National Gallery of Modern Art
The National Gallery of Modern Art is the premier art gallery under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. The main museum at Jaipur House in New Delhi was established on 29 March 1954 by the Government of India, with subsequent branches at Mumbai and Bangalore, its collection of more than 14,100 works includes works by artists such as Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma, Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, Amrita Sher-Gil as well as foreign artists, apart from sculptures by various artists. Some of the oldest works preserved here date back to 1857. With 12,000 square meters of exhibition space, the Delhi branch is one of the world's largest modern art museums. Situated at the end of Rajpath, in the Central Hexagon around the India Gate, the building was a former residential palace of the Maharaja of Jaipur, hence known as Jaipur House; the butterfly-shaped building with a central dome and built in 1936, designed by Sir Arthur Blomfield, after the construction of Lutyens' Delhi.
The Central Hexagon around the India Gate, where the buildings of leading princely states were situated, was itself designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Though the idea of the National Gallery was floated in 1949, it was formally inaugurated by Vice-president Dr S. Radhakrishnan in 1954, in the presence of Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. Hermann Goetz, a noted German art historian became its first curator and in time it added new facilities such as Art restoration services, an Art reference Library and a Documentation Centre. In 2009, a new wing of the National Gallery of Modern Art was inaugurated adding six times the space to the existing gallery, plus it has a new auditorium, a preview theatre, conservation laboratory and academic section as well as a cafeteria and museum shop; the gallery has works by artists including Thomas Daniell, Raja Ravi Verma, Abanindranath Tagore, Rabindranath Tagore, Gaganendranath Tagore, Nandalal Bose, Jamini Roy, Amrita Sher-Gil and various other artists. The NGMA has a collection of modern sculptures by famous sculptors like D. P. Roy Choudhury, Chintamoni Kar and Ramkinkar Baij.
The NGMA has a large collection of photographs by Lala Deen Dayal, one of the pioneers of photography in India. National Gallery of Modern Art, Mumbai National Gallery of Modern Art, Bangalore The Last Harvest: Paintings of Rabindranath Tagore Kolkata Museum of Modern Art National Gallery of Modern Art, official website alternate
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Nepal the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located in the Himalayas but includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language; the name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal.
Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala; the Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal; the Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005; the Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy. The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces.
Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, of which it is a founding member. Nepal is a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative; the military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia. Local legends have it that a Hindu sage named "Ne" established himself in the valley of Kathmandu in prehistoric times, that the word "Nepal" came into existence as the place was protected by the sage "Nemi", it is mentioned in Vedic texts. According to the Skanda Purana, a rishi called. In the Pashupati Purana, he is mentioned as a protector, he is said to have taught there. The name of the country is identical in origin to the name of the Newar people; the terms "Nepāl", "Newār", "Newāl" and "Nepār" are phonetically different forms of the same word, instances of the various forms appear in texts in different times in history.
Nepal is the learned Sanskrit form and Newar is the colloquial Prakrit form. A Sanskrit inscription dated 512 CE found in Tistung, a valley to the west of Kathmandu, contains the phrase "greetings to the Nepals" indicating that the term "Nepal" was used to refer to both the country and the people, it has been suggested that "Nepal" may be a Sanskritization of "Newar", or "Newar" may be a form of "Nepal". According to another explanation, the words "Newar" and "Newari" are vulgarisms arising from the mutation of P to V, L to R. Neolithic tools found in the Kathmandu Valley indicate that people have been living in the Himalayan region for at least eleven thousand years. Nepal is first mentioned in the late Vedic Atharvaveda Pariśiṣṭa as a place exporting blankets, in the post-Vedic Atharvashirsha Upanishad. In Samudragupta's Allahabad Pillar it is mentioned as a border country; the Skanda Purana has a separate chapter, known as "Nepal Mahatmya", with more details. Nepal is mentioned in Hindu texts such as the Narayana Puja.
Legends and ancient texts that mention the region now known as Nepal reach back to the 30th century BC. The Gopal Bansa were one of the earliest inhabitants of Kathmandu valley; the earliest rulers of Nepal were the Kiratas, peoples mentioned in Hindu texts, who ruled Nepal for many centuries. Various sources mention up to 32 Kirati kings. Around 500 BCE, small kingdoms and confederations of clans arose in the southern regions of Nepal. From one of these, the Shakya polity, arose a prince who renounced his status to lead an ascetic life, founded Buddhism, came to be known as Gautama Buddha. By 250 BCE, the southern regions had come under the influence of the Maurya Empire of North India and became a vassal state under the Gupta Empire in the 4th century CE. There is a quite detailed description of the kingdom of Nepal in the account of the renowned Chinese Buddhist pilgrim monk Xuanzang, dating from about 645 CE. Stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley are important sources for the history of Nepal.
The kings of the Lichhavi dynasty have been found to have r
Kala Bhavana is a noted institution of education and research in visual arts, founded in 1919, it is the fine arts faculty of the Visva-Bharati University, established by Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore. Upon its establishment in 1919, Tagore invited noted painter Nandalal Bose, disciple of Abanindranath Tagore, the founder of Bengal school of art movement, to become first principal of the institution. In the coming years stalwarts like Benode Behari Mukherjee and Ramkinkar Baij became associated with college, in time gave a new direction not just to the institution but to the modern Indian painting; the college has an art museum exhibiting sculptures and murals and a library of art books. Present head of the institution is art historian and curator R. Siva Kumar, in the art history faculty since 1981. In 2011, to mark the 150th birth anniversary of Rabindranath Tagore, Rabindra Chitravali was released, the four-volume set covered masters' painting oeuvre consisting of 1,600 paintings, from Rabindra Bhavan and Kala Bhavan collection, along with 200 paintings from other institutions across India.
Bachelors and master's degree in Fine arts Diploma and Advanced Diploma in Painting, Mural, Graphic Art and History of Art. Nandalal Bose, Ram Kinker Baij, A. K. Haldar, Somnath Hore, K. G. Subramanyan, Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, R. Siva Kumar, Jogen Chowdhury and Surendranath Kar. Ramkinkar Baij and painter Ramananda Bandopadhyay studied here 1940-41, under Benode Behari Mukherjee, made a noted documentary on his teacher, The Inner Eye. Jayasri Burman, painter Shayan Chowdhury Arnob, musician R. Siva Kumar, art historian, art critic and curator. A. Ramachandran, painter Beohar Rammanohar Sinha, painter Satyajit Ray, film director Krishna Reddy, master printmaker at Atelier 17 and sculptor, studied here prior to 1949. K. G. Subramanyan, painter Rabindra Chitravali Santiniketan: The Making of a Contextual Modernism Krishna Chaitanya. History of Indian Painting: The Modern Period. Abhinav Publications. P. 170. ISBN 8170173108. Kala Bhavan at Visva-Bharati University Visva Bharti - Kala Bhavana at Saatchi Gallery
Jahar Dasgupta, is a contemporary painter from India. Jahar Dasgupta's childhood spent in Jamshedpur where at the small age he used to draw elephants, trees on the floor, their family moved to Dhanbad due to his father Mr. Narendranath Dasgupta who worked in TISCO in an executive post left the job and joined Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research institute as a scientist. At the age of 9 he draw Stalin face and Ma Sarada Devi on the wall; this took the attention of his parents and they decided to send him in some art school. In 1960 he was admitted to Visva-Bharati University at Santiniketan, the place of Rabindranath Tagore; that was a turning point in his life. In Kala Bhavana, he took his primary lessons under mentors like Nand Lal Bose, Ramkinkar Baiz and Benode Behari Mukherjee. In 1964, he obtained diploma from Kala Bhavana, his first job was an art teacher in a non Bengali school in North Calcutta where he served for many years. In his struggling time, he took many art tuitions to run his family.
He continued to participate art shows regularly. Dasgupta had developed his individual style in drawings, he has painted in oil medium and now he works in ink and acrylic colour. His first solo exhibition organised in Birla Academy, his others solo exhibitions took place in Laxmana Art Gallery, Lalit Kala Academy, Academy of Fine Arts, Calcutta. He exhibited his first solo in abroad in 2004 at Gallery Hansmania and at Club Bangladesh. Dasgupta participated many group exhibitions throughout in India and abroad. Group shows like Aakriti Art Gallery, Birla Academy, Academy of Fine Arts, Jehangir Art Gallery, AIFACS, Kamalnayan Bajaj Art Gallery, India Habitat Centre, Nehru Centre, Lokayata Art Gallery, Chemould Art Gallery, Mulk Raj Anand Centre and many other places, his paintings exhibited in South Korea, London and Canada. He was invited at NABC in 2010 hosted by Kallol a non-profit socio-cultural organization of Bengalis, New Jersey. After that his last solo exhibition was organised by Tagore Society at 60,000 square metres performing arts center located in Marina Bay popularly known Esplanade - Theatres on the Bay Singapore in the year 2011.
In 1969, a few kind souls, total seven ex-students of Santiniketan like Jahar and Baroda Art College students came together to form a group named Painters' Orchestra, now one of the oldest artist groups in India. Since that time Jahar Dasgupta is regular participant in the group shows of this organisation and went for few solos as well, his first solo exhibition was organised in Culture Kolkata, West Bengal. He developed his own style of expression since the beginning of 1970-s after passing through a period of apprenticeship during 1960-s. In this sense he may be categorised as an artist of 1970-s. End of 1960s and beginning of 1970s was a period of political turmoil; the left movement in the fold of CPI rose to its peak ushering in deaths and murders in a devastating measure. The Bangladesh liberation war of 1971 created great commotion. All creative persons other affected by these incidents. All these social upheavals had great impact on his creative self. In early phase his paintings revealed reality in its crudest form.
An acrylic canvas of 1994 titled'Scrap' shows clusters of dilapidated human bodies tied together are being pulled up from a crate by a crane. This is only one example. Memories of death, haunted him frequently. Jahar never tried being repetitive with one fixed subject, he explored with various subjects and style in different forms in respective times. In one side'End of an Era','Genocide','Waiting for Godo','Dark side of Civilization', Series of'Confrontation','Shelter' are the reflection of anger and crude rebellion. On the other side through'Mermaid' series,'Fall of Radhika' series,'Eternal Love' series, he touch the chord of beauty ingrained in life, his paintings at that time swing between the two aspects of this duality and the real and evil, light and darkness. Rotary Club of Madhyamgram recognised by facilitated him with Lifetime Achievement Award in Fine Arts in the year 2000. In this era, Jahar concentrated on nature and woman in his canvases; the drawings have been done in dry pastel both in monochrome of black and white.
The canvases in acrylic open up various aspects of ideal beauty. The widespread nature of rural Bengal reveals its colourful faces; the nature is transformed into supernatural. These paintings narrates full of life, spirit and fantasy. Sandip Ray, young film director from Bengal who filmed Himghar in 1996, met Dasgupta and showed interest for a documentary on artist. In 2001, he completed the documentary named'Bornomoy Jahar' and screened at Nandan. While attending a talk entitled'Nadir Bhabna' by Shri Alokeranjan Dasgupta, the artist Shri Jahar Dasgupta encountered a mind blowing experience. Acknowledged gratefully by the painter, the inter-face opened for him the doors to the world of Bergson and his revolutionary thinking; this was his first acquaintance with the philosophy of the French thinker and evolutionist Henri Bergson. The uplifting spiritual content of Bergson enkindled the thought process of the artist. All the present series and solos is a living tale of the journey. In fact he is the first artist to apply the theory of Bergson into fine art.
This is a rare and unconventional thinking by Jahar where he blends the science and art beautifully into his canvas. Shri Dasgupta's creative impulse is enthused by this Aristollean'entelechy' – the endowment that gives rise to the potential of the vital force; this by itself becomes
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website