values. Congress is the government's most representative body... Congress is charged with reconciling our many points of view on the great public policy issues of the day. Congress is changing and is in flux. In recent times, the American south and west have gained House seats according to demographic changes recorded by the census and includes more minorities and women although both groups are still underrepresented. While power balances among the different parts of government continue to change, the internal structure of Congress is important to understand along with its interactions with so-called intermediary institutions such as political parties, civic associations, interest groups, the mass media.
The Congress of the United States serves two distinct purposes that overlap: local representation to the federal government of a congressional district by representatives and a state's at-large representation to the federal government by senators. Most incumbents seek re-election, their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent; the historical records of the House of Representatives and the Senate are maintained by the Center for Legislative Archives, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. Congress is directly responsible for the governing of the District of Columbia, the current seat of the federal government; the First Continental Congress was a gathering of representatives from twelve of the thirteen British Colonies in North America. On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence, referring to the new nation as the "United States of America"; the Articles of Confederation in 1781 created the Congress of the Confederation, a
John F. Kennedy School of Government
The John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University is a public policy and public administration school, of Harvard University in Cambridge, United States; the school offers master's degrees in public policy, public administration, international development, grants several doctoral degrees, many executive education programs. It conducts research in subjects relating to politics, international affairs, economics. Since 1970 the school has graduated 17 heads of the most of any educational institution; the School's primary campus is located on John F. Kennedy Street in Cambridge; the main buildings overlook the Charles River, southwest of Harvard Yard and Harvard Square, on the site of a former MBTA Red Line trainyard. The School is adjacent to the public riverfront John F. Kennedy Memorial Park. In 2015, Douglas Elmendorf, the former director of the U. S. Congressional Budget Office who had served as a Harvard faculty member, was named Dean of the Harvard Kennedy School and Don K. Price Professor of Public Policy.
From 2004 to 2015, the School's Dean was David T. Ellwood, the Scott M. Black Professor of Political Economy at HKS. Ellwood was an assistant secretary in the Department of Health and Human Services in the Clinton Administration. A major $120m expansion and renovation of the campus began in 2015; the project was completed in late 2017 with an official opening in December 2017. Harvard Kennedy School was the Harvard Graduate School of Public Administration, was founded in 1936 with a $2 million gift from Lucius N. Littauer, a graduate of Harvard College, its shield was designed to express the national purpose of the school and was modeled after the U. S. shield. The School drew its initial faculty from Harvard's existing government and economics departments, welcomed its first students in 1937; the School's original home was in the Littauer Center north of Harvard Yard, now the home of the Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences Economics Department. The first students at the Graduate School were so-called "Littauer Fellows", participating in a one-year course listing which developed into the school's mid-career Master in Public Administration program.
In the 1960s, the School began to develop today's public policy degree and course curriculum in the Master in Public Policy program. In 1966, the School was renamed for President John F. Kennedy. By 1978, the faculty—notably presidential scholar and adviser Richard Neustadt, foreign policy scholar and dean of the School Graham Allison, Richard Zeckhauser, Edith Stokey—had orchestrated the consolidation of the School's programs and research centers in the present campus. Under the terms of Littauer's original grant, the current HKS campus features a building called Littauer. In addition to playing a critical role in the development of the School's modern era, who at the time served as the Assistant Dean, was the founding Director of the Harvard Institute of Politics, created in 1966 in honor of President Kennedy; the IOP has been housed on the Kennedy School campus since 1978, today the Institute puts on a series of programs and study groups for Harvard undergraduates and graduate students. The John F. Kennedy, Jr. Forum in the new Littauer building is both the site of IOP forum events as well as a major social gathering place between HKS courses.
In 2012 the school announced a $500m fundraising campaign of which over $120m was to be used to expand the campus adding 91,000 square feet of space that will include six new classrooms, a new kitchen, dining facility and meeting spaces, a new student lounge and study space, more collaboration and active learning spaces as well as a redesigned central courtyard. Groundbreaking commenced on May 7, 2015 and the project was completed in late 2017, it was opened in December 2017. Harvard Kennedy School offers four master's degree programs; the two-year Master in Public Policy program focuses on policy analysis, management, ethics and negotiations in the public sector. There are three separate Master in Public Administration programs: a one-year Mid-Career Program, intended for professionals more than seven years after college graduation. Among the members of the Mid-Career MPA class are the Mason Fellows, who are public and private executives from developing countries. Mason Fellows constitute about 50% of the incoming class of Mid Career MPA candidates.
The Mason cohort is the most diverse at Harvard in terms of nationalities and ethnicities represented, it is named after late Harvard Professor and Dean of the Graduate School of Public Administration, now known as the John F. Kennedy School of Government, from 1947 to 1958 Edward Sagendorph Mason who thought of bringing the developing world leaders to Harvard to stand on the cutting edge of development knowledge aiming for a better world. In addition to the master's programs, HKS administers four doctoral programs. PhD degrees are awarded in political economy and Government, Public Policy, social policy, in conjunction with the Departments of government and sociology in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, as well as in health policy, in conjunction with FAS and the Harvard School of Public Health; the Harvard Kennedy School has a number of joint and concurrent degree programs, within Harvard and with other leadin
Cabinet of the United States
The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. The Cabinet's role, inferred from the language of the Opinion Clause of the Constitution, is to serve as an advisory body to the President of the United States. Additionally, the Twenty-fifth Amendment authorizes the Vice President, together with a majority of certain members of the Cabinet, to declare the president "unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office". Among the senior officers of the Cabinet are the Vice President and the heads of the federal executive departments, all of whom—if eligible—are in the line of succession. Members of the Cabinet serve at the pleasure of the President, who can dismiss them at will for no cause. All federal public officials, including Cabinet members, are subject to impeachment by the House of Representatives and trial in the Senate for "treason and other high crimes and misdemeanors"; the President can unilaterally designate senior White House staffers, heads of other federal agencies as members of the Cabinet, although this is a symbolic status marker and does not, apart from attending Cabinet meetings, confer any additional powers.
The tradition of the Cabinet arose out of the debates at the 1787 Constitutional Convention regarding whether the president would exercise executive authority singly or collaboratively with a cabinet of ministers or a privy council. As a result of the debates, the Constitution vests "all executive power" in the president singly, authorizes—but does not compel—the president to "require the Opinion, in writing, of the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject relating to the Duties of their respective Offices"; the Constitution does not specify what the executive departments will be, how many there will be, or what their duties should be. George Washington, the first U. S. President, organized his principal officers into a Cabinet, it has been part of the executive branch structure since. Washington's Cabinet consisted of five members: himself, Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of War Henry Knox and Attorney General Edmund Randolph.
Vice President John Adams was not included in Washington's Cabinet because the position was regarded as a legislative officer. It was not until the 20th century that Vice Presidents were included as members of the Cabinet and came to be regarded as a member of the executive branch. Presidents have used Cabinet meetings of selected principal officers but to differing extents and for different purposes. Secretary of State William H. Seward and Professor Woodrow Wilson advocated the use of a parliamentary-style Cabinet government, but President Abraham Lincoln rebuffed Seward, Woodrow Wilson would have none of it in his administration. In recent administrations, Cabinets have grown to include key White House staff in addition to department and various agency heads. President Ronald Reagan formed seven subcabinet councils to review many policy issues, subsequent Presidents have followed that practice. In 3 U. S. C. § 302 with regard to delegation of authority by the President, it is provided that "nothing herein shall be deemed to require express authorization in any case in which such an official would be presumed in law to have acted by authority or direction of the President."
This pertains directly to the heads of the executive departments as each of their offices is created and specified by statutory law and thus gives them the authority to act for the President within their areas of responsibility without any specific delegation. Under the 1967 Federal Anti-Nepotism statute, federal officials are prohibited from appointing their immediate family members to certain governmental positions, including those in the Cabinet. Under the Federal Vacancies Reform Act of 1998, an administration may appoint acting heads of department from employees of the relevant department; these may be existing high-level career employees, from political appointees of the outgoing administration, or sometimes lower-level appointees of the administration. The heads of the executive departments and all other federal agency heads are nominated by the President and presented to the Senate for confirmation or rejection by a simple majority. If approved, they receive their commission scroll, are sworn in and begin their duties.
An elected Vice President does not require Senate confirmation, nor does the White House Chief of Staff, an appointed staff position of the Executive Office of the President. The heads of the executive departments and most other senior federal officers at cabinet or sub-cabinet level receive their salary under a fixed five-level pay plan known as the Executive Schedule, codified in Title 5 of the United States Code. Twenty-one positions, including the heads of the executive departments and others, receiving Level I pay are listed in 5 U. S. C. § 5312, those forty-six positions on Level II pay are listed in 5 U. S. C. § 5313. As of January 2016, the Level I annual pay was set at $205,700; the annual salary of the Vice President is $235,300. The salary level was set by the Government Salary Reform Act of 1989, which provides an automatic cost of living adjustment for federal employees; the Vice President receives th
Robert Elmer Balaban is an American actor, author and director. He was one of the producers nominated for the Academy Award for Best Picture for Gosford Park, in which he appeared. Balaban's other film roles include the drama Midnight Cowboy, science fiction films Close Encounters of the Third Kind and Altered States, the Christopher Guest comedies Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration, the dark fantasy film Lady in the Water, the Wes Anderson films Moonrise Kingdom, The Grand Budapest Hotel, Isle of Dogs; as a director, Balaban has directed three feature films, in addition to numerous television episodes and films. He is an author of children's novels, he directed a documentary about Robert Altman. Balaban was born to a Jewish family in Chicago, the son of Eleanor and Elmer Balaban, who owned several movie theatres and was a pioneer in cable television, his mother acted under the name Eleanor Barry. His uncles were dominant forces in the theatre business. Balaban's father and uncle, founded the H & E Balaban Corporation in Chicago, which operated its own movie palaces, including the Esquire Theatre in Chicago.
They owned a powerful group of television stations and cable television franchises. His uncle Barney Balaban was president of Paramount Pictures for nearly 30 years from 1936-64, his maternal grandmother's second husband, Sam Katz, was a vice president at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer beginning in 1936. Sam had been an early partner of Bob's uncles Abe, Barney and Max in forming Balaban and Katz. Sam served as President of the Publix theatre division of Paramount Pictures. Balaban began his college career at Colgate University where he joined Phi Kappa Tau Fraternity and transferred to New York University, he studied acting at HB Studio under Uta Hagen He lives on the Upper West Side of Manhattan with his family. His paternal grandparents emigrated from Russia to Chicago, while his mother's family was from Germany and Romania, he is married to Lynn Grossman. One of his earliest appearances in film was in Midnight Cowboy. Prior to that, he filled the role of "Linus" in the original off-Broadway production of You're A Good Man, Charlie Brown in 1967.
Among his early roles in the 1970s were those of Grady Garrett on an episode of Room 222, Orr in Catch-22, Elliot the Organizer in The Strawberry Statement, the interpreter David Laughlin in the 1977 Steven Spielberg science fiction film Close Encounters of the Third Kind. In 1979 he received a Tony Award nomination for his role in The Inspector General. During the 1980s he appeared in films such as Altered States and 2010, he directed the Randy Quaid horror comedy film Parents, the Armin Mueller-Stahl drama film The Last Good Time. He played supporting roles in films such as Absence of Malice, Bob Roberts, Deconstructing Harry, Ghost World, The Majestic, Lady in the Water, Christopher Guest's Waiting for Guffman, Best in Show, A Mighty Wind, For Your Consideration. Balaban appeared in Miami Vice as reporter Ira Stone. In the 1990s, Balaban had a recurring role on the fourth season of Seinfeld as Russell Dalrymple, the fictional president of NBC, he played Warren Littlefield, a real-world NBC executive, in The Late Shift, about the battle between Jay Leno and David Letterman for NBC's The Tonight Show.
His tie to Littlefield continued in 2012 when he read the audiobook of Littlefield's autobiography, Top of the Rock: Inside the Rise and Fall of Must See TV. In 1999, Balaban made a guest appearance in the sitcom Friends as Phoebe Buffay's father Frank in "The One With Joey's Bag". In 2010, Balaban appeared as Judge Clayton Horn, the real-life judge who presided over the obscenity trial of Lawrence Ferlinghetti and City Lights Bookstore in the movie Howl. In 2001, Balaban produced Gosford Park, for which he received an Academy Award nomination for Best Picture, he appeared in the movie as Morris Weissman, a Hollywood producer. He appeared in an episode of Entourage as a doctor known for writing prescriptions for medical marijuana, he directed starring Susan Sarandon. He has directed several episodes of the Showtime series Nurse Jackie. In September 2011, he was featured with Morgan Freeman and John Lithgow in the Broadway debut of the play,'8' — a staged reenactment of the federal trial that overturned California's Prop 8 ban on same-sex marriage — as Judge Vaughn Walker.
The production was held at the Eugene O'Neill Theatre to raise money for the American Foundation for Equal Rights. In January 2016, Balaban appeared in the short play Milton Bradley by Peter Sagal, for Playing On Air, a non-profit organization that “records short plays written by top playwrights and performed by outstanding actors.” Balaban wrote a series of six children's novels featuring a bionic dog named McGrowl. He co-authored Spielberg, Truffaut & Me: An Actor's Diary with Steven Spielberg and The Creature from the Seventh Grade: Sink or Swim which Andy Rash illustrated. Balaban, David; the Chicago Movie Palaces of Balaban and Katz, Arcadia Publishing, 2006 Balaban, Bob. Spielberg, Truffaut & Me: An Actor's Diary, Titan Books, 1978 Bob Balaban on IMDb Bob Balaban at AllMovie Bob Balaban at the Internet Broadway Database Bob Balaban at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Bob Balaban interview on AMC-TV's Sci-Fi Department web show Bob Balaban