Bentley Motors Limited is a British manufacturer and marketer of luxury cars and SUVs—and a subsidiary of the Volkswagen Group since 1998. Headquartered in Crewe, the company was founded as Bentley Motors Limited by W. O. Bentley in 1919 in Cricklewood, North London—and became known for winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, 1927, 1928, 1929 and 1930. Prominent models extend from the historic sports-racing Bentley 4 1/2 Bentley Speed Six. Today most Bentley models are assembled at the company's Crewe factory, with a small number assembled at Volkswagen's Dresden factory and with bodies for the Continental manufactured in Zwickau and for the Bentayga manufactured at the Volkswagen Bratislava Plant; the joining and eventual separation of Bentley and Rolls-Royce followed a series of mergers and acquisitions, beginning with the 1931 purchase by Rolls-Royce of Bentley in receivership. In 1971, Rolls-Royce itself was forced into receivership and the UK government nationalised the company—splitting into two companies the aerospace division and automotive divisions—the latter retaining the Bentley subdivision.
Rolls-Royce Motors was subsequently sold to engineering conglomerate, Vickers and in 1998, Vickers sold Rolls-Royce to Volkswagen AG. Intellectual property rights to both the name Rolls-Royce as well as the company's logo had been retained not by Rolls-Royce Motors, but by aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc, which had continued to license both to the automotive division, thus the sale of "Rolls-Royce" to VW included the Bentley name and logos, vehicle designs, model nameplates and administrative facilities, the Spirit of Ecstasy and Rolls-Royce grille shape trademarks —but not the rights to the Rolls-Royce name or logo. The aerospace company, Rolls-Royce Plc sold both to BMW AG. Before World War I, Walter Owen Bentley and his brother, Horace Millner Bentley, sold French DFP cars in Cricklewood, North London, but W. O, as Walter was known, always wanted to build his own cars. At the DFP factory, in 1913, he noticed an aluminium paperweight and thought that aluminium might be a suitable replacement for cast iron to fabricate lighter pistons.
The first Bentley aluminium pistons were fitted to Sopwith Camel aero engines during World War I. In August 1919, W. O. registered Bentley Motors Ltd. and in October he exhibited a car chassis, with dummy engine, at the London Motor Show. Ex–Royal Flying Corps officer Clive Gallop designed an innovative four valves per cylinder engine for the chassis. By December the engine was running. Delivery of the first cars was scheduled for June 1920, but development took longer than estimated so the date was extended to September 1921; the durability of the first Bentley cars earned widespread acclaim and they competed in hill climbs and raced at Brooklands. Bentley's first major event was the 1922 Indianapolis 500, a race dominated by specialized cars with Duesenberg racing chassis, they entered a modified road car driven by works driver, Douglas Hawkes, accompanied by riding mechanic, H. S. "Bertie" Browning. Hawkes completed the full 500 miles and finished 13th with an average speed of 74.95 miles per hour after starting in 19th position.
The team was rushed back to England to compete in the 1922 RAC Tourist Trophy. In an ironic reference to his heavyweight boxer's stature, Captain Woolf Barnato was nicknamed "Babe". In 1925, he acquired a 3-litre. With this car he won numerous Brooklands races. Just a year he acquired the Bentley business itself; the Bentley enterprise was always underfunded, but inspired by the 1924 Le Mans win by John Duff and Frank Clement, Barnato agreed to finance Bentley's business. Barnato had incorporated Baromans Ltd in 1922, which existed as his investment vehicle. Via Baromans, Barnato invested in excess of £100,000, saving the business and its workforce. A financial reorganisation of the original Bentley company was carried out and all existing creditors paid off for £75,000. Existing shares were devalued from £ 1 each to 5 % or their original value. Barnato held 149,500 of the new shares giving him control of the company and he became chairman. Barnato injected further cash into the business: £35,000 secured by debenture in July 1927.
With renewed financial input, W. O. Bentley was able to design another generation of cars; the Bentley Boys were a group of British motoring enthusiasts that included Barnato, Sir Henry "Tim" Birkin, steeple chaser George Duller, aviator Glen Kidston, automotive journalist S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis, Dudley Benjafield. The Bentley Boys favoured Bentley cars. Many were independently wealthy and many had a military background, they kept the marque's reputation for high performance alive. In 1929, Birkin developed the 4½-litre, lightweight Blower Bentley at Welwyn Garden City and produced five racing specials, starting with Bentley Blower No.1, optimised for the Brooklands racing circuit. Birkin overruled Bentley and put the model on the market before it was developed; as a result, it was unreliable. In March 1930, during the Blue Train Races, Barnato raised the stakes on Rover and its Rover Light Six, having raced and beaten Le Train Bleu for the first time, to better that record with his 6½-litre Bentley Speed Six on a bet of £100.
He drove again
A mortise lock is a lock that requires a pocket—the mortise—to be cut into the edge of the door or piece of furniture into which the lock is to be fitted. In most parts of the world, mortise locks are found on older buildings constructed before the advent of bored cylindrical locks, but they have become more common in commercial and upmarket residential construction in the United States, they are used in domestic properties of all ages in Europe. Mortise locks have been used as part of door hardware systems in America since the second quarter of the eighteenth century. In these early forms, the mortise lock mechanism was combined with a pull to open the unlocked door. Pulls were replaced by knobs; until the mid-nineteenth century, mortise locks were only used in the most formal rooms in the most expensive houses. Other rooms used box locks, or rim locks, in which, unlike in mortise locks, the latch itself is in a self-contained unit, applied to the outside of the door. Rim locks have been used in the United States since the early eighteenth century.
A rim lock has the lock body and bolt mechanism on the outside of the door, unlike a mortise lock, where the bolt is inside the door. An early example of the use of mortise locks in conjunction with rim locks in one house comes from Thomas Jefferson's Monticello. In 1805, Jefferson wrote to his joiner listing the locks. While closets received rim locks, Jefferson ordered twenty-six mortise locks for use in the principal rooms. Depictions of available mortise lock hardware, including not only lock mechanisms themselves but escutcheon plates and door pulls, were available in the early nineteenth century in trade catalogues. However, the locks were still difficult to obtain at this time. Jefferson ordered his locks from Paris. Mortise locks were used in primary rooms in 1819 at Decatur House in Washington, D. C. while rim locks were used in other secondary spaces. The mortise locks used at Monticello were warded locks; the name warded locks refers to the lock mechanism, while the name mortise lock refers to the bolt location.
Warded locks contain a series of wards, within the lock box. Warded locks were used in Europe throughout the medieval period and up until early 19th century. Three British locksmiths, Robert Barron, Joseph Bramah, Jeremiah Chubb, all played a role in creating modern lever tumbler locks. Chubb's lock was patented in 1818. Again, the name refers to the lock mechanism, so a lock can be both a mortise lock and a lever tumbler lock. In the modern lever tumbler lock, the key moves a series of levers that allow the bolt to move in the door; the next major innovation to mortise lock mechanisms came in 1865. Linus Yale, Jr.'s pin tumbler mortise cylinder lock put not only the latch or bolt itself inside the door, but the tumblers and the bolt mechanism. Up to this point, the lock mechanism was always on the outside of the door regardless of the bolt location; this innovation allowed keys to be shorter as they no longer had to reach all the way through a door. Pin tumbler locks are still the most common kind of mortise lock used today.
Mortise locks may include a non-locking sprung latch operated by a door handle. Such a lock is termed a sash lock. A simpler form without a handle or latch is termed a'dead lock'. Dead locks are used as a secure backup to a sprung non-deadlocking latch a pin tumbler rim lock. Mortise locks have and still do, use lever locks as a mechanism. Older mortise locks may have used warded lock mechanisms; this has led to a popular confusion, as the term'mortise lock' is used in reference to lever keys. In recent years the Euro cylinder lock has become common, using a pin tumbler lock in a mortise housing; the parts included in the typical US mortise lock installation are the lock body. However, in the United Kingdom, most other countries, mortise locks on dwellings do not use cylinders, but have lever mechanisms; the installation of a mortise lock can be undertaken by the average homeowner with a working knowledge of basic woodworking tools and methods. Many installation specialists use a mortising jig which makes precise cutting of the pocket a simple operation, but the subsequent installation of the external trim can still prove problematic if the installer is inexperienced.
Although the installation of a mortise lock weakens the structure of the typical timber door, it is stronger and more versatile than a bored cylindrical lock, both in external trim, functionality. Whereas the latter mechanism lacks the architecture required for ornate and solid-cast knobs and levers, the mortise lock can accommodate a heavier return spring and a more solid internal mechanism, making its use possible. Furthermore, a mortise lock accepts a wide range of other manufacturers' cylinders and accessories, allowing architectural conformity with lock hardware on site; some of the most common manufacturers of mortise locks in the United States are Nostalgic Warehouse, Arrow, Best, Corbin Russwin, Emtek Products, Falcon, Schlage and Yale. Many European manufacturers whose products had been restricted to "designer" installations have gained wider acceptance an
Eduard-Maria Joseph Ritter von Schleich, born Schleich, was a high scoring Bavarian flying ace of the First World War. He was credited with 35 aerial victories at the end of the war. During the Second World War he served in the Luftwaffe as a general. Born in Munich, the son of an artist, Schleich's family soon moved to the spa city of Bad Tölz. After he left school Schleich decided to enroll in the Bavarian Army's cadet program and in 1909 was commissioned into the 11th Bavarian Infantry Regiment. Before the outbreak of the First World War, Schleich was plagued by medical problems and was released from active duty, he volunteered again and on 25 August 1914 was badly wounded in the Battle of Lorraine. While Schleich was recovering from his wounds of August 1914 he decided to volunteer for the Royal Bavarian Air Service and was accepted for training as an observer. After service with FEA 1 on two-seaters, he qualified. In December 1915 he joined FA 2b, in January 1916, during an observation flight, Schleich was wounded in the arm by an exploding anti-aircraft shell.
Instead of returning to base, while still in the air he had his crewman bandage his wound and completed his assignment. On 1 September, he assumed command of Fliegerschule 1, he commanded the unit from June onwards. He emblazoned his new Albatros D. V with a rampant lion insignia representing Bavaria; when Leutnant Erich Limpert, his best friend on the Jasta, was killed in a dogfight, Schleich ordered his plane to be painted all black. This black plane soon led to Schleich being dubbed'The Black Knight'. In October 1917, the Imperial German Air Service reorganized, with the respective fighter squadrons being designated as Prussian, Saxon, or Bavarian; the squadrons were stocked only with subjects from their respective provinces. Jagdstaffel 21 thus became a Saxon squadron, Schleich being Bavarian, was transferred to command a Bavarian squadron, Jagdstaffel 32, with his tally of victories at 25, he was awarded the Pour le Mérite on 4 December 1917, after a spell commanding Militaerfliegerschule 1, on 15 March 1918 he took command of Jagdgruppe Nr.
8, an ad hoc group consisting of Jastas 23, 34 and 35. By the war's end his score was 35. Having scored 29 of his 35 victories in the Albatros D. V, he's the most successful pilot in the type. Schleich was hospitalised in Bad Reichenhall, regaining his strength after years of combat. In 1919, he was posted as an Inspector with the Bavarian Air Service, an aviation unit of the Bavarian State Police. In April 1919, the German Communist Party forcibly gained control of Munich, Schleich was marked for immediate arrest and trial. Government troops were able to oust the Communists the following month, returning Bavaria once again to the Weimar Republic. After a short stint as a pilot with the Bavarian Police, Schleich became a liaison officer with the Army Peace Commission, responsible for the implementation of the Armistice terms. Demobilised in December 1921, Schleich worked as a peat farmer, as an airline pilot. In 1922, he helped start the Bavarian Flying Club. In mid-October 1929, Schleich quit his pilot's position with Lufthansa.
At about the same time, he founded the Light Airplane Club in Munich. He joined the Nazi Party on 1 April 1931, at the same time became a member of the SS-Fliegerstaffel, a paramilitary flying organization, he was given control of the Hitler Youth flying programmes, promoted to General. With the creation of the Luftwaffe in 1935, Schleich returned to military service with the rank of a Major, overseeing the training of air reserve units and of dive-bombing pilots, he was assigned to command the new Jagdgeschwader 234 in 1937. Schleich was promoted to Oberst and assigned to Jagdgeschwader 132 ‘Schlageter’, tasked with defending the western frontier of Germany. Re-designated in 1939 as Jagdgeschwader 26, the wing saw only limited service during the initial phases of the Second World War; as a Generalmajor, Schleich became the commander of the fighter pilot school at Vienna-Schwechat, Austria, in December 1939. In late 1940 he was sent to Romania as part of the Luftwaffe Mission, assisting in the organization and training of the Romanian Air Force.
In mid-1941 Schleich became Commander of the Occupation Forces in Denmark, spending nearly two and one-half years there. On 29 August 1943, the Germans launched Operation Safari, von Schleich commanded an attack on Sorgenfri Palace, resulting in a firefight and the death of seven Germans. Schleich’s final assignment was Luftwaffe Ground Forces Commander in Norway, a post he held until late 1944; the regional command was disbanded in September. Placed onto the reserve list in mid-November, Schleich retired as a Generalleutnant. Eduard Ritter von Schleich died on 15 November 1947, aged 59 years, from a heart condition. Schleich was buried in Diessen am Ammersee, near Munich. Prussian Iron Cross of 1914 2nd Class: 25 October 1914 1st Class: 1 April 1916 Bavarian Military Merit Order 4th Class with Swords: 28 March 1916 Prussian Order Pour le Mérite: 5 December 1917 Bavarian Military Merit Order with Crown and Swords: 9 December 1917 Bavarian Knight's Cross of the Military Order of Max Joseph: 7 July 1918 Saxony's Order of Albert 2nd Class with Swords: 29 July 1918 Whiteside, Darren J..
Rampant Lion: The Life of Eduard Ritter von Schleich, Germany's'Black Knight' of WWI. Warren, Michigan: A & S Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9791946-1-0. LCCN 2007903331. Eduard Ritter von Schleich page at the aerodrome.com Ritter von Schleich