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Benvenuto Cellini

Benvenuto Cellini was an Italian goldsmith, draftsman, soldier and artist who wrote poetry and a famous autobiography. He was one of the most important artists of Mannerism, he is remembered for his skill in making pieces such as the Cellini Salt Cellar and Perseus with the Head of Medusa. Benvenuto Cellini was born in present-day Italy, his parents were Maria Lisabetta Granacci. They were married for eighteen years before the birth of their first child. Benvenuto was the second child of the family; the son of a musician and builder of musical instruments, Cellini was pushed towards music, but when he was fifteen, his father reluctantly agreed to apprentice him to a goldsmith, Antonio di Sandro, nicknamed Marcone. At the age of sixteen, Benvenuto had attracted attention in Florence by taking part in an affray with youthful companions, he was lived in Siena, where he worked for a goldsmith named Fracastoro. From Siena he moved to Bologna, where he became a more accomplished cornett and flute player and made progress as a goldsmith.

After a visit to Pisa and two periods of living in Florence, he moved to Rome, at the age of nineteen. His first works in Rome were a silver casket, silver candlesticks, a vase for the bishop of Salamanca, which won him the approval of Pope Clement VII. Another celebrated work from Rome is the gold medallion of "Leda and the Swan" executed for the Gonfaloniere Gabbriello Cesarino, and, now in the Museo Nazionale del Bargello in Florence, he took up the cornett again, was appointed one of the pope's court musicians. In the attack on Rome by Charles III, Duke of Bourbon, Cellini's bravery proved of signal service to the pontiff. According to his own accounts, he injured Philibert of Châlon, prince of Orange, his bravery led to a reconciliation with the Florentine magistrates, he soon returned to his hometown of Florence. Here he devoted himself to crafting medals, the most famous of which are "Hercules and the Nemean Lion", in gold repoussé work, "Atlas supporting the Sphere", in chased gold, the latter falling into the possession of Francis I of France.

From Florence he went to the court of the duke of Mantua, back to Florence. On returning to Rome, he was employed in the working of jewellery and in the execution of dies for private medals and for the papal mint. In 1529 his brother Cecchino killed a Corporal of the Roman Watch and in turn was wounded by an arquebusier dying of his wound. Soon afterward Benvenuto killed his brother's killer—an act of blood revenge but not justice as Cellini admits that his brother's killer had acted in self-defense. Cellini fled to Naples to shelter from the consequences of an affray with a notary, Ser Benedetto, whom he had wounded. Through the influence of several cardinals, Cellini obtained a pardon, he found favor with the new pope, Paul III, notwithstanding a fresh homicide during the interregnum three days after the death of Pope Clement VII in September 1534. The fourth victim was Pompeo of Milan; the plots of Pier Luigi Farnese led to Cellini's retreat from Rome to Florence and Venice, where he was restored with greater honour than before.

At the age of 37, upon returning from a visit to the French court, he was imprisoned on a charge of having embezzled the gems of the pope's tiara during the war. He was confined to the Castel Sant'Angelo, was recaptured, was treated with great severity. While imprisoned in 1539 Cellini was the target of an assassination attempt of murder by ingestion of diamond dust; the intercession of Pier Luigi's wife, that of the Cardinal d'Este of Ferrara secured Cellini's release, in gratitude for which he gave d'Este a splendid cup. Cellini worked at the court of Francis I at Fontainebleau and Paris. Cellini is known to have taken some of his female models as mistresses, having an illegitimate daughter in 1544 with one of them while living in France, whom he named Costanza. Cellini considered the duchesse d'Étampes to be set against him and refused to conciliate with the king's favorites, he could no longer silence his enemies by the sword. After several years of productive work in France, but beset by continual professional conflicts and violence, Cellini returned to Florence.

There he once again took up his skills as a goldsmith, was warmly welcomed by Duke Cosimo I de'Medici - who elevated him to the position of court sculptor and gave him an elegant house in Via del Rosario, with an annual salary of two hundred scudi. Furthermore, Cosimo commissioned him to make two significant bronze sculptures: a bust of himself, Perseus with the head of Medusa. In 1548, Cellini was accused by a woman named Margherita, of having committed sodomy with her son, he temporarily fled to seek shelter in Venice; this was neither the first nor the last time that Cellini was implicated for sodomy, illustrating his homosexual or bisexual tendencies. For example, earlier in his life as a young man he was sentenced to pay 12 staia of flour in 1523 for relations with another young man named Domenico di ser Giuliano da Ripa. Meanwhile, in Paris a former model and lover brought charges again

Frank Wentz

Frank Wentz is the CEO and director of Remote Sensing Systems, a company he founded in 1974. Remote Sensing Systems specializes in satellite microwave remote sensing research. Together with Carl Mears, he is best known for developing a satellite temperature record from MSU and AMSU. Intercomparison of this record with the earlier UAH satellite temperature record, developed by John Christy and Roy Spencer, revealed deficiencies in the earlier work. From 1978 to 1982 Frank was a member of NASA's SeaSat Experiment Team involved in the development of physically based retrieval methods for microwave scatterometers and radiometers, he has investigated the effect of climate change on satellite-derived evaporation and surface wind values. His findings are different from most climate change model predictions. B. S. and M. S. in physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Member of various NASA Science Teams National Research Council's Earth Studies Board National Research Council's Panel on Reconciling Temperature Observations A lead author for CCSP Synthesis and Assessment Product on Temperature Trends in the Lower Atmosphere 2015: recipient of the AMS Verner E Suomi Award for "pioneering, painstaking work to retrieve geophysical parameters from satellite microwave instruments and using these measurements to elucidate climate trends" 2015: American Meteorological Society Fellow 2013: IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Society Transactions Prize Paper for the paper "The emissivity of the ocean surface between 6 - 90 GHz over a large range of wind speeds and Earth incidence angles" 2011: American Geophysical Union Fellow Meissner, T. and F. J. Wentz, The emissivity of the ocean surface between 6 – 90 GHz over a large range of wind speeds and Earth incidence angles, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 50, 3004-3026, Wentz, F. J. L. Ricciardulli, Comment on "Global Trends in Wind Speed and Wave Height", Science, 334, 905, Wentz, F. J. L. Ricciardulli, K. A. Hilburn and C. A. Mears, How Much More Rain Will Global Warming Bring?, Science, 317, 233-235, Wentz, F. J. P. D. Ashcroft and C. L. Gentemann, Post-Launch Calibration of the TRMM Microwave Imager, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 39, 415-422, Wentz, F. J. C. L. Gentemann, D. K. Smith and D. B.

Chelton, Satellite Measurements of Sea Surface Temperature Through Clouds, Science, 288, 847-850, Wentz, F. J. and M. C. Schabel, Precise Climate Monitoring Using Complementary Satellite Data Sets, Nature, 403, 414-416, Wentz, F. J. and D. K. Smith, A Model Function for the Ocean-Normalized Radar Cross Section at 14 GHz Derived From NSCAT Observations, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104, 11499-11514, Wentz, F. J. and R. W. Spencer, SSM/I Rain Retrievals Within a Unified All-Weather Ocean Algorithm, Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 55, 1613-1627, Wentz, F. J. and M. C. Schabel, Effects of Satellite Orbital Decay on MSU Lower Tropospheric Temperature Trends, Nature, 394, 661-664 Wentz, F. J. A Well Calibrated Ocean Algorithm for Special Sensor Microwave / Imager, Journal of Geophysical Research, 102, 8703-8718 Wentz, F. J. Measurement of Oceanic Wind Vector Using Satellite Microwave Radiometers, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 30, 960-972 Wentz, F. J. A Simplified Wind Vector Algorithm for Satellite Scatterometers, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 8, 697-714 Wentz, F. J. L. A. Mattox and S. Peteherych, New Algorithms for Microwave Measurements of Ocean Winds: Applications to SeaSat and the Special Sensor Microwave Imager, Journal of Geophysical Research, 91, 2289-2307 Wentz, F. J. S. Peteherych and L. A. Thomas, A Model Function for Ocean Radar Cross-Sections at 14.6 GHz, Journal of Geophysical Research, 89, 3689-3704 Wentz, F. J.

A Model Function for Ocean Microwave Brightness Temperatures, Journal of Geophysical Research, 88, 1892-1908 Wentz, F. J; the Forward Scattering of Microwave Solar Radiation From a Water Surface, Radio Science, 13, 131-138 Wentz, F. J. A Two-Scale Scattering Model for Foam-Free Sea Microwave Brightness Temperatures, Journal of Geophysical Research, 80, 3441-3446 RSS profile

Thomas Playford II

Thomas Playford was an Australian politician who served two terms as Premier of South Australia. He subsequently entered federal politics, serving as a Senator for South Australia from 1901 to 1906 and as Minister for Defence from 1905 to 1907. Born in Bethnal Green, London in 1837, Playford moved to Adelaide in 1844 with his parents the Rev. Thomas Playford and his wife Mary Anne Playford, née Perry, two brothers and a sister, he worked as a farmer prior to entering politics. Elected to the Parliament of South Australia at the 1868 election as the Member for Onkaparinga, he gained the sobriquet "Honest Tom" for his forthright and straightforward manner, although these same qualities would earn him the occasional disapproval of fellow politicians and the electorate, caused his defeat at the 1871 election. Playford returned to Parliament at the 1875 election as member for East Torrens and held the position of Reforming Commissioner for Crown Lands and Immigration before losing his seat yet again at the 1887 election.

A month however, he won the seat of Newcastle. By mid-1887 he became Premier and Treasurer, positions he would hold for two years until a vote of no confidence passed. During his premiership, his most important achievement was considered to be the implementation of the first systematic tariff system for South Australia, he regained East Torrens at the 1890 election and a few months he formed his second government, again becoming Premier and Treasurer, would again last for two years. He received kudos for reducing the colony's debt, although he spent much of this second term in India. Charles Kingston brought together the various'liberal' groups and was able to defeat the conservative John Downer government at the 1893 election with Labor support; the Kingston government would last for a then-record six years. Kingston had appointed Playford as Treasurer in his government, however in 1894 Playford moved to London to act as Agent-General for South Australia before returning to South Australia in 1898 to serve in Kingston's government from the 1899 election as member for Gumeracha, until he crossed the floor in that year over a potential erosion of the power of the Legislative Council, bringing down the Kingston government in the process.

He found the time to involve himself in the planning of the Federation of the Australian Commonwealth and drafting the Australian Constitution. As part of this, he proposed the title "Commonwealth of Australia"; as a moderate Protectionist, but with the endorsement of the conservative Australasian National League, Playford became a Senator at the inaugural 1901 federal election. Two years in Alfred Deakin's government, Playford served for seven months as Leader of the Government in the Senate and Vice-President of the Executive Council, he became Minister for Defence in 1905. He was defeated in the first serving Minister to suffer this fate, his term as a Senator ended on 31 December 1906, his ministerial commission was terminated on 24 January 1907. Playford made one further unsuccessful attempt to re-enter the Senate at the 1910 federal election. Playford died in Kent Town, Adelaide on 19 April 1915. Playford married Mary Jane Kinsman on 16 December 1860; the couple had eleven children: five daughters and one adoptive daughter.

His eldest daughter Annie married the Rev. John Henry Sexton on 30 June 1886. On 1 January 1889 his second daughter Eliza married Harry J. Tuck, elder brother of painter Marie Tuck and headmaster at Unley High School. Playford's grandson, Sir Thomas Playford served as Premier of South Australia. Hundred of Playford Jupp, J; the English in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Parliament Profile