click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Beorn

Beorn is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, part of his Middle-earth legendarium, he appears in The Hobbit as a man who could assume the form of a great black bear. The Man named Beorn lived in a wooden house on his pasture-lands between the Misty Mountains and Mirkwood, to the east of the Anduin, his household included an animal retinue. He grew large areas of clover for his bees. Gandalf believed that Beorn was either a descendant of the bears who had lived in the Misty Mountains before the arrival of the giants, or he was a descendant of the men who had lived in the region before the arrival of the dragons or Orcs from the north. Beorn retained his size and strength in bear-form, he had a thick black beard and broad shoulders. While not a "giant" outright, Beorn's human form was of such great size that the three and a half foot tall Bilbo judged that he could have walked between Beorn's legs without touching his body. Beorn named the large rock by the Anduin the Carrock, created the steps that led from its base to its flat top.

In The Hobbit, Beorn received Gandalf, Bilbo Baggins and 13 Dwarves and aided them in their quest to reclaim their kingdom beneath the Lonely Mountain. He was convinced of their trustworthiness after confirming their tale of encountering the Goblins of the Misty Mountains and Gandalf's slaying of their leader, the Great Goblin. In addition to giving the group much-needed supplies and lodging, Beorn gave them vital information about what path to take while crossing Mirkwood. Hearing of a vast host of Goblins on the move, Beorn arrived at the Lonely Mountain in time to strike the decisive blow in the Battle of Five Armies. In his bear form he slew the Goblin leader and his bodyguards. Without direction, the Goblin army scattered and were easy pickings for the other armies of Men, Elves and Eagles. Beorn left his home during the narrative of The Hobbit for hours or days at a time, for purposes not explained. In The Hobbit, it is said that "Beorn indeed became a great chief afterwards in those regions and ruled a wide land between the mountains and the wood.

It appears the ability to change shape into a bear was not exclusive to Beorn as an individual and may, in fact, have been an ability of a small sub-set within the race of Men. In the years between the Battle of Five Armies and the War of the Ring spurred by his interaction with Thorin's company, Beorn emerged from his reclusion and rose to become a leader of the woodmen living between the Anduin river and the fringes of Mirkwood; as stated by Glóin in The Fellowship of the Ring, the Beornings "keep open the High Pass and the Ford of Carrock." Some time before the War of the Ring itself began, Beorn was succeeded by his son Grimbeorn the Old. His death is not included in the chronologies in The Return of the King's appendices. In naming his character, Tolkien used an Old English word for man and warrior, it is related to the Scandinavian names Björn and Bjørn, meaning bear. The name of the Scottish town Borrowstounness is derived from the Old English Beornweardstun. Swedish actor Mikael Persbrandt portrays Beorn in Peter Jackson's The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug and in its sequel The Battle of the Five Armies.

In the film, he indicates that his people once lived in the Misty Mountains, but were conquered by the Orcs under Azog, who captured and tortured his people for sport and killed them until only one remained. Beorn escaped, but still carries a chain around his wrist from his imprisonment. In the extended edition, Beorn tells Gandalf of the alliance between the Orcs of Moria and the Necromancer of Dol Guldur, he inquires about the nine, who have been seen wandering near the High Fells of Rhudaur. Beorn arrives to the Battle of the Five Armies atop a Great Eagle rather than on foot and does not slay Bolg, killed by Legolas in the film adaptation. In the DVD commentary, the production team explained that they take great care that characters only speak with accents which were present in the British Isles, but they made a major exception for Beorn by letting Persbrandt use his natural Swedish accent, they reasoned that Beorn should logically have a distinctive and foreign-sounding accent, given that he is the last survivor of an isolated race which had little contact with people from regions such as Gondor or the Shire.

Jackson stated that many actors were auditioned for the role, but Persbrand captured its primitive energy. Richard Armitage, who played Thorin Oakenshield, said that Persbrand had a fantastic voice, that his accent was perfect for the role. In the 2003 video game adaptation the original encounter with Beorn at his lodge is omitted, he still shows up at the Battle of Five Armies to kill Bolg. Beorn only appears in bear form in the game; the Beornings appear as trainable units in The Lord of the Rings: War of the Ring

Clock management

In gridiron football, clock management is the manipulation of a game clock and play clock to achieve a desired result near the end of a match. It is analogous to "running out the clock" seen in many sports, the act of trying to hasten the game's end is referred to by this term. Clock management strategies are a significant part of American football, where an elaborate set of rules dictates when the game clock stops between downs, when it continues to run. Upon kickoff, the clock is started when a member of the receiving team touches the ball, or, if the member of the receiving team touches the ball in their end zone, carries the ball out of the end zone; the clock is stopped. The clock is restarted when the offense snaps the ball for their first play and continues to run unless one of the following occurs, in which case the clock is stopped at the end of the play and restarts at the next snap unless otherwise provided: A player carrying the ball goes out of bounds; the clock stops in all 4 quarters.

This rule was changed in the beginning of the 2019 season. In NCAA college football if there is 2:00 or more left in the half, the clock starts on the referee's ready-for-play signal. A loose ball is out of bounds; the clock is restarted when the ball is spotted, unless another condition causes the clock to start at the snap. A forward pass is ruled incomplete. Either team calls for a timeout or an official calls for a timeout because a player is injured or there is a penalty on the play. Officials will restart the clock after an official timeout, but not a team timeout, has concluded unless another of the conditions applies, or if the timeout is for a penalty enforcement after the 2-minute warning of the first half or inside the last 5 minutes of the second half/overtime. 10 seconds will be taken off the clock, the clock started when the ball is spotted, if the offense, after the 2-minute warning of either half, fouls or commits certain other acts that cause the clock to stop, unless the clock will stop anyway for a different reason.

In Canadian football, the offense may execute one additional untimed play if the clock expires while the ball is not in play. A score or touchback occurs. Additionally, the clock does not run during or after a conversion attempt in the NFL or NCAA college football. Possession of the football is transferred between teams for any reason. In college football, the clock is stopped when a team earns a first down to allow the chain crew to reposition themselves; the NFL has no such stoppage. If the clock runs out during a play, the current play is allowed to continue to its conclusion. If the clock runs out between downs, the period ends in American football, but in Canadian football the offense is allowed one last down; each team is given three timeouts per half which they can use to stop the clock from running after a play. In the NFL, teams get two timeouts in a preseason or regular season overtime period, or three in a postseason overtime half. On a fair-catch punt, the clock stops at the end of the play.

A team on offense that has the higher score seeks to use as much time as possible. A drive may therefore benefit the team if it scores no points, by taking time off the clock; the team may: Favor run plays over pass plays. Use the center of the field rather than the sidelines to avoid going out of bounds and stopping the clock. Delay the start of each play until the play clock approaches 0; the team may use counterintuitive game plans, such as declining to score or allowing the opponents to score, to accelerate the end of the game. If the defense does not have enough time-outs to stop the clock before the ball is turned over on downs, the offense can run out the clock by executing repeated quarterback kneels until the clock runs out. In the NFL and college football, up to 40 seconds can be taken off the clock between plays; the NFL has a built-in two-minute warning that stops the clock after the play that occurs when the clock hits two minutes ends. In order to run out the clock by kneeling, there must be less than 40 seconds on the clock if the opponent has two time-outs, 1 minute 20 seconds if the opponent has one time-out, or 2 minutes if the defense has no time-outs remaining, at the beginning of the series of downs.

The offense can burn further time off the clock by timewasting: keeping the ball live by keeping away from any defensive player, regardless of position on the field. A team on offense that has the lower score seeks to conserve time; the team may: Use a no-huddle offense. Have the quarterback "spike" the ball, sacrificing a down to stop the clock. Use a passing play or a run play toward the sidelines. Most ideal after a 1st down. If a play ends such that the game clock continues running, use a timeout. If the ball is still alive while the clock runs out and the team with the ball is still trailing, do everything within the team's power to keep the ball alive until it can be advanced to the end zone; this incorporates a series of lateral and backward passes to avoid the ball carrier being tackled and the game ending. A team, tied or trailing by one or two points but is within the red zo

Ginoza, Okinawa

Ginoza is a village located in Kunigami District, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. As of 2013 the village had a population of 5,544 and a population density of 180 persons per km2; the total area of Ginoza is 31.28 square kilometres, 50% of the land area of the village is used for United States military bases. The kanji for Ginoza mean "suitable field in which to sit". Ginoza is located on the eastern coast of the middle of the island of Okinawa; the village is located on the backbone of mountains that run north to south on Okinawa Island, slopes to a broad coastline along the Pacific Ocean. The Kanna Dam was completed in 1993. Ginoza borders three municipalities in Okinawa Prefecture. Nago Kin Onna Ginoza is divided into six districts. Kanna Ginoza Sokei Matsuda Shirohara Fukuyama The area of present-day Ginoza was agricultural; the area was, used as a retreat for members of the Yukatchu artistocratic class of the Ryukyu Kingdom. In a census of Ginoza in 1903, half the town was registered as nobility, half as commoners.

Ginoza became part of Okinawa Prefecture with its creation in 1879, part of Kunigami District in 1896. In the administrative reorganization of Okinawa Prefecture in 1908 the Kinmu magiri was divided into two villages. A large part of the population of Ginoza emigrated overseas before World War II. During World War 2 Ginoza village's schools were used as field hospitals. Bodies lie buried around the buildings to this day. Directly after the war Ginoza the south central part of Ginoza was home to a large concentration of refugees; the population of the village reached over 100,000, the village was temporarily divided into six cities. The population of the village dropped after this period as Okinawans returned to their home villages. 50% of Ginoza remains occupied by United States military bases. The Ginoza Village Museum opened in 1994. Agricultural production remains high in Ginoza. Like other areas of Okinawa, the village produces sugarcane. Cut flowers production, which has spread to other municipalities in Okinawa Prefecture, has been developed in Ginoza.

The village produces of orchids. Tropical fruit pineapples and mangoes, is a developing part of the agricultural sector Ginoza. Additionally potatoes are grown in Ginozan. Rent from land used for military bases by the United States remains a large source of income in the Ginoza; the village government has attempted to diversify the economy of Ginoza, but dependence on rental income remains high. Under the Local Autonomy Law of 1947 the government of Ginoza consists of an elected village council, an elected mayor, administrative committees and departments under control of the mayor. Ginoza, with a population of under 6,000 residents, has a village council consisting of 12 members. Members of the council and the mayor serve a four-year term; the mayor of Ginoza is Atsushi Tōma. Ginoza operates one junior high school; the Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education operates Ginoza High School. Ginoza is crossed by Japan National Route 329, national highway which connects Nago and Naha, the Okinawa Expressway.

The Ginoza Interchange connects the Okinawan Expressway. Media related to Ginoza, Okinawa at Wikimedia Commons Ginoza official website

Ch√Ęteau de l'Oisellerie

The Château de l'Oisellerie is located in the municipality of La Couronne, near Angoulême in Charente. It houses the agricultural college of Oisellerie and the department's Centre for Educational Documentation. L’Oisellerie was a fief belonging to the abbey of la Couronne and could have been the falconry. After the Hundred Years' War, the farm was rented to wealthy burghers, who had to perform homage to the abbot; the castle was built at the end of the 15th century when it was in the hands of Arnauld Calluaud thanks to money given by his brother Jean VI, commendatory abbot of la Couronne. King Francis I stayed there in 1526; the Calluaud sold it in 1678. The castle, modified in the 18th century, has been a listed building since 1911, it is now a multimedia library. BLANCHET, “Histoire de l’abbaye de la Couronne”,Mémoires SAHC, 1887–1888 Château, logis et demeures anciennes de la Charente, Bruno Sepulchre, 1993, p. 361-365 Revue VMF, n° 125, 1988 / Official website

Lakefield National Park

Lakefield is a national park in Lakefield, Shire of Cook, Australia, 1,707 km northwest of Brisbane and 340 km north-west of Cairns by road, on Cape York Peninsula. At 5,370 km2 making it bigger than Lakefield is the second largest park in Queensland and a popular place for fishing and camping; the park stretches from Princess Charlotte Bay in the north to the town of Laura. It covers 537,000 ha of land, includes sections of the Normanby River, Morehead River and North Kennedy Rivers, as well as lakes and wetlands. There are more than 100 permanent riverine lagoons in the park. There is one main, unsealed road through the park but it is impassable through much of the wet season, when the park closes. There is a ranger station within the park which can assist with information or give help in emergencies. From early December to April is the wettest time in Lakefield National Park; the average rainfall is about 1,200 mm. At the times monsoon rains fall causing the rivers to overspill their banks. In the distinctly drier months, the plains of the Laura Basin become dusty.

Before Europeans settled in the area around the 1870s, numerous Aboriginal clans occupied the fertile coastal strip. Aboriginal cultural heritage sites are located at Kalpowar crossings; the first explorer to visit the area by land was Edmund Kennedy. Another early explorer of the region was William Hann. Laura Homestead was established in 1892 or earlier and is one of the oldest, pastoral homesteads in the region. Lakefield Station, extending for over 150 kilometres from Musgrave Station in the north on Princess Charlotte Bay to the northern boundary of Laura Station to the south, an area of about 25,000 km2. Ran about 1,500 - 2,000 head of Hereford-cross cattle until about 1964 when its owner, Tarrawinebar Agency, introduced Brahmain bulls into the herd in an effort to improve the breeding stock; the bulls were offloaded from a Scandanvian cattle ship at a dock on Princess Charlotte Bay near the northern border of the Station. Management was attempting to improve pastures by seeding Townsville lucerne and dividing the station into stock management blocks by means of an extensive fencing program.

In 1960 the original Lakefield Homestead was replaced by a new homestead, located a few hundreds of metres to the southeast, in 1965 the old stockmen's quarters were replaced by a new building further to the east, nearer to the airstrip and the horse paddock. At that time the station supported five Caucasian stockmen and several Aboriginal stockmen and their families. Princess Charlotte Bay in the north to Lakefield was gazetted in 1979, after the Queensland Government purchased several cattle stations, including Lakefield, the previous year. In 2005, a Townsville man was attacked and killed by a crocodile while he was canoeing with his wife at the Midway waterhole on the Normanby River; the park is known for its populations of waterbirds such as the brolga, sarus crane, black-necked stork, comb-crested jacana and magpie geese. In the woodland and grassland area the agile wallaby, northern nailtail wallaby and Australian bustard may be found. Threatened species which are found in the park include the golden-shouldered parrot, star finch, red goshawk, Lakeland Downs mouse and the spectacled hare-wallaby.

Termite mounds are scattered across the park on the Niland Plain. Reptiles and mammals are present, sometimes in quite large numbers. Mammals include, wallabies, foxes, feral cattle and wild pigs. Wild pigs sometimes reach such large numbers. Reptiles are represented by numerous species of snakes, with the brown snake, death adder and the taipan being the three most dangerous. Both are poisonous and lethal. Monitor lizards are fairly numerous the yellow-spotted monitor Varanus panoptes. Frogs are fairly numerous the green tree frog, Litoria caerulea, but there are many others; the introduced cane toad is present in the park, may be competing with some of the native animals. Other introduced species, such as pigs and horse roam throughout the park. Tourists should keep well aware that there are numerous crocodiles in the various waterways of the park; the park has the largest concentration of crocodiles in Queensland. There are two species of crocodile in the park: fresh and saltwater, both of which are native to northern Australia.

The freshwater variety seek smaller prey and are not so dangerous to humans. The saltwater species can be large and are dangerous to humans. There have been several crocodile attacks in the park in recent times and some have been fatal. Saltwater crocodiles are a protected species in Australia, they appear to be breeding although the habitat is not as suitable as in the Northern Territory where breeding appears to be prolific. In 1965, a local crocodile hunter shot a saltwater crocodile in the Hann River, over nine metres long and whose head was so broad that it would not fit into a 44-gallon oil drum; the dominant vegetation in the park is eucalypt woodland and gallery forest associated with waterways. There are a variety including bloodwoods and Moreton Bay ash. Wattles are relatively common including northern black wattle and lancewood. Paperbarks are present near water, such as the weeping paperbark. Melaleuca cajuputi is present and has white bottlebrush-type flowers. One of the attractive species in the park is Corypha utan.

They tend to cope well with flooding that occurs during the wet season. At the end of the life

Bassam Abu Sharif

Bassam Abu Sharif is a former senior adviser to Yasser Arafat and leading cadre of the Palestine Liberation Organization. He was a member of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. A Marxist and an admirer of Mao Zedong and Che Guevara, Abu Sharif a member of the PFLP, was dubbed the "face of terror" by Time Magazine for his role in the Dawson's Field hijackings in 1970, when the PFLP hijacked Pan Am, TWA flights and blew them up in the Jordanian desert, triggering King Hussein's expulsion of the PLO from Jordan, which became known as Black September. A fourth pair of hijackers on an El Al flight were overpowered by security passengers. Abu Sharif organized, participated in, many actions against Israel, he lost four fingers, was left deaf in one ear and blind in one eye, when a bomb exploded in his hands in Beirut, Lebanon, in 1972. The assassination attempt was carried out by Mossad who hid the explosives in the book The Memoirs of Che Guevara, sent the book to Sharif. Within the PFLP, he began to favor a reduced emphasis on armed struggle and closer cooperation with Fatah, the dominant PLO faction.

As a result, he was removed from the PFLP Politburo in 1981 and was appointed to run external relations. In drawing closer to Fatah leader Yasser Arafat and meeting Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, he was expelled from the PFLP in 1987. After leaving the PFLP in 1987, in a non-partisan role, he became a senior adviser to Yasser Arafat and was able to float some peace proposals based on a two-state solution and preparing Palestinians for the compromises made in Oslo, he returned to Ramallah in 1996 as a presidential adviser and wrote statements of the Palestinian position in the peace process. In 1995, he co-authored the book Best of Enemies with Uzi Mahnaimi, a high-ranking Israeli Mossad officer. Writing in the Palestinian newspaper al-Quds in April 2005, Abu Sharif called for a "popular peaceful uprising" of Palestinians through massive nonviolent resistance to prevent Israel from annexing any additional land in the West Bank. Bassam Abu Sharif has two children and Karma, from a previous marriage.

In an interview on Abu Dhabi TV on April 25, 2010, Abu Sharif claimed that former Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion was responsible for the assassination of John F. Kennedy, due to Kennedy's policy regarding Israeli's Dimona nuclear plant. Ben-Gurion gave the order to assassinate Kennedy. I take full responsibility for every word; the Mossad collaborated with the American mafia, once Oswald had killed Kennedy, the Mossad sent a Jew called Ruby to kill him. The Mossad killed 22 witnesses, the case was closed...these files have not been made public, due to Jewish Zionist pressure. In the same interview, Abu Sharif alleged that US President Barack Obama was the target of an assassination plot by Yemenite Jews: I am warning the American agencies, like the CIA and FBI, which are fast asleep, that a plot to assassinate Obama is in motion, that the group that will attempt to assassinate Obama consists of Yemenite Jews under the guise of Al-Qaeda. Abu Sharif declined to provide a source for his allegations, but stated that: "I am responsible for every word I say, if they want to know more, they can come to me."

Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi. The Best of Enemies: The Memoirs of Bassam Abu-Sharif and Uzi Mahnaimi, 1995. ISBN 978-0-316-00401-5 Tried by Fire, 1996. ISBN 978-0-7515-1636-4 Bassam Abu Sharif and the Dream of Palestine: An Insider's Account - ISBN 978-0-230-60801-6 It Happened to me, I was Blown up by a Parcel Bomb by Clare Campbell, Daily Mail, July 11, 2009 BBC Interview with Bassam Abu Sharif BBC World Service, 7:32am Sunday 12 July 2009