The New-York Mirror was a weekly newspaper published in New York City from 1823 to 1842, succeeded by The New Mirror in 1843 and 1844. Its producers launched a daily newspaper named The Evening Mirror, which published from 1844 to 1898; the Mirror was founded by George Pope Morris and Samuel Woodworth in August 1823. The journal was a weekly publication, it included coverage of arts and literature in addition to local news. Circulation flagged in the 1840s and at the end of 1842 the paper was closed. In 1843 Morris partnered with popular writer Nathaniel Parker Willis to revamp the business, together they relaunched the newspaper as The New Mirror, which published weekly for eighteen months, they established The Evening Mirror in 1844. In all three incarnations, the paper employed many well known literary figures of the day. Edgar Allan Poe worked for the newspaper as a critic until February 1845. In the January 29, 1845 issue, the Mirror was the first to publish Poe's poem "The Raven" with the author's name.
In his introduction to the poem, Willis called it "unsurpassed in English poetry for subtle conception, masterly ingenuity of versification, consistent, sustaining of imaginative lift... It will stick to the memory of everybody who reads it." Willis and Morris left the publication in 1846. After Willis, the newspaper was edited by a noted enemy of Poe. Fuller published attacks on Poe made by Charles Frederick Briggs and Thomas Dunn English in May and June 1846. A letter printed by the Mirror in the July 23, 1846 issue caused Poe to sue the newspaper for libel and defamation of character. Poe was awarded $225.06 as well as an additional $101.42 in court costs. The New-York Mirror at Edgar Allan Poe Society of Baltimore The New-York Mirror at HathiTrust:Volume 1: August 2, 1823 – July 24, 1824 Volume 2: July 31, 1824 – July 23, 1825 Volume 3: July 30, 1825 – July 22, 1826 Volume 4: July 29, 1826 – July 7, 1827 Volume 5: July 14, 1827 – July 5, 1828 Volume 6: July 12, 1828 – July 4, 1829 Volume 7: July 11, 1829 – July 3, 1830 Volume 8: July 10, 1830 – July 2, 1831 Volume 9: July 9, 1831 – June 30, 1832 Volume 10: July 7, 1832 – June 29, 1833 Volume 11: July 6, 1833 – June 28, 1834 Volume 12: July 5, 1834 – June 27, 1835 Volume 13: July 4, 1835 – June 25, 1836 Volume 14: July 2, 1836 – June 24, 1837 Volume 15: July 1, 1837 – June 23, 1838 Volume 16: June 30, 1838 – June 22, 1839 Volume 17: June 29, 1839 – June 20, 1840 Volume 18 numbers 1–26: June 27, 1840 – December 19, 1840 Volume 19: January 2, 1841 – December 25, 1841The New-York Mirror at Google Books:Volume 20 numbers 1–26: January 1, 1842 – June 25, 1842The New Mirror at HathiTrust:Volume 1: April 8, 1843 – September 30, 1843 Volume 2: October 7, 1843 – March 30, 1844 Volume 3: April 6, 1844 – September 28, 1844
Quakers called Friends, are a Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends, Society of Friends or Friends Church. Members of the various Quaker movements are all united in a belief in the ability of each human being to experientially access "the light within", or "that of God in every one"; some may profess the priesthood of all believers, a doctrine derived from the First Epistle of Peter. They include those with evangelical, holiness and traditional Quaker understandings of Christianity. There are Nontheist Quakers whose spiritual practice is not reliant on the existence of gods. To differing extents, the different movements that make up the Religious Society of Friends/Friends Church avoid creeds and hierarchical structures. In 2007, there were about 359,000 adult Quakers worldwide. In 2017, there were 377,557 adult Quakers, with 49% in Africa. Around 89% of Quakers worldwide belong to the "evangelical" and "programmed" branches of Quakerism—these Quakers worship in services with singing and a prepared message from the Bible, coordinated by a pastor.
Around 11% of Friends practice waiting worship, or unprogrammed worship, where the order of service is not planned in advance, is predominantly silent, may include unprepared vocal ministry from those present. Some meetings of both types have Recorded Ministers in their meetings—Friends recognised for their gift of vocal ministry; the first Quakers lived in mid-17th-century England. The movement arose from the Legatine-Arians and other dissenting Protestant groups, breaking away from the established Church of England; the Quakers the ones known as the Valiant Sixty, attempted to convert others to their understanding of Christianity, travelling both throughout Great Britain and overseas, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. Some of these early Quaker ministers were women, they based their message on the religious belief that "Christ has come to teach his people himself", stressing the importance of a direct relationship with God through Jesus Christ, a direct religious belief in the universal priesthood of all believers.
They emphasized a personal and direct religious experience of Christ, acquired through both direct religious experience and the reading and studying of the Bible. Quakers focused their private life on developing behaviour and speech reflecting emotional purity and the light of God. In the past, Quakers were known for their use of thee as an ordinary pronoun, refusal to participate in war, plain dress, refusal to swear oaths, opposition to slavery, teetotalism; some Quakers founded banks and financial institutions, including Barclays and Friends Provident. In 1947, the Quakers, represented by the British Friends Service Council and the American Friends Service Committee, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. During and after the English Civil War many dissenting Christian groups emerged, including the Seekers and others. A young man, George Fox, was dissatisfied with the teachings of the Church of England and non-conformists, he had a revelation that "there is one Christ Jesus, who can speak to thy condition", became convinced that it was possible to have a direct experience of Christ without the aid of an ordained clergy.
In 1652 he had a vision on Pendle Hill in Lancashire, England, in which he believed that "the Lord let me see in what places he had a great people to be gathered". Following this he travelled around England, the Netherlands, Barbados preaching and teaching with the aim of converting new adherents to his faith; the central theme of his Gospel message was. His followers considered themselves to be the restoration of the true Christian church, after centuries of apostasy in the churches in England. In 1650, Fox was brought before the magistrates Gervase Bennet and Nathaniel Barton, on a charge of religious blasphemy. According to Fox's autobiography, Bennet "was the first that called us Quakers, because I bade them tremble at the word of the Lord", it is thought that Fox was referring to Isaiah 66:2 or Ezra 9:4. Thus, the name Quaker began as a way of ridiculing Fox's admonition, but became accepted and is used by some Quakers. Quakers described themselves using terms such as true Christianity, Children of the Light, Friends of the Truth, reflecting terms used in the New Testament by members of the early Christian church.
Quakerism gained a considerable following in England and Wales, the numbers increased to a peak of 60,000 in England and Wales by 1680. But the dominant discourse of Protestantism viewed the Quakers as a blasphemous challenge to social and political order, leading to official persecution in England and Wales under the Quaker Act 1662 and the Conventicle Act 1664; this was relaxed after the Declaration of Indulgence and stopped under the Act of Toleration 1689. One modern view of Quakerism at this time was that the relationship with Christ was encouraged through spiritualisation of human relations, "the redefinition of the Quakers as a holy tribe,'the family and household of God'". Together with Margaret Fell, the wife of Thomas Fell, the vice-chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster and an eminent judge, Fox developed new conceptions of family and community that emphasised "holy conversation": speech and behaviour that reflected piety and love. With the restructuring of the family and household came new roles for wom
Dover, New York
Dover is a town in Dutchess County, New York, United States. The population was 8,699 at the 2010 census; the town was named after Dover in the home town of an early settler. The town of Dover is located on the eastern boundary of the county, north of Pawling, south of Amenia, west of the state of Connecticut. In 1637, the Pequot people had been driven from their former homes in Connecticut and settled in what is now Dover, they were led by Gideon Mauwee for part of their time in this location. The town was formed in 1807 from part of the town of Pawling; the first town meeting took place in the home of an early settler. That home, built circa 1730, is now an restaurant known as Old Drovers Inn; the Harlem Valley Psychiatric Center was a major source of employment for Dover and the surrounding areas. When the center was closed in 1994, many businesses in the area were hit hard. Many of the brick and marble buildings on the grounds still stand; the property and buildings were purchased in 2003 by the Benjamin Development Corporation, the eastern portion was sold to Olivet Management in 2013.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 56.3 square miles, of which 55.2 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles, or 2.04%, is water. The town is drained by the Ten Mile River, which flows from the north through the center of town turns east into Connecticut and joins the Housatonic River; the east town line is the border of Connecticut. The Appalachian Trail passes through the town; the legislature and executive powers of the government of Dover are invested in the Town Board, consisting of the Town Supervisor Ryan Courtien, elected to a two-year term, four council members Christopher Galayda, Rich Yeno, Linda French and Paul Palmer, each elected to four-year terms. The Town Board is accountable for the health and welfare of all citizens; the body is responsible for adopting and amending the Town Comprehensive or Master Plan, can adopt zoning and land use regulations or issue other permits in addition to performing various administrative functions. The Master Plan directs the general action of the Government and serves a similar function as the US Constitution.
The Plan contains nine chapters. Ch. 1: Community Values. The town government includes a series of volunteer boards; the Architectural and Community Appearance Review Board reviews all proposals for all construction in excess of 1,000 square feet of gross floor area and all signs to be erected on reviewed structures. Single-family residence proposals, two-family residence proposals and residence accessory structure proposals are not reviewed, except in special circumstances; the Conservation Advisory Council advises the Town Board on matters affecting the preservation and use of the natural resources and environment of the Town of Dover. The Superintendent appoints the CAC Chair Evan van Hook; the Planning Board considers subdivision proposals and special use permits. The Planning Board reports on the adoption of official maps and amendments to zoning ordinance; the Zoning Board of Appeals interprets zoning laws and considers variance requests, which are requests for relief from zoning law. Departments of the town government include the following.
The Office of the Supervisor is run by Supervisor Ryan Courtien and includes the offices of the Supervisor, Human Resources/Civil Service Management and Finance. The Office of the Town Clerk is headed by independent elected official Katie Palmer House; the Town Clerk is responsible for the collection and release of vital records of both the citizens and the government. The keeping of records of local laws and statistics and issuing of licenses and permits is handled by this department; the Assessor Department deal with tax-exemption and assessment related grievances. The Building Department deals with building permits and code enforcement; this department can utilize inspections for enforcement. The Highway Department is led by the Highway Superintendent, an independent elected official; this department deals with road construction and road closures. Recreation is headed by the Recreation Director who coordinates the public recreational services provided by or through the town such as Town Basketball, the public pool and the town day camp for children entering grades Pre-K to Sixth, run at the public pool facility.
The Tax Collector or "Receiver of Taxes" is responsible for collection of town and county property taxes and is an independent elected official. The Justice Court is the local court for the town of Dover which handles local issues such as traffic violations. Both town justices are elected officials. Dover has a fire protection district and contracts with the J. H. Ketcham Hose Company for fire and ambulance service; the fire company operates two stations: Station One is on Rt 22 in Dover Plains and Station Two is on Rt 55 in Wingdale. The department is capable of handling fires, extrications, medical emergencies, hazardous material incidents and natural disasters. JHK operates a varied fire apparatus fleet based out of two stations, consisting of two engines one rescue pumper, one aerial, two utility / brush trucks and one BLS Ambulance that responds to emergencies for second calls in the district from 5pm to 5am. BLS EMS calls are handled by NDP EMS| Town of Dover Ambulance who are contracted by the tow
Wood engraving is a printmaking and letterpress printing technique, in which an artist works an image or matrix of images into a block of wood. Functionally a variety of woodcut, it uses relief printing, where the artist applies ink to the face of the block and prints using low pressure. By contrast, ordinary engraving, like etching, uses a metal plate for the matrix, is printed by the intaglio method, where the ink fills the valleys, the removed areas; as a result, wood engravings deteriorate less than copper-plate engravings, have a distinctive white-on-black character. Thomas Bewick developed the wood engraving technique at the end of the 18th century, his work differed from earlier woodcuts in two key ways. First, rather than using woodcarving tools such as knives, Bewick used an engraver's burin. With this, he could create thin delicate lines creating large dark areas in the composition. Second, wood engraving traditionally uses the wood's end grain—while the older technique used the softer side grain.
The resulting increased. Wood-engraved blocks could be used on conventional printing presses, which were going through rapid mechanical improvements during the first quarter of the 19th century; the blocks were made the same height as, composited alongside, movable type in page layouts—so printers could produce thousands of copies of illustrated pages with no deterioration. The combination of this new wood engraving method and mechanized printing drove a rapid expansion of illustrations in the 19th century. Further, advances in stereotype let wood-engravings be reproduced onto metal, where they could be mass-produced for sale to printers. By the mid-19th century, many wood engravings rivaled copperplate engravings. Wood engraving was used to great effect by 19th-century artists such as Edward Calvert, its heyday lasted until the early and mid-20th century when remarkable achievements were made by Eric Gill, Eric Ravilious and others. Though less used now, the technique is still prized in the early 21st century as a high-quality specialist technique of book illustration, is promoted, for example, by the Society of Wood Engravers, who hold an annual exhibition in London and other British venues.
In 15th- and 16th-century Europe, woodcuts were a common technique in printmaking and printing, yet their use as an artistic medium began to decline in the 17th century. They were still made for basic printing press work such as almanacs; these required simple blocks that printed in relief with the text—rather than the elaborate intaglio forms in book illustrations and artistic printmaking at the time, in which type and illustrations were printed with separate plates and techniques. The beginnings of modern wood engraving techniques developed at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, with the works of Englishman Thomas Bewick. Bewick engraved harder woods, such as boxwood, rather than the woods used in woodcuts, he engraved the ends of blocks instead of the side. Finding a woodcutting knife not suitable for working against the grain in harder woods, Bewick used a burin, an engraving tool with a V-shaped cutting tip. From the beginning of the nineteenth century Bewick's techniques came into wider use in Britain and the United States.
Alexander Anderson introduced the technique to the United States. Bewick's work impressed him, so he reverse engineered and imitated Bewick's technique—using metal until he learned that Bewick used wood. There it was further expanded upon by his students, Joseph Alexander Adams, Besides interpreting details of light and shade, from the 1820s onwards, engravers used the method to reproduce freehand line drawings; this was, in many ways an unnatural application, since engravers had to cut away all the surface of the block to produce the printable lines of the artist's drawing. Nonetheless, it became the most common use of wood engraving. Examples include the cartoons of Punch magazine, the pictures in the Illustrated London News and Sir John Tenniel's illustrations to Lewis Carroll's works, the latter engraved by the firm of Dalziel Brothers. In the United States, wood-engraved publications began to take hold, such as Harper's Weekly. Frank Leslie, a British-born engraver who had headed the engraving department of the Illustrated London News, immigrated to the United States in 1848, where he developed a means to divide the labor for making wood engravings.
A single design was divided into a grid, each engraver worked on a square. The blocks were assembled into a single image; this process formed the basis for his Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, which competed with Harper's in illustrating scenes from the American Civil War. By the mid-19th century, electrotyping was developed, which could reproduce a wood engraving on metal. By this method, a single wood-engraving could be mass-produced for sale to printshops, the original retained without wear; until 1860, artists working for engraving had to paint or draw directly on the surface of the block and the original artwork was destroyed by the engraver. In 1860, the engraver Thomas Bolton invented a process for transferring a photograph onto the block. At about the same time, French engravers developed a modified technique in which cross-hatching was entirely eliminated. Instead, all tonal gradations were rendered by white lines of varying thickness and closeness, sometimes broken into dots for the darkest areas.
This technique appears in engravings from Gustave Doré's drawings. Towards the end of the 19th century, a combination of Bolton's'photo on wood' process and the increased t
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
American Antiquarian Society
The American Antiquarian Society, located in Worcester, Massachusetts, is both a learned society and national research library of pre-twentieth century American history and culture. Founded in 1812, it is the oldest historical society in the United States with a national focus, its main building, known as Antiquarian Hall, is a U. S. National Historic Landmark in recognition of this legacy; the mission of the AAS is to collect and make available for study all printed records of what is now known as the United States of America. This includes materials from the first European settlement through the year 1876; the AAS offers programs for professional scholars, pre-collegiate and graduate students, professional artists, writers and the general public. AAS has many digital collections available, including "A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns 1788–1824."The collections of the AAS contain over three million books, newspapers, graphic arts materials and manuscripts. The Society is estimated to hold copies of two-thirds of the total books known to have been printed in what is now the United States from the establishment of the first press in 1640 through the year 1820.
Historic materials from all fifty U. S. states, most of Canada and the British West Indies are included in the AAS repository. One of the more famous volumes held by the Society is a copy of the first book printed in America, the Bay Psalm Book. AAS has one of the largest collections of newspapers printed in America through 1876, with more than two million issues in its collection. On the initiative of Isaiah Thomas, the AAS was founded on October 24, 1812, through an act of the Massachusetts General Court, it was the third historical society established in America, the first to be national in its scope. Isaiah Thomas started the collection with 8,000 books from his personal library; the first library building was erected in 1820 in downtown Massachusetts. In 1853, the Society moved its collections to a larger building at the corner of Highland Street in Worcester; this building was abandoned and another new building was constructed. Designed by Winslow, Bigelow & Wadsworth, the Georgian Revival building was completed in 1910 and stands on the corner of Park Avenue and Salisbury Street.
There have been several additions to this building to accommodate the growing collection, the most recent of, completed in 2003. AAS was presented with the 2013 National Humanities Medal by President Obama in a ceremony at the White House; as part of AAS's mission as a learned society, it offers a variety of public seminars. One topic to which AAS dedicates significant academic energies is printing technology in eighteenth-century British North America. Since Isaiah Thomas was a newspaper man himself, he collected a large number of printed materials. With regard to printing, paper making, edition setting, reprinting, not much had changed in European technology by the eighteenth century, it was not until the late eighteenth century that paper-making material began to evolve from a hand-woven cloth to an industrial pulp. AAS undertakes special efforts to preserve printed records from this time period, as the Society maintains an on-site conservation department with various sewing and binding materials to aid in the preservation process.
The American Antiquarian Society's membership includes scholars, journalists, filmmakers and civic leaders. Notable members include the following individuals: Books in the United States History of books List of antiquarian societies Massachusetts Historical Society John Ratcliff List of National Historic Landmarks in Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in northwestern Worcester, Massachusetts Goslow, Brian. "Worcester's best kept secret: The American Antiquarian Society belongs to everyone". Worcester Magazine. Archived from the original on October 17, 2014. Retrieved October 10, 2014. Gura, Philip F; the American Antiquarian Society, 1812–2012: A Bicentennial History 454 pp. Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, Mass.: the Society, 1843– American Antiquarian Society Homepage Common-Place free online scholarly history journal focused on early US Republic
Harper's Magazine is a monthly magazine of literature, culture and the arts. Launched in June 1850, it is the second-oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the U. S.. Harper's Magazine has won 22 National Magazine Awards. Harper's Magazine began as Harper's New Monthly Magazine in June 1850, by the New York City publisher Harper & Brothers; the company founded the magazines Harper's Weekly and Harper's Bazaar, grew to become HarperCollins Publishing. The first press run of Harper's Magazine—7,500 copies—sold out immediately. Circulation was some 50,000 issues six months later; the early issues reprinted material pirated from English authors such as Charles Dickens, William Makepeace Thackeray, the Brontë sisters. The magazine soon was publishing the work of American artists and writers, in time commentary by the likes of Winston Churchill and Woodrow Wilson. Portions of Herman Melville's novel Moby Dick were first published in the October 1851 issue of Harper's under the title, "The Town-Ho's Story".
In 1962, Harper & Brothers merged with Peterson & Company, becoming Harper & Row. In 1965, the magazine was separately incorporated, became a division of the Minneapolis Star and Tribune Company, owned by the Cowles Media Company. In the 1970s, Harper's Magazine published Seymour Hersh's reporting of the My Lai Massacre by United States forces in Vietnam. In 1971 editor Willie Morris resigned under pressure from owner John Cowles, Jr. prompting resignations from many of the magazine's star contributors and staffers, including Norman Mailer, David Halberstam, Robert Kotlowitz, Marshall Frady and Larry L. King: Morris's departure jolted the literary world. Mailer, William Styron, Gay Talese, Bill Moyers, Tom Wicker declared that they would boycott Harper's as long as the Cowles family owned it, the four staff writers hired by Morris—Frady among them—resigned in solidarity with him. Robert Shnayerson, a senior editor at Time magazine, was hired to replace Morris as Harper's ninth editor, serving in that position from 1971 until 1976.
Lewis H. Lapham served as managing editor from 1976 until 1981. On June 17, 1980, the Star Tribune announced it would cease publishing Harper's Magazine after the August 1980 issue. But, on July 9, 1980, John R. MacArthur and his father, obtained pledges from the directorial boards of the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Atlantic Richfield Company, CEO Robert Orville Anderson to amass the $1.5 million needed to establish the Harper's Magazine Foundation. It now publishes the magazine. In 1984, Lapham and MacArthur—now publisher and president of the foundation—along with new executive editor Michael Pollan, redesigned Harper's and introduced the "Harper's Index", "Readings", the "Annotation" departments to complement its fiction, essays and reviews; as of the March 2011 issue, contributing editor Zadie Smith, a noted British author, writes the print edition's New Books column. Under the Lapham-MacArthur leadership, Harper's Magazine continued publishing literary fiction by John Updike, George Saunders, others.
Politically, Harper's was an vocal critic of U. S. domestic and foreign policies. Editor Lapham's monthly "Notebook" columns have lambasted the Clinton and the George W. Bush administrations. Since 2003, the magazine has concentrated on reportage about U. S. war in Iraq, with long articles about the battle for Fallujah, the cronyism of the American reconstruction of Iraq. Other reporting has covered abortion issues and global warming. In 2007, Harper's added the No Comment blog, by attorney Scott Horton, about legal controversies, Central Asian politics, German studies. In April 2006, Harper's began publishing the Washington Babylon blog on its website, written by Washington Editor Ken Silverstein about American politics. Since that time these two blogs have ceased publication. Another website feature, composed by a rotating set of authors, is the Weekly Review, single-sentence summaries of political and bizarre news. Editor Lewis H. Lapham was criticized for his reportage of the 2004 Republican National Convention, which had yet to occur, in his essay "Tentacles of Rage: The Republican Propaganda Mill, a Brief History," published in the September 2004 issue which implied that he had attended the convention.
He apologized in a note. Lapham left two years after 28 years as Harper's editor in chief, launched Lapham's Quarterly; the August 2004 issue contained a photo essay by noted photojournalist Peter Turnley, hired to do a series of photo essays for the magazine. The eight-page spread in August 2004 showed images of death and funerals from both sides of the U. S. war in Afghanistan. On the U. S. side, Turnley visited the funeral of an Oklahoma National Guard member, Spc. Kyle Brinlee, 21, killed when his vehicle ran over an improvised explosive device in Afghanistan. During his funeral, Turnley shot the open casket as it lay in the back of the high school auditorium where the funeral was held to accommodate 1,200 mourners, this photo was used in the photo essay. Subsequently, the family sued the magazine in federal court; the case ended in 2007 when the U. S. Supreme Court, although saying the unauthorized publication wa