Samuel Holten was an American physician and statesman from Danvers, Massachusetts. He represented Massachusetts as a delegate to the Continental Congress and a member of the United States House of Representatives. Holten was born in Danvers, Massachusetts on June 9, 1738, he was studied medicine and established a practice in Gloucester. He soon returned to Danvers. During the American Revolution Holten supported the Patriot cause. Holten served in the militia as a major in the First Essex County Regiment, he was a member of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress from 1774 to 1775 and the Massachusetts Committee of Safety in 1775. He served in the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1780 and the United States in Congress Assembled, 1783 to 1785, again in 1787, he was elected Chairman of the United States in Congress Assembled on August 17, 1785. ″His Excellency the president, being, by indisposition, prevented from attending the House, Congress proceeded to the election of a Chairman, the ballots being taken, the honble.
Samuel Holten was elected.″ Holten was a member of the state constitutional convention in 1779. From 1780 to 1782 Holten served in the Massachusetts Senate, he served again in 1784, 1786, 1789, 1790. In 1787 he was a member of the Massachusetts House of Representatives. From 1780 to 1782 Holten was a member of the Massachusetts Governor's Council, he served again in 1784, 1786, 1789 to 1792, 1795, 1796. In 1792 Holten was elected as an Anti-Administration candidate to the Third Congress. Holten served as judge of the Essex County Court, he was appointed judge of the Essex County Probate Court in 1796, he served until his resignation in 1815. He died in Danvers on January 2, 1816, was buried at Holten Cemetery in Danvers. United States Congress. "Samuel Holten". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Essex County, Massachusetts
Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U. S. state of Massachusetts. As of the 2010 census, the total population was 743,159, making it the third-most populous county in the state, it is part of the Greater Boston area. The largest city in Essex County is Lynn; the county was named after the English county of Essex. It has two traditional county seats: Lawrence. Prior to the dissolution of the county government in 1999, Salem had jurisdiction over the Southern Essex District, Lawrence had jurisdiction over the Northern Essex District, but these cities do not function as seats of government. However, the county and the districts remain as administrative regions recognized by various governmental agencies, which gathered vital statistics or disposed of judicial case loads under these geographic subdivisions, are required to keep the records based on them; the county has been designated the Essex National Heritage Area by the National Park Service. The county was created by the General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony on May 10, 1643, when it was ordered "that the whole plantation within this jurisdiction be divided into four sheires".
Named after the county in England, Essex comprised the towns of Salem, Wenham, Rowley, Newbury and Andover. In 1680, Haverhill and Salisbury, both located north of the Merrimack River, were annexed to Essex County; these communities had been part of Massachusetts' colonial-era Norfolk County. The remaining four towns within colonial Norfolk County, which included Exeter and what is now Portsmouth, were transferred to what became Rockingham County in the Province of New Hampshire; the ten large founding Massachusetts-based settlements were subdivided over the centuries to produce Essex County's modern composition of cities and towns. Essex County is famous as the area that Elbridge Gerry districted into a salamander-like shape in 1812 that gave rise to the word gerrymandering. Due to a confluence of floods and severe winter storms, Essex County has had more disaster declarations than all other U. S. counties, from 1964 to 2016. From the founding of the Republican Party until the New Deal, Essex County was a Republican stronghold in presidential elections.
Since 1936, it has trended Democratic, with Dwight Eisenhower in 1952 and 1956 and Ronald Reagan in 1980 and 1984 being the only Republicans to carry the county since. Like several other Massachusetts counties, Essex County exists today only as a historical geographic region, has no county government. All former county functions were assumed by state agencies in 1999; the sheriff and some other regional officials with specific duties are still elected locally to perform duties within the county region, but there is no county council, commissioner, or county employees. Communities are now granted the right to form their own regional compacts for sharing services. See also: League of Women Voters page on Massachusetts counties. Essex County is diamond-shaped and occupies the northeastern corner of the state of Massachusetts. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 828 square miles, of which 493 square miles is land and 336 square miles is water. Essex County is adjacent to Rockingham County, New Hampshire to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, Suffolk County to the south, Middlesex County to the west and a small portion of Hillsborough County, New Hampshire to the far north west in Methuen.
All county land is incorporated into cities. Essex County includes the North Shore, Cape Ann, the lower portions of the Merrimack Valley; these routes pass through Essex County: I‑93, in Methuen and Andover I‑95, about five miles from the coast I‑495, from Andover to Salisbury through Lawrence and Haverhill US 1, along the coast Route 1A, along the coast Route 22, in Beverly and Essex Route 28, in Methuen and Andover Route 35, in Peabody and Danvers Route 62, from Middleton to Beverly Route 97, from Haverhill to Beverly Route 99, in Saugus Route 107, in Salem and Lynn Route 108, in Haverhill Route 110, from Methuen to Salisbury through Lawrence and Haverhill Route 113, from Methuen to Newburyport through Haverhill Route 114, from Lawrence to Marblehead through Middleton Route 125, from Andover to Haverhill Route 127, from Beverly to Gloucester Route 127A, at the tip of Cape Ann Route 128, through Cape Ann Route 129, from Lynnfield to Marblehead Route 129A, in Lynn Route 133, from Andover to Gloucester Route 150, in Amesbury Route 213, in Methuen Route 286, in SalisburyThe Lawrence Municipal Airport and Beverly Municipal Airport are regional airports within the county.
The MBTA commuter rail has two lines operating in Essex County: the Haverhill Line and the Newburyport Line, both of which go toward Boston. Close to Boston, MBTA buses exist; the MVRTA is a bus company. Because of Essex County's rich history, which includes 17th century colonial history, maritime history spanning its existence, leadership in the expansions of the textile industry in the 19th century, the entire county has been designated the Essex National Heritage Area by the National Park Service; the following areas of national significance have been preserved: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge Salem Maritime National Historic Site Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site Thacher Island National Wildlife Refuge As of the 2010 Unite
United States Constitution
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States. The Constitution comprising seven articles, delineates the national frame of government, its first three articles embody the doctrine of the separation of powers, whereby the federal government is divided into three branches: the legislative, consisting of the bicameral Congress. Articles Four and Six embody concepts of federalism, describing the rights and responsibilities of state governments, the states in relationship to the federal government, the shared process of constitutional amendment. Article Seven establishes the procedure subsequently used by the thirteen States to ratify it, it is regarded as the oldest codified national constitution in force. Since the Constitution came into force in 1789, it has been amended 27 times, including an amendment to repeal a previous one, in order to meet the needs of a nation that has profoundly changed since the eighteenth century. In general, the first ten amendments, known collectively as the Bill of Rights, offer specific protections of individual liberty and justice and place restrictions on the powers of government.
The majority of the seventeen amendments expand individual civil rights protections. Others modify government processes and procedures. Amendments to the United States Constitution, unlike ones made to many constitutions worldwide, are appended to the document. All four pages of the original U. S. Constitution are written on parchment. According to the United States Senate: "The Constitution's first three words—We the People—affirm that the government of the United States exists to serve its citizens. For over two centuries the Constitution has remained in force because its framers wisely separated and balanced governmental powers to safeguard the interests of majority rule and minority rights, of liberty and equality, of the federal and state governments."The first permanent constitution of its kind, adopted by the people's representatives for an expansive nation, it is interpreted and implemented by a large body of constitutional law, has influenced the constitutions of other nations. From September 5, 1774, to March 1, 1781, the Continental Congress functioned as the provisional government of the United States.
Delegates to the First and the Second Continental Congress were chosen through the action of committees of correspondence in various colonies rather than through the colonial or state legislatures. In no formal sense was it a gathering representative of existing colonial governments; the process of selecting the delegates for the First and Second Continental Congresses underscores the revolutionary role of the people of the colonies in establishing a central governing body. Endowed by the people collectively, the Continental Congress alone possessed those attributes of external sovereignty which entitled it to be called a state in the international sense, while the separate states, exercising a limited or internal sovereignty, may rightly be considered a creation of the Continental Congress, which preceded them and brought them into being; the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was the first constitution of the United States. It was drafted by the Second Continental Congress from mid-1776 through late 1777, ratification by all 13 states was completed by early 1781.
The Articles of Confederation gave little power to the central government. The Confederation Congress lacked enforcement powers. Implementation of most decisions, including modifications to the Articles, required unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. Although, in a way, the Congressional powers in Article 9 made the "league of states as cohesive and strong as any similar sort of republican confederation in history", the chief problem was, in the words of George Washington, "no money"; the Continental Congress could print money but it was worthless. Congress couldn't pay it back. No state paid all their U. S. taxes. Some few paid an amount equal to interest on the national debt no more. No interest was paid on debt owed foreign governments. By 1786, the United States would default on outstanding debts. Internationally, the United States had little ability to defend its sovereignty. Most of the troops in the 625-man United States Army were deployed facing – but not threatening – British forts on American soil.
They had not been paid. Spain closed New Orleans to American commerce. S. officials protested, but to no effect. Barbary pirates began seizing American ships of commerce. If any military crisis required action, the Congress had no credit or taxing power to finance a response. Domestically, the Articles of Confederation was failing to bring unity to the diverse sentiments and interests of the various states. Although the Treaty of Paris was signed between Great Britain and the U. S. and named each of the American states, various states proceeded blithely to violate it. New York and South Carolina prosecuted Loyalists for wartime activity and redistributed their lands. Individual state legislatures independently laid embargoes, negotiated directly with foreign authorities, raised armies, and
Massachusetts the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It borders on the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island to the south, New Hampshire and Vermont to the north, New York to the west; the state is named after the Massachusett tribe, which once inhabited the east side of the area, is one of the original thirteen states. The capital of Massachusetts is Boston, the most populous city in New England. Over 80% of Massachusetts's population lives in the Greater Boston metropolitan area, a region influential upon American history and industry. Dependent on agriculture and trade, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial Revolution. During the 20th century, Massachusetts's economy shifted from manufacturing to services. Modern Massachusetts is a global leader in biotechnology, higher education and maritime trade. Plymouth was the site of the second colony in New England after Popham Colony in 1607 in what is now Maine.
Plymouth was founded in 1620 by passengers of the Mayflower. In 1692, the town of Salem and surrounding areas experienced one of America's most infamous cases of mass hysteria, the Salem witch trials. In 1777, General Henry Knox founded the Springfield Armory, which during the Industrial Revolution catalyzed numerous important technological advances, including interchangeable parts. In 1786, Shays' Rebellion, a populist revolt led by disaffected American Revolutionary War veterans, influenced the United States Constitutional Convention. In the 18th century, the Protestant First Great Awakening, which swept the Atlantic World, originated from the pulpit of Northampton preacher Jonathan Edwards. In the late 18th century, Boston became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the agitation there that led to the American Revolution; the entire Commonwealth of Massachusetts has played a powerful commercial and cultural role in the history of the United States. Before the American Civil War, Massachusetts was a center for the abolitionist and transcendentalist movements.
In the late 19th century, the sports of basketball and volleyball were invented in the western Massachusetts cities of Springfield and Holyoke, respectively. In 2004, Massachusetts became the first U. S. state to recognize same-sex marriage as a result of the decision in Goodridge v. Department of Public Health by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court. Many prominent American political dynasties have hailed from the state, including the Adams and Kennedy families. Harvard University in Cambridge is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, with the largest financial endowment of any university, Harvard Law School has educated a contemporaneous majority of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States. Kendall Square in Cambridge has been called "the most innovative square mile on the planet", in reference to the high concentration of entrepreneurial start-ups and quality of innovation which have emerged in the vicinity of the square since 2010. Both Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, have been ranked among the most regarded academic institutions in the world.
Massachusetts' public-school students place among the top tier in the world in academic performance, the state has been ranked as one of the top states in the United States for citizens to live in, as well as one of the most expensive. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was named after the indigenous population, the Massachusett derived from a Wôpanâak word muswach8sut, segmented as mus "big" + wach8 "mountain" + -s "diminutive" + -ut "locative", it has been translated as "near the great hill", "by the blue hills", "at the little big hill", or "at the range of hills", referring to the Blue Hills, or in particular the Great Blue Hill, located on the boundary of Milton and Canton. Alternatively, Massachusett has been represented as Moswetuset—from the name of the Moswetuset Hummock in Quincy, where Plymouth Colony commander Myles Standish, hired English military officer, Squanto, part of the now disappeared Patuxet band of the Wampanoag peoples, met Chief Chickatawbut in 1621; the official name of the state is the "Commonwealth of Massachusetts".
While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has powers within the United States as other states, it may have been chosen by John Adams for the second draft of the Massachusetts Constitution because unlike the word "state", "commonwealth" at the time had the connotation of a republic, in contrast to the monarchy the former American colonies were fighting against. Massachusetts was inhabited by tribes of the Algonquian language family such as the Wampanoag, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc and Massachusett. While cultivation of crops like squash and corn supplemented their diets, these tribes were dependent on hunting and fishing for most of their food. Villages consisted of lodges called wigwams as well as longhouses, tribes were led by male or female elders known as sachems. In the early 1600s, after contact had been made with Europeans, large numbers of the indigenous peoples in the northeast of what is now the United States were killed by virgin soil epidemics such as smallpox, measles and leptospirosis.
Between 1617 and 1619, smallpox killed ap
George Cabot was an American merchant and politician from Boston. He represented Massachusetts in the U. S. Senate and as the Presiding Officer of the Hartford Convention. In 1789, President George Washington breakfasted at Cabot's Beverly, home when he was in town inspecting the country's first cotton mill and the new Essex Bridge, which connected Beverly with Salem. Cabot was born in Massachusetts, his father was a ship merchant. His mother was Elizabeth Higginson, he had ten siblings, including Joseph Cabot Jr. and Samuel Cabot. The Cabot family is from Jersey and Norman-French. Cabot attended Harvard College for two years. By the age of 21, he was captain of his own ship. Cabot's political career began in 1775, when he became a member of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress. In 1777, he was a delegate to the state constitutional convention. In 1787, Cabot was a delegate to the state convention, he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1788. He was elected to the U.
S. Senate and served from March 4, 1791 to June 9, 1796, he was a supporter of the financial policies of Alexander Hamilton and became a Federalist when the party was organized. In 1793, he was named a director of the First Bank of the United States. In 1798, Cabot declined the position of the first US Secretary of the Navy. Cabot opposed the policies of the Jefferson and Madison administrations, in particular the Embargo Act of 1807, which had a negative impact on trade conducted by New England merchants. Cabot was elected as a delegate to the Hartford Convention, organized in 1814 by Federalist politicians of New England who were unhappy with the conduct of the War of 1812. Cabot chaired the secretive meeting, which called for constitutional reforms but stopped short of calling for secession. After the war ended, it was viewed as bordering on treason; the Treaty of Ghent, signed while the convention was meeting ended both the Federalist Party and Cabot's political career. He had four children: Charles, Henry and Elizabeth.
Through Henry, Cabot was a great-grandfather of Henry Cabot Lodge and the progenitor of a number of other prominent members of the Cabot family. Cabot died in Boston, Massachusetts in 1823, was buried the Granary Burying Ground, he was reinterred in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. United States Congress. "George Cabot". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Encyclopædia Britannica George Cabot
William Lyman (congressman)
William Lyman was an American politician from Northampton, Massachusetts who served in the United States House of Representatives. Lyman was born in Massachusetts to Captain William and Jemima Lyman, he graduated from Yale College in 1776. He was a militia veteran of the American Revolution. During Shays’ Rebellion he was an aide to General William Shepard with the rank of major. In about 1781, Lyman married Jerusha Welles, of Connecticut. Jerusha died at age 43, on June 11, 1803. Lyman served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1787 and in the Massachusetts State Senate in 1789. Lyman was a candidate for the first congress and ran in the Hampshire Berkshire District as an Anti-Federalist against the Federalist candidate Theodore Sedgwick. Sedgwick was elected. Seventeen towns that were favorable to Lyman were late in sending in their returns. Lyman represented Massachusetts in the United States House of Representatives from March 4, 1793 to March 3, 1797. In 1804 Lyman was appointed U.
S. consul in London. He is interred in the Cathedral at Gloucester, England. United States Congress. "William Lyman". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William Lyman at Find a Grave
4th United States Congress
The Fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met at Congress Hall in Philadelphia, from March 4, 1795, to March 4, 1797, during the last two years of George Washington's presidency; the apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the First Census of the United States in 1790. The Senate had a Federalist majority, the House had a Democratic-Republican majority. September 17, 1796: Washington's Farewell Address warned against partisan politics and foreign entanglements. June 24, 1795: Treaty of London March 7, 1796: Treaty of Madrid June 1, 1796: Tennessee admitted as a state. 1, ch. 47, 1 Stat. 1 - 491 491 This was the first Congress to have organized political parties. Details on changes are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section. President: John Adams President pro tempore: Henry Tazewell, first elected December 7, 1795 Samuel Livermore, first elected May 6, 1796 William Bingham, first elected February 16, 1797 Speaker: Jonathan Dayton This list is arranged by chamber by state.
Senators are listed by class, Representatives are listed by district. Skip to House of Representatives, below Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 1796; the count below reflects changes from the beginning of this Congress There were 10 resignations, 2 new seats, 1 election to replace an appointee. There was a 1-seat gain for the Democratic-Republicans. There were 9 resignations, 1 death of a Representative-elect, 1 new seat. There was a 1-seat gain for the Democratic-Republicans. Lists of committees and their party leaders. Whole Claims Commerce and Manufactures Elections Revisal and Unfinished Business Rules Ways and Means Whole Enrolled Bills Architect of the Capitol: William Thornton Chaplain: William White, Episcopalian Doorkeeper: James Mathers of New York Secretary: Samuel A. Otis of Massachusetts Chaplain: Ashbel Green, elected December 7, 1795 Clerk: John Beckley of Virginia, elected December 7, 1795 Doorkeeper: Thomas Claxton, elected December 7, 1795 Reading Clerks: Sergeant at Arms: Joseph Wheaton of Rhode Island, elected December 7, 1795 United States elections, 1794 United States Senate elections, 1794 and 1795 United States House of Representatives elections, 1794 United States elections, 1796 United States presidential election, 1796 United States Senate elections, 1796 and 1797 United States House of Representatives elections, 1796 Martis, Kenneth C..
The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Statutes at Large, 1789-1875 Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress Biographical Directory of the U. S. Congress U. S. House of Representatives: House History U. S. Senate: Statistics and Lists