Battle of Setauket
The Battle of Setauket was a failed attack during the American Revolutionary War on a fortified Loyalist outpost in Setauket, Long Island, New York, by a force of Continental Army troops from Connecticut under the command of Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons. In an attempt to repeat the success of the earlier Meigs Raid against Sag Harbor, Parsons' force crossed Long Island Sound to attack the Loyalist position. Alerted by spies to the planned assault, Lieutenant Colonel Richard Hewlett fortified the local Presbyterian church, surrounding it with a stockade and earthworks. After Hewlett rejected Parsons' demand to surrender, a brief firefight ensued that did no significant damage. Parsons withdrew and returned to Connecticut; the American Revolutionary War was a qualified success for the British in 1776. After being forced to abandon Boston, they captured New York City, but were unable to hold New Jersey when General George Washington surprised them at Trenton and Princeton; the British consolidated their hold on New York City and Long Island during the winter months of early 1777, while the Continental Army established a land blockade around the city in New Jersey, southern New York, southwestern Connecticut.
In the spring of 1777 Lieutenant General William Howe launched raiding expeditions against Continental Army and local militia storage depots near the city. A successful raid against Peekskill, New York in March prompted him to organize a more ambitious expedition to raid a depot in Danbury, Connecticut; this expedition, led by the former royal governor of New York, William Tryon reached Danbury from a landing point in Westport, Connecticut, on April 26, destroyed provisions and supplies. The Connecticut militia had mobilized, over the next two days skirmished with the British as they marched back to their ships, most notably on April 27 at Ridgefield. General Samuel Holden Parsons, leading Connecticut's defenses, decided to organize an act of reprisal; the raid executed with great success by Colonel Return Jonathan Meigs against Sag Harbor on eastern Long Island prompted Parsons to consider further such actions against other Loyalist positions on the island. On August 16, whose brigade was stationed at Peekskill, New York, received orders from Major General Israel Putnam authorizing an expedition against Loyalist targets on Long Island.
Parsons ordered Colonel Samuel Blachley Webb to muster his regiment, numbering about 500 men, march to Fairfield, Connecticut. Parsons followed, reaching Fairfield on August 21. Loyalists recruited from Queens County, New York by Lieutenant Colonel Richard Hewlett for the 3rd battalion DeLancey's Brigade had established a fortified position in early August on the central north shore of Long Island at Setauket, just across Long Island Sound from Fairfield. Hewlett's force took over the town's Presbyterian meeting house; when spies informed Hewlett that Parsons was mustering troops at Fairfield, he set his force to improving the defenses, building a breastwork six feet high at a distance of 30 feet all around the meeting house. Upon these works he mounted four small swivel guns. On the night of August 21, Parsons and Webb set out across Long Island Sound in whaleboats, taking with them a few small brass cannons. Early the next morning they landed at Crane's Neck, marched to Setauket. Finding the Loyalists entrenched, Parsons first sent a truce flag to demand their surrender.
Hewlett refused the demand, the two forces began a three-hour exchange of gunfire. Neither side incurred significant casualties, the small American cannons failed to make an impression on the fortifications. Concerned that armed British ships in the Sound would hear the battle and come to investigate, Parsons called off the assault and retreated, taking with him a dozen captured horses and some blankets; the attackers recrossed the Sound, Parsons assigned Webb's regiment to patrol the Connecticut shore. In December 1777 Parsons and Meigs were involved in a more elaborate attempt at taking British military stores at Setauket; this one failed, because rough seas prevented Meigs from crossing, Webb's boat was captured by a British ship. Lieutenant Colonel Hewlett was favorably mentioned in general orders for his defense of the post, although it was abandoned several months later. Although Setauket was never again the target of a major expedition, it was the target of small-scale raids, it was a significant waypoint for intelligence that made its way from American spies in New York to Washington's spy chief, Setauket native Benjamin Tallmadge.
Tallmadge operated what has since been called the Culper Ring, in which a number of Setauket residents figured prominently. A Patriot refugee from Long Island, Zachariah Greene, was a member of Parsons' expedition, served as minister to the Setauket Presbyterian congregation. A new building was erected on the site in 1812. A fictionalized portrayal of the battle appears in the season 1 finale of the series Turn: Washington's Spies. In this portrayal, Major Benjamin Tallmadge led the Continental forces against the British garrison led by a Major Edmund Hewlett. Hall, Charles S. Letters and Life of Samuel Holden Parsons. Binghamton, NY: Otseningo Publishing Co. OCLC 2603857. Hastedt, Glenn. Spies and Secret Operations: An Encyclopedia of American Espionage. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-85109-807-1. OCLC 213468823. Jack, David Russell. Acadiensis, Volume 7. Saint John, NB: self-published. OCLC 1460727. Mather, Frederic; the Refugees of 1776 from Long Isla
Society of the Cincinnati
The Society of the Cincinnati is a hereditary society with branches in the United States and France, founded in 1783, to preserve the ideals and fellowship of officers of the Continental Army who served in the Revolutionary War. Now in its third century, the Society promotes the public interest in the revolution through its library and museum collections and other activities, it is the oldest hereditary society in the United States. The Society does not allow women to join, though there is a patriarchal consolation society called Daughters of the Cincinnati which permits all female descendants of Continental officers; the Society is named after Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus, who left his farm to accept a term as Roman Consul and served as Magister Populi. He assumed lawful dictatorial control of Rome to meet a war emergency; when the battle was won, he went back to plowing his fields. The Society's motto reflects that ethic of selfless service: Omnia reliquit servare rempublicam; the Society has had three goals: "To preserve the rights so dearly won.
The concept of the Society of the Cincinnati was that of Major General Henry Knox. The first meeting of the Society was held in May 1783 at a dinner at Mount Gulian in Fishkill, New York, before the British evacuation from New York City; the meeting was chaired by Lieutenant Colonel Alexander Hamilton, the participants agreed to stay in contact with each other after the war. Membership was limited to officers who had served at least three years in the Continental Army or Navy. Officers in the Continental Line who died during the War were entitled to be recorded as members, membership would devolve to their eldest male heir. Members of the larger fighting forces comprising the Colonial Militias and Minutemen were not entitled to join the Society. Within 12 months of the founding, a constituent Society had been organized in each of the 13 states and in France. Of about 5,500 men eligible for membership, 2,150 had joined within a year. King Louis XVI ordained the French Society of the Cincinnati, organized on July 4, 1784.
Up to that time, the King of France had not allowed his officers to wear any foreign decorations, but he made an exception in favor of the badge of the Cincinnati. In the 18th century, the Society's rules adopted a system of primogeniture wherein membership was passed down to the eldest son after the death of the original member. Present-day hereditary members must be descended from an officer who served in the Continental Army or Navy for at least three years, from an officer who died or was killed in service, or from an officer serving at the close of the Revolution; each officer may be represented by only one descendant at any given time, following the rules of primogeniture. The requirement for primogeniture made the society controversial in its early years, as the new states did away with laws supporting primogeniture as remnants of the English feudal system. George Washington was elected the first President General of the Society, he served from December 1783 until his death in 1799. The second President General was Alexander Hamilton.
Upon Hamilton's death the third President General of the Society was Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. The society's members have included notable military and political leaders, including 23 signers of the United States Constitution. Joseph Cilley, Henry Dearborn, Nicholas Gilman, John Sullivan, James Reed. Stephen Abbot, Jeduthan Baldwin, John Brooks, Henry Burbeck, David Cobb, John Crane, Thomas Humphrey Cushing, William Eustis, Constant Freeman, John Greaton, Africa Hamlin, William Heath, William Hull, Thomas Hunt, Henry Knox, Henry Jackson, Michael Jackson, Simon Larned, Benjamin Lincoln, Samuel Nicholson, William North, Rufus Putnam, William Shepard, William Stacy, Benjamin Tupper, Elisha Horton, Abraham Williams, John Yeomans, Dr. Abijah Richardson. Israel Angell, William Barton, Archibald Crary, Nathanael Greene, Moses Hazen, Daniel Jackson, William Jones, Daniel Lyman, Coggeshall Olney, Jeremiah Olney, Stephen Olney, Henry Sherburne, Silas Talbot, William Tew, Simeon Thayer, James Mitchell Varnum, Abraham Whipple, Joseph Arnold.
Abraham Baldwin, Joel Barlow, Zebulon Butler, Henry Champion, John Chester, Jonathan Hart, David Humphreys, Ebenezer Huntington, Jedediah Huntington, Jacob Kingsbury, John Mansfield, Joseph Spencer, Benjamin Tallmadge, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. John Wyllys, Palgrave Wyllys, Amos Walbridge Aaron Burr, George Clinton, James Clinton, John Doughty, Nicholas Fish, Peter Gansevoort, Alexander Hamilton, Rufus King, Joseph Hardy, John Keese,John Lamb, Morgan Lewis, Henry Beekman Livingston, Alexander McDougall, Charles McKnight, David Olyphant, Philip Schuyler, John Morin Scott, William Stephens Smith, John Stagg Jr, Ebenezer Stevens, Silas Talbot, Benjamin Tallmadge, Philip Van Cortlandt, Henry Vanderburgh, Cornelius Van Dyck, John Van Dyck, Richard Varick, William Scudder, Dr. Caleb Sweet, Maj. Gen. Baron von Steuben, Lt. Col. Bernardus Swartwout, Cornelius Swartwout, BG Philip Van Cortlandt, Frederick Von Weisenfels. James Anderson, Abraham Appleton, James Francis Armstrong, Daniel Baldwin, Jeremiah Ballard, William Barton
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He served as the eighth United States Secretary of State from 1817 to 1825. During his long diplomatic and political career, Adams served as an ambassador, represented Massachusetts as a United States Senator and as a member of the United States House of Representatives, he was the eldest son of John Adams, who served as the second US president from 1797 to 1801. A Federalist like his father, he won election to the presidency as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, in the mid-1830s became affiliated with the Whig Party. Born in Braintree, Adams spent much of his youth in Europe, where his father served as a diplomat. After returning to the United States, Adams established a successful legal practice in Boston. In 1794, President George Washington appointed Adams as the U. S. ambassador to the Netherlands, Adams would serve in high-ranking diplomatic posts until 1801, when Thomas Jefferson took office as president.
Federalist leaders in Massachusetts arranged for Adams's election to the United States Senate in 1802, but Adams broke with the Federalist Party over foreign policy and was denied re-election. In 1809, Adams was appointed as the U. S. ambassador to Russia by a member of the Democratic-Republican Party. Adams held diplomatic posts for the duration of Madison's presidency, he served as part of the American delegation that negotiated an end to the War of 1812. In 1817, newly-elected President James Monroe selected Adams as his Secretary of State. In that role, Adams negotiated the Adams–Onís Treaty, which provided for the American acquisition of Florida, he helped formulate the Monroe Doctrine, which became a key tenet of U. S. foreign policy. The 1824 presidential election was contested by Adams, Andrew Jackson, William H. Crawford, Henry Clay, all of whom were members of the Democratic-Republican Party; as no candidate won a majority of the electoral vote, the House of Representatives held a contingent election to determine the president, Adams won that contingent election with the support of Clay.
As president, Adams called for an ambitious agenda that included federally-funded infrastructure projects, the establishment of a national university, engagement with the countries of Latin America, but many of his initiatives were defeated in Congress. During Adams's presidency, the Democratic-Republican Party polarized into two major camps: one group, known as the National Republican Party, supported President Adams, while the other group, known as the Democratic Party, was led by Andrew Jackson; the Democrats proved to be more effective political organizers than Adams and his National Republican supporters, Jackson decisively defeated Adams in the 1828 presidential election. Rather than retiring from public service, Adams won election to the House of Representatives, where he would serve from 1831 to his death in 1848, he joined the Anti-Masonic Party in the early 1830s before becoming a member of the Whig Party, which united those opposed to President Jackson. During his time in Congress, Adams became critical of slavery and of the Southern leaders whom he believed controlled the Democratic Party.
He was opposed to the annexation of Texas and the Mexican–American War, which he saw as a war to extend slavery. He led the repeal of the "gag rule," which had prevented the House of Representatives from debating petitions to abolish slavery. Historians concur that Adams was one of the greatest diplomats and secretaries of state in American history, but they tend to rank him as an average president. John Quincy Adams was born on July 11, 1767, to John and Abigail Adams in a part of Braintree, Massachusetts, now Quincy, he was named for his mother's maternal grandfather, Colonel John Quincy, after whom Quincy, Massachusetts, is named. Young Adams was educated by private tutors – his cousin James Thaxter and his father's law clerk, Nathan Rice, he soon began to exhibit his literary skills, in 1779 he initiated a diary which he kept until just before he died in 1848. Until the age of ten, Adams grew up on the family farm in Braintree in the care of his mother. Though absent due to his participation in the American Revolution, John Adams maintained a correspondence with his son, encouraging him to read works by authors like Thucydides and Hugo Grotius.
With his father's encouragement, Adams would translate classical authors like Virgil, Horace and Aristotle. In 1778, Adams and his father departed for Europe, where John Adams would serve as part of American diplomatic missions in France and the Netherlands. During this period, Adams studied French and Latin, attended several schools, including Leiden University. In 1781, Adams traveled to Saint Petersburg, where he served as the secretary of American diplomat Francis Dana, he returned to the Netherlands in 1783, accompanied his father to Great Britain in 1784. Though Adams enjoyed Europe, he and his family decided he needed to return to the United States to complete his education and launch a political career. Adams returned to the United States in 1785 and earned admission as a member of the junior class of Harvard College the following year, he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa and excelled academically, graduating second in his class in 1787. After graduating from Harvard, he studied law with Theophilus Parsons in Newburyport, Massachusetts from 1787 to 1789.
Adams opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution, but he came to accept the document, in 1789 his father was elected
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
Connecticut's at-large congressional district
During the first twenty-four Congresses Connecticut elected all its Representatives in Congress from a single multi-member Connecticut at-large congressional district. Connecticut elected a varying number of representatives during this period. From its inception in 1789 through the first reapportionment in 1793, there were five seats. From 1793 through 1823, there were seven seats. In 1823 the seats were reduced to six and in 1837 the system of at-large members was replaced with districts. From 1903 to 1913 and from 1933 to 1965, Connecticut had a member of the United States House of Representatives who represented the state at-large, in addition to the members who represented distinct districts; this practice was prohibited by the Voting Rights Act of 1965. All members were elected statewide at-large on a general ticket. In 1837, Connecticut adopted districts instead. In 1903, one at-large seat was created, four district seats continued. In 1933, one at-large seat was created, five district seats continued.
Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Nathan Hale was an American soldier and spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. He volunteered for an intelligence-gathering mission in New York City but was captured by the British and executed. Hale has long been considered an American hero and in 1985, he was designated the state hero of Connecticut. Nathan Hale was born in Connecticut, in 1755 to Richard Hale and Elizabeth Strong. In 1769, when he was fourteen years old, he was sent with his brother Enoch, sixteen, to Yale College. Nathan was a classmate of fellow patriot spy Benjamin Tallmadge; the Hale brothers belonged to the Linonian Society of Yale, which debated topics in astronomy, mathematics and the ethics of slavery. Nathan graduated with first-class honors in 1773 at age 18 and became a teacher, first in East Haddam and in New London. After the Revolutionary War began in 1775, he joined a Connecticut militia and was elected first lieutenant within five months, his militia unit participated in the Siege of Boston.
It has been suggested that he was unsure as to whether he wanted to fight, or whether he was hindered because his teaching contract in New London did not expire until several months in July 1775. On July 4, 1775, Hale received a letter from his classmate and friend Benjamin Tallmadge, who had gone to Boston to see the siege for himself, he wrote to Hale, "Was I in your condition, I think. Our holy Religion, the honor of our God, a glorious country, & a happy constitution is what we have to defend." Tallmadge's letter was so inspiring that, several days Hale accepted a commission as first lieutenant in the 7th Connecticut Regiment under Colonel Charles Webb of Stamford. In the following spring, the army moved to Manhattan Island to prevent the British from taking over New York City. In September, General Washington was desperate to determine the location of the imminent British invasion of Manhattan Island. To that end, Washington needed a spy behind enemy lines, Hale was the only volunteer; the Battle of Long Island led to British victory and the capture of New York City via a flanking move from Staten Island across Long Island.
Hale volunteered on September 8, 1776, to go behind enemy lines and report on British troop movements. He was ferried across on September 12, it was an act of spying, punishable by death and posed a great risk to Hale. During his mission, New York City fell to British forces on September 15 and Washington was forced to retreat to the island's north in Harlem Heights. On September 21, a quarter of the lower portion of Manhattan burned in the Great New York Fire of 1776; the fire was widely thought to have been started by American saboteurs to keep the city from falling into British hands, though Washington and the Congress had denied this idea. It has been speculated that the fire was the work of British soldiers acting without orders. In the fire's aftermath, more than 200 American partisans were rounded up by the British. An account of Nathan Hale's capture was written by Consider Tiffany, a Connecticut shopkeeper and Loyalist, obtained by the Library of Congress. In Tiffany's account, Major Robert Rogers of the Queen's Rangers saw Hale in a tavern and recognized him despite his disguise.
After luring Hale into betraying himself by pretending to be a patriot himself and his Rangers apprehended Hale near Flushing Bay in Queens, New York. Another story was that Samuel Hale, was the one who revealed his true identity. British General William Howe had established his headquarters in the Beekman House in a rural part of Manhattan, on a rise between what are now 50th and 51st Streets between First and Second Avenues, near where Beekman Place commemorates the connection. Hale was questioned by Howe, physical evidence was found on him. Rogers provided information about the case. According to tradition, Hale spent the night in a greenhouse at the mansion, he requested a Bible. Sometime he requested a clergyman. Again, the request was denied. According to the standards of the time, spies were hanged as illegal combatants. On the morning of September 22, 1776, Hale was marched along Post Road to the Park of Artillery, next to a public house called the Dove Tavern, hanged, he was 21 years old.
Bill Richmond, a 13-year-old former slave and Loyalist who became a boxer in Europe, was one of the hangmen, responsible for securing the rope to a strong tree and preparing the noose. By all accounts, Hale comported himself well before the hanging. Over the years, there has been speculation as to whether he uttered the line: "I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country." The line may be a revision of "I am so satisfied with the cause in which I have engaged that my only regret is that I have not more lives than one to offer in its service."The story of Hale's quote began with John Montresor, a British officer who witnessed the hanging. Soon after the execution, Montresor spoke with the American officer William Hull about Hale's death. Hull publicized Hale's use of the declaration; because Hull was not an eyewitness to Hale's speech, some historians have questioned the reliability of the account. If Hale did not originate the statement, it is possible he instead repeated a passage from Joseph Addison's play Cato, an ideological inspiration to many Whigs: No official records were kept of Hale's speech.
However, Frederick MacKensie, a British officer, wrote this diary entry for the da