A concept car is a car made to showcase new styling and/or new technology. They are shown at motor shows to gauge customer reaction to new and radical designs which may or may not be mass-produced. General Motors designer Harley Earl is credited with inventing the concept car, did much to popularize it through its traveling Motorama shows of the 1950s. Concept cars never go into production directly. In modern times all would have to undergo many changes before the design is finalized for the sake of practicality, regulatory compliance, cost. A "production-intent" prototype, as opposed to a concept vehicle, serves this purpose. Concept cars are radical in engine or design; some use non-traditional, exotic, or expensive materials, ranging from paper to carbon fiber to refined alloys. Others have unique layouts, such as gullwing doors, 3 or 5 wheels, or special abilities not found on cars; because of these impractical or unprofitable leanings, many concept cars never get past scale models, or drawings in computer design.
Other more traditional concepts can be developed into drivable vehicles with a working drivetrain and accessories. The state of most concept cars does not represent the final product. A small proportion of concept cars are functional to any useful extent, some cannot move safely at anything above 10 mph. Inoperative "mock-ups" are made of wax, metal, plastic or a combination thereof. If drivable, the drivetrain is borrowed from a production vehicle from the same company, or may have defects and imperfections in design, they can be quite refined, such as General Motors' Cadillac Sixteen concept. After a concept car's useful life is over, the cars are destroyed; some survive, either in a company's museum or hidden away in storage. One unused but operational concept car that languished for years in the North Hollywood, shop of car customizer George Barris, Ford Motor Company's "Lincoln Futura" from 1954, received a new lease on life as the Batmobile in the Batman series that debuted in 1966 on the ABC Television Network.
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Horsepower is a unit of measurement of power, or the rate at which work is done. There are many different types of horsepower. Two common definitions being used today are the mechanical horsepower, about 745.7 watts, the metric horsepower, 735.5 watts. The term was adopted in the late 18th century by Scottish engineer James Watt to compare the output of steam engines with the power of draft horses, it was expanded to include the output power of other types of piston engines, as well as turbines, electric motors and other machinery. The definition of the unit varied among geographical regions. Most countries now use the SI unit watt for measurement of power. With the implementation of the EU Directive 80/181/EEC on January 1, 2010, the use of horsepower in the EU is permitted only as a supplementary unit; the development of the steam engine provided a reason to compare the output of horses with that of the engines that could replace them. In 1702, Thomas Savery wrote in The Miner's Friend: So that an engine which will raise as much water as two horses, working together at one time in such a work, can do, for which there must be kept ten or twelve horses for doing the same.
I say, such an engine may be made large enough to do the work required in employing eight, fifteen, or twenty horses to be maintained and kept for doing such a work… The idea was used by James Watt to help market his improved steam engine. He had agreed to take royalties of one third of the savings in coal from the older Newcomen steam engines; this royalty scheme did not work with customers who did not have existing steam engines but used horses instead. Watt determined; the wheel was 12 feet in radius. Watt judged. So: P = W t = F d t = 180 l b f × 2.4 × 2 π × 12 f t 1 m i n = 32, 572 f t ⋅ l b f m i n. Watt defined and calculated the horsepower as 32,572 ft⋅lbf/min, rounded to an 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min. Watt determined that a pony could lift an average 220 lbf 100 ft per minute over a four-hour working shift. Watt judged a horse was 50% more powerful than a pony and thus arrived at the 33,000 ft⋅lbf/min figure. Engineering in History recounts that John Smeaton estimated that a horse could produce 22,916 foot-pounds per minute.
John Desaguliers had suggested 44,000 foot-pounds per minute and Tredgold 27,500 foot-pounds per minute. "Watt found by experiment in 1782 that a'brewery horse' could produce 32,400 foot-pounds per minute." James Watt and Matthew Boulton standardized that figure at 33,000 foot-pounds per minute the next year. A common legend states that the unit was created when one of Watt's first customers, a brewer demanded an engine that would match a horse, chose the strongest horse he had and driving it to the limit. Watt, while aware of the trick, accepted the challenge and built a machine, even stronger than the figure achieved by the brewer, it was the output of that machine which became the horsepower. In 1993, R. D. Stevenson and R. J. Wassersug published correspondence in Nature summarizing measurements and calculations of peak and sustained work rates of a horse. Citing measurements made at the 1926 Iowa State Fair, they reported that the peak power over a few seconds has been measured to be as high as 14.9 hp and observed that for sustained activity, a work rate of about 1 hp per horse is consistent with agricultural advice from both the 19th and 20th centuries and consistent with a work rate of about 4 times the basal rate expended by other vertebrates for sustained activity.
When considering human-powered equipment, a healthy human can produce about 1.2 hp and sustain about 0.1 hp indefinitely. The Jamaican sprinter Usain Bolt produced a maximum of 3.5 hp 0.89 seconds into his 9.58 second 100-metre dash world record in 2009. When torque T is in pound-foot units, rotational speed is in rpm and power is required in horsepower: P / hp = T / × N / rpm 5252 The constant 5252 is the rounded value of /; when torque T is in inch pounds: P
Bentley 3 Litre
The Bentley 3 Litre was a car chassis manufactured by Bentley. The company's first it was developed from 1919 and made available to customers' coachbuilders from 1921 to 1929; the Bentley was much larger than the 1368 cc Bugattis that dominated racing at the time, but double the size of engine and strength compensated for the extra weight. The 4000 lb car won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1924, with drivers John Duff and Frank Clement, again in 1927, this time in Super Sports form, with drivers S. C. H. "Sammy" Davis and Dudley Benjafield. Its weight and speed prompted Ettore Bugatti to call it "the fastest lorry in the world." The 3 Litre was delivered as a running chassis to the coachbuilder of the buyer's choice. Bentley referred many customers to their near neighbour Vanden Plas for bodies. Dealers might order a short cost-saving run of identical bodies to their own distinctive design. Most bodies took the simplest and cheapest form, but as it was all "custom" coachwork there was plenty of variation.
Customers included Prince George, Duke of Kent, Gertrude Lawrence, Beatrice Lillie. The 3.0 L straight-4 engine was designed by ex-Royal Flying Corps engineer Clive Gallop and was technically advanced for its time. It was one of the first production car engines with 4 valves per cylinder, dry-sump lubrication and an overhead camshaft; the four valve SOHC Hemi design, with a bevel-geared shaft drive for the camshaft, was based on the pre-war 1914 Mercedes Daimler M93654 racing engine. Just before the outbreak of the war Mercedes had placed one of the winning Grand Prix cars in their London showroom in Long Acre. At the suggestion of W. O. Bentley being commissioned in the Royal Naval Air Service, the vehicle was confiscated in 1915 by the British army, dismantled at Rolls-Royce and subjected to scrutiny. A notable difference to both the Mercedes and the aero engines was the cast-iron monobloc design, the Aluminium enclosed camshaft, which contributed to its durability, but having the valve-head and block in one-piece made for a complicated and labour intensive casting and machining.
This was a feature shared during that time by the Bugattis which the car was to compete with. The engine was among the first with two spark plugs per cylinder, pent-roof combustion chambers, twin carburetters, it was undersquare, optimized for low-end torque, with a bore of 80 mm and a stroke of 149 mm. Untuned power output was around 70 hp, allowing the 3 Litre to reach 80 mph; the Speed Model could reach 90 mph. A four-speed gearbox was fitted; the chassis from a Humber was designed by Frederick Tasker Burgess chief designer at Humber who had worked with W. O. during the war producing the aero engines BR1 and BR2. It should be noted that Bentley did not deliver complete vehicles, but – as was customary – provided only a rolling chassis. Only the rear wheels had brakes until 1924. There were three main variants of the 3 litre and they became known by the colours used on the radiator badge. There was a definite rule controlling badge colours but astonishingly it has since been established that given "special circumstances" the factory would indeed supply a "wrong" colour.
This was the standard model with 117.5 in wheelbase from 1921 to 1929 or long 130.0 in wheelbase from 1923 to 1929. This used a 5.3:1 high compression engine in the 117.5 in wheelbase chassis and was made from 1924 to 1929. Made between 1924 and 1929 this was the high performance model with 6.3:1 compression ratio and short 108 in wheelbase chassis. 100 mph performance was guaranteed. The 3 Litre chassis was shown at the 1919 London Motor Show, but the engine had not yet been finished, it took two years to get the engine right, with the first customer delivery in September 1921. Production lasted through 1929, by which time the car had been surpassed by Bentley's own 4½ Litre car. Experimental: 3 3 Litre: 1088 Speed Model: 513 Super Sports: 18Car rebuilt and superchargedIn the winter of 1926/7 the factory's service department created the first supercharged Bentley when chassis number 220 FR5189 had a Roots type blower fitted to its 3-litre engine; this pre-dated the Birkin supercharged Bentleys by two years.
Like the 4½ litre supercharged cars its blower was crankshaft-driven and mounted in front of the radiator between the dumb irons. Unlike them its carburettor was mounted on the left side of the engine block. A rather circuitous intake tract carries the fuel-air mixture forward from there to the blower. On 4½ litre cars the carburettor is mounted on the blower, as done on other supercharged British cars with front-mounted blowers; the oldest surviving production Bentley is 3 Litre chassis number 3. The first Bentley sold, it was delivered to its original owner in 1921. Bodied by UK coachbuilder R. Harrison & Son, chassis number 3 has engine number 4 and UK registration AX 3827. In 2011 it sold at auction for $962,500 including buyer's premium. An original, unrestored 1927 3 Litre Speed Model, chassis #1209 DE, is a part of the permanent collection at the Simeone Foundation Automotive Museum in Philadelphia, PA, USA; the car retains all of its original components and is the only Bentley to compete in pre-war road racing competition in the USA.
Reality television: My brother, my Bentley
Bentley R Type
The Bentley R Type is the second series of post-war Bentley automobiles, replacing the Mark VI. A larger-boot version of the Mk VI, the R type is regarded by some as a stop-gap before the introduction of the S series cars in 1955; as with its predecessor, a standard body was available as well as coachbuilt versions by firms including H. J. Mulliner & Co. Park Ward, Harold Radford and Webb, Carrosserie Worblaufen and others. Other than the radiator grilles and the carburation there was little difference between the standard Bentley R Type and the Rolls-Royce Silver Dawn; the R Type was the more popular marque, with some 2,500 units manufactured during its run to the Silver Dawn's 760. During development it was referred to as the Bentley Mark VII; the R Type name, now applied stems from chassis series RT. The front of the saloon model was identical to the Mark VI, but the boot was doubled in capacity; the engine displacement was 4½ litres, as fitted to versions of the Mark VI. An automatic choke was fitted to the R-type's carburettor.
The attachment of the rear springs to the chassis was altered in detail between the Mark VI and the R Type. For buyers looking for a more distinctive car, a decreasing number had custom coachwork available from the dwindling number of UK coachbuilders; these ranged from the grand flowing lines of Freestone and Webb's conservative prewar shapes, to the practical conversions of Harold Radford which including a clamshell style tailgate and folding rear seats. All R Type models use an iron-block/aluminium-head straight-6 engine fed by twin SU Type H6 carburettors; the basic engine displaced 4,566 cc with a 92 mm bore and 114.3 mm stroke. A 4-speed manual transmission was standard with a 4-speed automatic option becoming standard on cars; as of 2017, it remains the last car by Bentley to be sold with a manual transmission. The suspension was independent at the front using coil springs with semi elliptic leaf springs at the rear; the brakes used 12.25 in drums all round and were operated hydraulically at the front and mechanically at the rear via a gearbox driven servo.
The first example is the standard steel saloon built by Bentley, but a number of customers opted for a bare chassis, taken to a coachbuilder of their choice. A four door saloon with automatic transmission tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1953 had a top speed of 101.7 mph and could accelerate from 0-60 mph in 13.25 seconds. A fuel consumption of 15.5 miles per imperial gallon was recorded. The test car cost £4481 including taxes; the R-Type Continental was a high-performance version of the R-Type. It was the fastest four-seat car in production at the time; the prototype was developed by a team of designers and engineers from Rolls-Royce Ltd. and coachbuilder H. J. Mulliner & Co. led by Rolls-Royce's Chief Project Engineer, Ivan Evernden. Rolls-Royce worked with H. J. Mulliner instead of their own coachbuilding subsidiary Park Ward because the former had developed a lightweight body construction system using metal throughout instead of the traditional ash-framed bodies; the styling, finalised by Stanley Watts of H. J. Mulliner, was influenced by aerodynamic testing conducted at Rolls-Royce's wind tunnel by Evernden's assistant, Milford Read.
The rear fins stabilised the car at speed and made it resistant to changes in direction due to crosswinds. A maximum kerb weight of 34 long hundredweight was specified to keep the tyres within a safe load limit at a top speed of 120 mph; the prototype, with chassis number 9-B-VI and registration number OLG-490, which earned it the nickname "Olga", was on the road by August 1951. Olga and the first series of production Continentals were based on the Mark VI chassis, used a manual mixture control on the steering wheel boss, as these versions did not have an automatic choke; the early R Type Continental has the same engine as the standard R Type, but with modified carburation and exhaust manifolds along with higher gear ratios. The compression ratio was raised to 7.25:1 from the standard 6.75:1, while the final gear ratio was raised from 3.41 to 3.07. Despite its name, the two-door Continental was produced principally for the domestic home market, most of the 207 cars produced were right-hand drive, with 43 left-hand drive examples produced for use abroad.
The chassis was produced at the Rolls-Royce Crewe factory and shared many components with the standard R type. R-Type Continentals were delivered as rolling chassis to the coachbuilder of choice. Coachwork for most of these cars was completed by H. J. Mulliner & Co. who built them in fastback coupe form. Other coachwork came from Park Ward who built six including a drophead coupe version. Franay built five, Graber built three, one of them altered by Köng, Pininfarina made one. James Young built in 1954 a Sports Saloon for the owner of James Barclay. After July 1954, the car was fitted with an engine with a larger bore of 94.62 mm, giving a total displacement of 4.9 L. The rarity of the R Type Continental has made the car valuable to car collectors. In 2015 a 1952 R Type Continental, in unrestored condition, sold for over $1 million USD. R Type: 2323 R Type Continental: 208 Bennett, Martin. Bentley Continental: Corniche & Azure 1951-2002. Foreword by John Blatchley. Dorchester, UK: Veloce Publishing.
ISBN 978-1-84584-210-9. Retrieved 16 October 2014. Culshaw, David.
The Bentley T-Series is an automobile, produced by Bentley Motors Limited in the United Kingdom from 1965 to 1980. It was announced and displayed for the first time at the Paris Motor Show on 5 October 1965 as a Bentley-badged version of the redesigned chassis-less Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow; the Bentley T series was available as a long wheelbase four-door saloon. A small number of two-door saloons were built with coachwork by James Young and Mulliner Park Ward and a two-door convertible with coachwork by Mulliner Park Ward was introduced in September 1967; the Bentley T-Series was differentiated from the Rolls Royce Silver Shadow by its simpler and lighter front grille. In October 1966, the T saloon's pretax'list price' of GBP 5375 undercut that of the Rolls-Royce by GBP 50; the Bentley, being technically an identical twin of the Rolls-Royce, seems to have been bought by owners desiring a little more understatement. The more sporting image of Bentley motor cars differing from Rolls-Royces was gone by the time the Silver Shadow/Bentley T was introduced and thus couldn't motivate buyers any more.
"For a while Bentley's sporting character has been as lamented as Mr Seaman. The last batches of Bentleys have, to be rather frank, been a little hard to distinguish from their Rolls-Royce stablemates" was the opinion of Archie Vicar in the Motorist´s Illustrated Digest; the same correspondent gave the car a favourable review in comparison to its Rolls-Royce stablemate. The outward appearance of a Bentley T is more dynamic because the bonnet design is a few centimetres lower and the radiator shell shape with its rounded edges is smoother. In addition, the badging on wheel covers, boot lid and gauges featured Bentley motifs rather than Rolls-Royce ones; the T series is the first Bentley without a separate chassis. It is different from its predecessor the S series. New steel and aluminum monocoque body with subframes to mount the engine and suspension, more space inside but smaller outside, more passenger room in the rear compartment, more luggage spacedimensions: - radiator grille 5 inches lower and 2 inches wider.
New and lighter power steering, improved automatic transmission, eight-way adjustable electric front seats, weight reduced 150 lbs, larger fuel tank Engine is the least changed unit but a re-designed cylinder head allows a speed increase to 118 mph The upgraded T2 featured rack and pinion steering, improved air conditioning, rubber-faced bumpers, a new fascia and for Non USA Spec. cars a front air dam, along with Bosch CIS Fuel Injection introduced for late 1979 and 1980 models for the USA and other markets to the Rolls-Royce Silver Shadow II. The T1 was manufactured from 1965 to 1977 and the T2 was made from 1977 to 1980. Note: 15 examples of the Two Door Saloon were built with coachwork by James Young and the remainder with coachwork by Mulliner Park Ward
Bentley Mulsanne (1980–92)
The Bentley Mulsanne is a performance luxury car, produced by Bentley Motors Limited from 1980 until 1992, though derivative models like the Continental T and Azure continued in production into the 2000s. The name "Mulsanne" is derived from Bentley's motorsport history, which included five victories at the 24 Hours of Le Mans between 1924 and 1930 — the'Mulsanne Straight' being the stretch of the Le Mans racecourse where cars reach their highest speeds; the new Bentley promised to epitomise the spirit of Bentley motoring by offering ample performance combined with complete comfort. The Mulsanne shared the traditional 6.75 L Rolls-Royce V8 with aluminium alloy cylinder heads. Two SU carburettors were replaced by Bosch fuel injection on all cars from 1986. All Mulsannes use a 3-speed automatic transmission. Launched at the Geneva Motor Show in 1982 and produced until 1985 was the Mulsanne Turbo. There was a 50% increase in power thanks to the Garrett AiResearch turbocharger. There was the usual polished walnut veneered fascia, blemish-free leather and carpets and headlining of pure wool for the interior.
498 short wheelbase and 18 long wheelbase Mulsanne Turbos were built. The Mulsanne Turbo was replaced by the Turbo R, which used a fuel injected version of the same engine. A British racing green Turbo has been used in the two James Bond novels Role of Honour and Nobody Lives for Ever by John Gardner; the Mulsanne S was introduced in 1987. Although this model lacked its turbocharger, many of its other details were similar to the Turbo R, including that car's alloy wheels and interior, the suspension was firmed up for a more sporting ride; the rectangular headlamps from the 1980s gave way to quad round units for 1989, the model was produced until 1992. The Mulsanne was based on the Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit/Silver Spur introduced at the same time, it would be the basis for all Bentley models until the 1998 introduction of the Arnage. Bentley-Talk: Exclusive Bentley Community and Forum
Volkswagen AG, known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony and indirectly majority owned by the Austrian Porsche-Piëch family. It designs and distributes passenger and commercial vehicles, motorcycles and turbomachinery and offers related services including financing and fleet management. In 2016, it was the world's largest automaker by sales, overtaking Toyota and keeping this title in 2017 and 2018, selling 10.8 million vehicles. It has maintained the largest market share in Europe for over two decades, it ranked seventh in the 2018 Fortune Global 500 list of the world's largest companies. Volkswagen Group sells passenger cars under the Audi, Bugatti, Porsche, SEAT, Škoda and the flagship Volkswagen marques, it is divided into two primary divisions, the Automotive Division and the Financial Services Division, as of 2008 had 342 subsidiary companies. Volkswagen has two major joint-ventures in China.
The company has operations in 150 countries and operates 100 production facilities across 27 countries. Volkswagen was founded in 1937; the company's production grew in the 1950s and 1960s, in 1965 it acquired Auto Union, which subsequently produced the first post-war Audi models. Volkswagen launched a new generation of front-wheel drive vehicles in the 1970s, including the Passat and Golf. Volkswagen acquired a controlling stake in SEAT in 1986, making it the first non-German marque of the company, acquired control of Škoda in 1994, of Bentley and Bugatti in 1998, Scania in 2008 and of Ducati, MAN and Porsche in 2012; the company's operations in China have grown in the past decade with the country becoming its largest market. In June 2018, Volkswagen Trucks and Buses which comprises the MAN, RIO truck brands are renamed to TRATON AG but the marques will not change, said by Andreas Renschler. Volkswagen Aktiengesellschaft is a public company and has a primary listing on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, where it is a constituent of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index, secondary listings on the Luxembourg Stock Exchange, SIX Swiss Exchange.
It has been traded in the United States via American depositary receipts since 1988 on the OTC Marketplace. Volkswagen delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2013; the state of Lower Saxony holds 12.7 % of the company's shares. Volkswagen was founded on 28 May 1937 in Berlin as the Gesellschaft zur Vorbereitung des Deutschen Volkswagens mbH by the National Socialist Deutsche Arbeitsfront; the purpose of the company was to manufacture the Volkswagen car referred to as the Porsche Type 60 the Volkswagen Type 1, called the Volkswagen Beetle. This vehicle was designed by Ferdinand Porsche's consulting firm, the company was backed by the support of Adolf Hitler. On 16 September 1938, Gezuvor was renamed Volkswagenwerk GmbH. Shortly after the factory near Fallersleben was completed, World War II started and the plant manufactured the military Kübelwagen and the related amphibious Schwimmwagen, both of which were derived from the Volkswagen. Only a small number of Type 60 Volkswagens were made during this time.
The Fallersleben plant manufactured the V-1 flying bomb, making the plant a major bombing target for the Allied forces. After the war in Europe, in June 1945, Major Ivan Hirst of the British Army Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers took control of the bomb-shattered factory, restarted production, pending the expected disposal of the plant as war reparations. However, no British car manufacturer was interested. To build the car commercially would be a uneconomic enterprise". In 1948, the Ford Motor Company of USA was offered Volkswagen, but Ernest Breech, a Ford executive vice president said he didn't think either the plant or the car was "worth a damn." Breech said that he would have considered merging Ford of Germany and Volkswagen, but after the war, ownership of the company was in such dispute that nobody could hope to be able to take it over. As part of the Industrial plans for Germany, large parts of German industry, including Volkswagen, were to be dismantled. Total German car production was set at a maximum of 10% of the 1936 car production numbers.
The company survived by producing cars for the British Army, in 1948 the British Government handed the company back over to the German state, it was managed by former Opel chief Heinrich Nordhoff. Production of the Type 60 Volkswagen started after the war due to the need to rebuild the plant and because of the lack of raw materials, but production grew in the 1950s and 1960s; the company began introducing new models based on the Type 1, all with the same basic air-cooled, rear-engine, rear-drive platform. These included the Volkswagen Type 2 in 1950, the Volkswagen Karmann Ghia in 1955, the Volkswagen Type 3 in 1961, the Volkswagen Type 4 in 1968, the Volkswagen Type 181 in 1969. In 1960, upon t