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Berengar of Tours

Berengar of Tours, in Latin Berengarius Turonensis, was an 11th-century French Christian theologian and archdeacon of Angers, a scholar whose leadership of the cathedral school at Chartres set an example of intellectual inquiry through the revived tools of dialectic, soon followed at cathedral schools of Laon and Paris. He came into conflict with Church authorities over the doctrine of transubstantiation of the Eucharist. Berengar of Tours was born at Tours in the early years of the 11th century, his education began in the school of Bishop Fulbert of Chartres, who represented the traditional theology of the early Middle Ages, but did not succeed in imparting it to his pupil. Berengar was less attracted by pure theology than by secular learning, brought away a knowledge of Latin literature, a general knowledge and freedom of thought surprising for his age, he paid more attention to the Bible and early Christian writers Gregory of Tours and Augustine of Hippo. After the death of Fulbert in 1028, Berengar returned to Tours, where he became a canon of the cathedral.

In about 1040 became head of its school, improving its efficiency and attracting students from far and near. He acquired his fame as much from his blameless and ascetic life as from the success of his teaching, his reputation was such. He remained in Tours to direct the school, he enjoyed the confidence of of the powerful Count Geoffrey of Anjou. Amid this chorus of praise, a discordant voice began to be heard; the first controversies on the nature of the Eucharistic Presence date from the earlier Middle Ages. In the ninth century Paschasius Radbertus claimed that Christ's Eucharistic body was identical with his body in heaven, but he won no support, his doctrine was attacked by Ratramnus and Rabanus Maurus, who opposed his emphatic realism, sometimes marred by unfortunate comparisons and illustrations, proposed a more spiritual conception of the Divine presence. As for Berengar, by one account, "Considerably greater stir was provoked... by the teaching of Berengar, who opposed the doctrine of the Real Presence."

But in reality, there are diverse opinions among theologians and historians on this point, it is not clear that Berengar denies the Real Presence, though he does deny transubstantiation. The first to take formal notice of this was his former fellow student Adelmann, who begged him to abandon his opposition to the Church's teaching. In the early part of 1050, Berengar addressed a letter to Lanfranc prior of Bec Abbey in Normandy, in which he expressed his regret that Lanfranc adhered to the Eucharistic teaching of Paschasius and considered the treatise of Ratramnus on the subject to be heretical, he declared his own agreement with Eriugena, believed himself to be supported by Saint Ambrose, Saint Jerome and other authorities. This letter was received by Lanfranc in Rome, where it was read before a council and Berengar's view was condemned. Berengar was summoned to appear at another council to be held at Vercelli in September. Berengar sought permission to go to the council from King Henry I of France, in his capacity as nominal abbot of St. Martin at Tours.

Instead, for unclear reasons, the king imprisoned him. The council at Vercelli examined Berengar's doctrine and again condemned it and he was excommunicated. On his release from prison effected by the influence of Geoffrey of Anjou, the king still pursued him, called a synod to meet in Paris in October 1051. Berengar, fearing its purpose, avoided appearing, the king's threats after its session had no effect, since Berengar was sheltered by Geoffrey and by his former student, now Bishop of Angers, he found numerous partisans among less prominent people. In 1054, a Council was held at Tours presided over by Cardinal Hildebrand as papal legate. Berengar wrote a profession of faith wherein he confessed that after consecration the bread and wine were the body and blood of Christ; the French bishops indicated that they wished a speedy settlement of the controversy and the synod declared itself satisfied by Berengar's written declaration. In 1059, Berengar went to Rome, fortified by a letter of commendation from Count Geoffrey to Hildebrand.

At a council held in the Lateran, he could get no hearing, a formula representing what seemed to him the most carnal view of the sacrament was offered for his acceptance. Overwhelmed by the forces against him, he took this document in his hand and threw himself on the ground in the silence of apparent submission. Berengar returned to France full of remorse for this desertion of his faith and of bitterness against the pope and his opponents. Eusebius Bruno was withdrawing from him. Rome, was disposed to give him a chance, he was still firm in his convictions, in about 1069 he published a treatise in which he gave vent to his resentment against Pope Nicholas II and his antagonists in the Roman council. Lanfranc answered it, Berengar rejoined. Bishop Hugo of Langres wrote a treatise, De corpore et sanguine Christi, aga

Bluff Cove air attacks

The Bluff Cove air attacks occurred 8 June 1982, during the Falklands War. British troop transport ships were bombed by the Argentine Air Force whilst unloading, with significant damage and casualties. By 1 June, British forces on the Falkland Islands were bolstered by the arrival of 5,000 new troops of the 5th Infantry Brigade. Major General Jeremy Moore now had sufficient force to start planning a full-scale assault on Port Stanley. Advance parties of the 2nd Battalion, Parachute Regiment moved forward and occupied Fitzroy and Bluff Cove, when it was discovered to be clear of Argentine forces. Units of the Welsh Guards and Scots Guards were to be sent in to support them. After the sinking of the transport Atlantic Conveyor there was only one British troop-carrying helicopter available, an RAF CH-47 Chinook, Bravo November; therefore and reinforcements would have to be transported by ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, which were manned by civilian sailors. While unloading on 8 June, the British ships were attacked by two waves of A-4 Skyhawks from the Argentine Air Force's 5th Air Brigade, each of them loaded with three 500 lb retarding tail bombs of Spanish design.

The fighters departed from Rio Gallegos airbase, which at the time was monitored by the nuclear submarine HMS Splendid. The first package made of eight aircraft, was reduced to five when three Skyhawks returned to base due to refuelling problems. On their way to Bluff Cove, the package overflew a Scout helicopter from 656 Squadron; the aircraft was written off. The nuclear submarine HMS Valiant, on picket duty off Rio Grande, was able to track six Dagger fighters taking off from the airbase there for a complementary mission and sent an early warning signal, but the report from the submarine failed to reach the British forces at Bluff Cove. Another four Mirages carried out a decoy mission over the north of the islands, while the Argentine destroyer ARA Santísima Trinidad broadcast interference signals to jam the frequencies used by the Royal Navy's air controllers directing the Sea Harrier operations. At 14:00 local time the ships RFA Sir Tristram and RFA Sir Galahad were badly damaged by five A-4Bs of Grupo 5.

Three A-4s targeted Sir Galahad, hit by three bombs from First Lieutenant Carlos Cachón. The second Skyhawk was unable to drop its bombs, the third overshot the British ship; the remaining two aircraft attacked Sir Tristram, struck by two bombs released by package leader Lieutenant Daniel Gálvez. The explosions and subsequent fires killed 48 men aboard Sir Galahad and two crew members from Sir Tristram. At 16:50 a second wave, composed by four A-4Bs of Grupo 5 hit and sank a Landing Craft Utility from HMS Fearless in Choiseul Sound; the landing barge was ferrying the vehicles of the 5th Brigade's headquarters from Darwin to Bluff Cove. Six Royal Marines on board were killed. However, this time the Sea Harrier combat air patrol was on scene and responded. Bolzan's aircraft was shot down by Lieutenant David Smith, while the remaining Skyhawks fell victim to Flight Lieutenant David Morgan; the fourth aircraft suffered combat damage and lost a large amount of fuel, but returned to the mainland assisted by a KC-130 tanker.

A third wave, by A-4Cs of Grupo 4, arrived minutes and struck ground targets without visible success. In a separate incident, the frigate HMS Plymouth endured the sudden attack of the six Daggers from Rio Grande, which struck her with four 1,000-pound bombs; the warship sustained severe damage, five crewmen were injured. Although all the bombs were duds, the attack caused the explosion of at least one depth charge on her flight deck. A total of 56 British servicemen were killed, 150 wounded. BBC television cameras recorded images of Royal Navy helicopters hovering in thick smoke to winch survivors from the burning landing ships; these images were seen around the world. However, General Mario Menendez, commander of Argentine forces on the islands, was told that hundreds of men had been killed, he expected a drop in British morale, their advance to slacken. Sir Galahad was damaged beyond repair and scuttled, but her sister ship survived to be re-built post-war. American author Robert Bolia blames the disaster on the use of large LST ships instead of LCUs and other small vessels.

Brigadier Julian Thompson. I can tell you, if I'd have been on board that ship I would have swam ashore rather than stay there Among the wounded was Simon Weston, who featured in a BBC documentary showing his treatment for the appalling injuries he received. Weston endured 75 operations in 22 years. In a subsequent documentary, filmed in Argentina, he met the pilot who bombed his ship, Carlos Cachón retired with the rank of Captain. After a visit of Cachón and his family to Weston's home in Liverpool, they have become great friends. Carlos Cachón was born near Balcarce and raised in Mar del Plata, where he lives, he is the chief of the security staff in the local offices of the Argentina National Bank. Cachón was awarded the honorific title of "Illustrious Citizen" by the City Council of Mar del Plata on 25 February 2010. After the war, a memorial for the British soldiers killed in the attack was erected at Fitzroy, along with a separate memorial to the ships' crew who lost their lives

Louder Than Love (TKA album)

Louder Than Love is an album by American Latin freestyle group TKA, released by Tommy Boy Records on August 15, 1990. It was released on LP and cassette. Unlike its predecessor, Scars of Love, this album failed to chart on the U. S. Billboard magazine Top Pop Albums chart, received a weaker review by AllMusic's Alex Henderson. Four singles were released; the song "You Are the One", was released before Louder Than Love in 1989 to promote the film Lean on Me, as the song was featured on the soundtrack album. The song reached position No. 91 on the Billboard Hot 100 in June 1989. In 1990, the singles "I Won't Give Up on You" and "Crash" reached the No. 65 and No. 80 respectively. The final single, "Louder Than Love" got to No. 62 on the Billboard Hot 100 in October 1991. Singles - Billboard

The Great British Bake Off (series 10)

The tenth series of The Great British Bake Off began on 27 August 2019, with this being the third series to be broadcast on Channel 4. It is presented by returning hosts Noel Fielding and Sandi Toksvig, judged by returning judges Paul Hollywood and Prue Leith; the series was won by David Atherton, who became the first winner never to have won the Star Baker title since it was introduced. Alice Fevronia and Steph Blackwell finished as runners-up; this series started with 13 bakers instead of the usual 12, which means one episode must feature a double elimination, as was done in series 4. Colour key: Baker was one of the judges' least favourite bakers that week, but was not eliminated. Baker was one of the judges' favourite bakers that week. Baker got through to the next round. Baker was eliminated. Baker was the Star Baker. Baker was a series runner-up. Baker was the series winner. Baker eliminated Star Baker Winner For the signature challenge, the bakers had to bake a fruit cake in the shape of their choice, with a significant amount of dried fruit, lavish decoration in 2½ hours.

For the technical challenge set by Prue, the bakers had to bake six identical angel cake slices, with layers made of genoise sponge sandwiched with Italian meringue buttercream, topped with icing and feathered in 1¾ hour. For the showstopper challenge, the bakers baked the birthday cake they always dreamed of as a child in 4 hours. For the signature challenge this week, the bakers were tasked to make 12 decorated chocolate biscuit bars in 2½ hours. For the technical challenge, Paul tasked a "controversial" bake, his dad's favourite - 12 fig rolls which were identical in shape and size in 1½ hour. For the showstopper, the bakers were asked to create a 3D biscuit sculpture in 4 hours. For the signature challenge this week, the bakers were asked to make a Share loaf in 3 hours. For the technical challenge, Paul asked the bakers to make 8 burger baps, along with 4 veggie burgers to go inside half of them. For the showstopper challenge, the bakers were given the task to make a display of artistically scored loaves.

For the signature challenge this week and Prue tasked the bakers with a Dairy Cake, but the cake mixture needed to contain a cultured dairy product. For the technical challenge, Prue asked the bakers to make a difficult bake that dated back to the Tudor times, twelve Maids of Honour. For the showstopper challenge, the judges gave the bakers the task of making a display of milk-based Indian sweets known as Mishti. For the signature challenge, the bakers were tasked to produce 4 custard pies which should be elaborately decorated with the theme of the 1920s. For the technical challenge, the bakers faced a difficult challenge set by Prue of deep-frying choux pastry to produce 18 Beignet Soufflés filled with raspberry jam and served with a zabaglione. For the showstopper challenge, the bakers were tasked to create a prohibition cocktail cake, with at least two tiers, in memory of the prohibition era in the United States. For the signature challenge this week, the bakers were asked to make a layered meringue cake with a minimum of three layers and'large enough to share with friends' in 2 hrs 45 mins.

For the technical challenge, Prue gave the bakers a difficult task that tested the bakers precision, six identical layered Verrines in 2 hrs 30 mins. For showstopper challenge, the bakers were tasked with an explosive bake, a Celebratory Bombe in 4 hrs 30 mins. For the signature challenge, the bakers were asked to make 24 buns with the theme of a festival or holiday from around the world. For the technical challenge, Paul tasked the bakers with a deep fried pastry treat traditionally served during the Italian Carnevale, 12 Sicilian Cassatelles. For the showstopper challenge, the bakers were set with the complex task of making a kek lapis Sarawak, a traditional layered Malaysian cake. For the signature challenge, the bakers were tasked to do a savoury twist on a sweet French Classic, Tarte Tatin. For the technical challenge, the bakers were given the challenging task of recreating a Moroccan Pie made from warka pastry. For the showstopper challenge, the bakers were asked to create a vertical pie consisting of at least two separate pies.

For the signature challenge, the bakers were tasked with making eight identically decorated domed tarts. For the technical challenge, Prue gave the bakers the task to construct a Gâteau Saint Honoré, a French classic with involves both choux and puff pastry, plus a large amount of cream to relate the week's theme. For the showstopper challenge, the bakers were given a difficult task to make sugar glass cabinets, along with pâtisserie to appear inside them. For the final signature challenge, the remaining three bakers were tasked to create the ultimate chocolate cake that should be rich in chocolate and be beautifully decorated. For the final technical challenge, set by Paul, the bakers were given the task to create six twice-baked Stilton Soufflés completed with biscuits. For the final showstopper challenge, the bakers were required to create a deceptive illusion picnic basket feast that composed of cakes and enriched breads that were presented to look like something else. Two festive specials were commissioned during Christmas New Year's Day.

The Great Christmas Bake Off featured Briony Williams and Terry Hartill from Series 9, along with Tom Hetherington and Yan Tsou from Series 8. The special was won by Briony Williams; the Great Festive Bake Off will see the cast of Derry Girls take on the three challenges on New Years Day. In this festive special, the returning bakers were tasked

Willi Schaefer

Willi Schaefer is a German wine grower and producer based in Graach, in the wine-growing region of Mosel, Germany. The Schaefer family believe their viticulture roots in Graach extend back to 1121, with documentation from 1590; the current winery came into the hands of the Schaefer family in 1950 and Willi Schaefer took over as the winemaker in 1971. Willi Schaefer has been a member of the Großer Ring Verband Deutscher Prädikats- und Qualitätsweingüter since 1993. In 1997, Schaefer was awarded "Newcomer of the Year" by the Gault Millau wine guide. Since 2001 Willi Schaefer's son Christoph, Christoph's wife Andrea have been assisting with running the winery. Willi Schaefer works with 3 hectares of Riesling vineyards, including vines in Graacher Himmelreich, Graacher Domprobst and Wehlener Sonnenuhr. Wine writers Stephen Brook and Stephan Reinhardt are of the opinion that the best wines from this estate are produced from the Graacher Domprobst parcels; the oldest vines are around 60 years of age and 60-70% of the vines are ungrafted, resulting in low yields.

The wines ferment and are matured for around six months on lees in old 1000 litre foudres before bottling. Around 2000 to 3000 cases of wine are produced each year. Only a small number are made in a Trocken or off-dry style and Schaefer avoids the presence of too much botrytis influence in his sweet wines where permissible. VDP Profile

Stanton, Dunn County, Wisconsin

Stanton is a town in Dunn County, United States. The population was 715 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 33.9 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 715 people, 247 households, 196 families residing in the town; the population density was 21.1 people per square mile. There were 257 housing units at an average density of 7.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.90% White, 0.56% Asian, 0.56% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.52% of the population. There were 247 households out of which 40.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 68.4% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.6% were non-families. 14.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.89 and the average family size was 3.20.

In the town, the population was spread out with 29.8% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 30.1% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 107.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 109.2 males. The median income for a household in the town was $45,781, the median income for a family was $48,750. Males had a median income of $31,131 versus $26,250 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,398. About 6.4% of families and 10.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.0% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. Town of Stanton, Dunn County, Wisconsin