Berengaria was queen regnant of Castile in 1217 and queen consort of León from 1197 to 1204. As the eldest child and heir presumptive of Alfonso VIII of Castile, she was a sought after bride, was engaged to Conrad, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa. After his death, she married her cousin, Alfonso IX of León, to secure the peace between him and her father, she had five children with him before their marriage was voided by Pope Innocent III. When her father died, she served as regent for her younger brother Henry I in Castile until she succeeded him on his untimely death. Within months, she turned Castile over to her son, Ferdinand III, concerned that as a woman she would not be able to lead Castile's forces. However, she remained one of his closest advisors, guiding policy and ruling on his behalf for the rest of her life, she was responsible for the re-unification of Castile and León under her son's authority, supported his efforts in the Reconquista. She was a patron of religious institutions and supported the writing of a history of the two countries.
Berengaria was born either in Burgos. She was the eldest daughter of King Alfonso VIII of Eleanor of England, she was the sister of Mafalda and Henry I of Castile and was named in honor of Alfonso VIII´s grandmother. Those who cared for the young infanta were generously rewarded, her nurse, Estefanía, received land from Alfonso and Eleanor on her retirement in May 1181. Another nurse, received a similar retirement gift in 1189 at Berengaria's request; as the eldest child of king Alfonso and Eleanor, who preferred to give birth to a son and therefore king,she was the heiress presumptive of the throne of Castile for several years, because many of her siblings who were born after her died shortly after birth or in early infancy, so Berengaria became a desired partner throughout Europe. Berengaria's first engagement was agreed in 1187 when her hand was sought by Conrad, Duke of Rothenburg and fifth child of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa; the next year, the marriage contract was signed in Seligenstadt, including a dowry of 42000 Maravedí.
Conrad marched to Castile, where in Carrión the engagement was celebrated and Conrad was knighted making him a servant of his new lord, Alfonso. Berengaria's status as heir of Castile when she inherited the throne was based in part on documentation in the treaty and marriage contract, which specified that she would inherit the kingdom after her father or any childless brothers who may come along. Conrad would only be allowed to co-rule as her spouse, Castile would not become part of the Empire. Furthermore, he was not allowed to claim the throne for himself in case of Alfonso´s death but was obliged to defend and protect the kingdom until Berengaria would arrive; the treaty documented traditional rights and obligations between the future sovereign and the nobility. The marriage was not consummated, due to Berengaria's young age. Conrad and Berengaria never saw each other again. By 1191, Berengaria requested an annulment of the engagement from the Pope, influenced, no doubt, by third parties such as her grandmother Eleanor of Aquitaine, not interested in having a Hohenstaufen as a neighbor to her French fiefdoms.
Those fears were neutralized when the duke was assassinated in 1196. In order to help secure peace between Castile and León and by becoming a mediator between her father and her husband,Berengaria married Alfonso IX of León, her first cousin once removed, in Valladolid in 1197; as part of the marriage, in accordance with Spanish customs of the time, she received direct control over a number of castles and lands within León. Most of these were along the border with Castile, the nobles who ran them in her name were allowed to seek justice from either king in the event of being wronged by the other. In turn, these knights were charged with maintaining the peace along the border in the queen's name. Starting in 1198, Pope Innocent III objected to the marriage on the grounds of consanguinity and threatened to excommunicate Alfonso, though the couple stayed together until 1204, they vehemently sought a dispensation in order to stay together, including offering large sums of money. However, the pope denied their request, although they succeeded in having their children considered legitimate.
Her marriage dissolved, Berengaria returned to Castile and to her parents in May 1204, where she dedicated herself to the care of her children. Though she had left her role as queen of León, she retained authority over and taxing rights in many of the lands she had received there, including Salamanca and Castroverde, which she gave to her son Ferdinand in 1206; some of the nobles who had served her as queen followed her back to the court in Castille. The peace which had prevailed since her marriage was lost, there was war again between León and Castille, in part over her control of these lands. In 1205, 1207, 1209, treaties were made again between the two countries, each expanding her control. In the treaties of 1207 and 1209, Berengaria and her son were given again significant properties along the border, including many key castles, including Villalpando; the treaty in 1207 is the first existing public document in the Castilian dialect. In 1214, on the death of her father, Alfonso VIII of Castile, the crown passed to his only surviving son, Berengaria's 10-year-old brother, Henry I.
Their mother Eleanor died 24 days after her husband. Berengaria, now heir presumptive again, replaced her as regent. At this point internal strife began, instigated by the nobility the House of Lara, they forced Be
The following are Marxist–Leninist groups that are or were considered to be anti-revisionist, i.e. groups that uphold the opinion that the Soviet Union diverged from socialist practice in 1956 under the leadership of Nikita Khrushchev. Albanian Communist Party Albanian Party of Labour Albanian Party of Labour The Albanian Section of the Comintern Revolutionary Communist Party Communist Party of Australia Party of Labour of Austria Communist Party of Bangladesh Workers Party of Bangladesh Workers Party of Belgium Communist Party of Bolivia Communist Party of Brazil Revolutionary Communist Party Communist Party of Canada Chilean Communist Party Revolutionary Communist Party Maoist Communist Party of China Communist Party of Colombia Popular Liberation Army Red Action Communist Party of Denmark Communist Labour Party Communist Party of the Dominican Republic Dominican Workers Party Dominican Workers' Party Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Ecuador Democratic Popular Movement Workers' Party of Ecuador Marxist–Leninist League of Tigray Communist Workers' Party – For Peace and Socialism Workers Communist Party of France The German section of the Comintern Communist Party of Germany Marxist-Leninist Party of Germany Communist Organization of Greece Communist Party of Greece Marxist-Leninist Communist Party of Greece Movement for the Reorganization of the Communist Party of Greece 1918-55 Communist Ghadar Party of India Communist Party of India Central Reorganisation Committee, Communist Party of India Italian Marxist-Leninist Party Communist Party of Italy Unified Communist Party of Italy Communist Party of Mexico Communist Party of Nepal Communist Party of Nepal Communist Mazdoor Kisan Party Communist Party of Panama Communist Party of Peru Communist Party of Peru Communist Party of the Philippines Communist Party of Spain Communist Party of Spain Communist Party of Spain Marxist-Leninist Party Ceylon Communist Party Tunisian Workers' Communist Party Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist – Hareketi Communist Party of Turkey/Marxist–Leninist Marxist–Leninist Communist Party Revolutionary Communist League of Turkey Revolutionary Communist Party of Turkey Communist Party Alliance Communist Party of Britain Communist Party of Great Britain International Leninist Workers Party New Communist Party of Britain Revolutionary Communist Party of Britain Stalin Society The American section of the Comintern Communist Party Communist Party USA Communist Workers' Party Freedom Road Socialist Organization Maoist Internationalist Movement Progressive Labor Party Revolutionary Communist Party, USA US Marxist-Leninist Organization Workers Party, USA Revolutionary Communist Party Red Flag Party Marxist–Leninist Communist Party of Venezuela
De Hoop Nature Reserve is a nature reserve in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. It lies three hours from Cape Town in the Overberg region, near Cape Agulhas, the southern tip of Africa. 340 square kilometres in area, it is one of the largest natural areas managed by CapeNature. De Hoop is one of the components of the "Cape Floral Region Protected Areas" World Heritage Site; the De Hoop Marine Protected Area extends three nautical miles out to sea from the coastline of the nature reserve. De Hoop Nature Reserve's climate is Mediterranean, with mild winters; the reserve gets 380 mm of rain annually. August is the wettest month. In summer, winds blow in from the east and southeast, whereas winter has westerly and southwesterly winds; the vegetation De Hoop Nature Reserve is part of the world's smallest and most threatened plant kingdom, known as the Cape Floral Kingdom. The reserve contains one of the largest areas of the rare lowland fynbos. De Hoop is haven for both marine animals. Numerous species inhabit these habitats.
The reserve has a total of 86 mammal species. These include the rare bontebok and Cape mountain zebra, grey rhebok, chacma baboon, yellow mongoose and caracal. Leopard, although rare, are found in the reserve; the waters within the De Hoop Reserve support good populations of marine mammals such as dolphins and seals. The bays of De Hoop are the breeding grounds for southern right whales; the marine protected area of the reserve has a total of 250 species of fish. De Hoop supports a large number of resident and migratory bird species; the reserve's total bird species count is 260. Several water birds breed in the reserve; the reserve is home to the only remaining breeding colony of the rare Cape vulture. The eastern part of the reserve is used by the Denel Overberg Test Range for missile testing. There is no danger to hikers. CapeNature Protected areas of South Africa De Hoop Nature Reserve travel guide from Wikivoyage De Hoop Nature Reserve
The Investigative Reporting Workshop is a nonprofit, investigative news organization focusing on significant issues of public concern. The Workshop is an laboratory for original, nonpartisan watchdog reporting; as a professional journalism center in the School of Communication at American University, the Investigative Reporting Workshop is one of 18 university-based investigative journalism centers in the nation and the only one in Washington, D. C; the Workshop mentors and enables the work of a new generation of investigative reporters while enlarging the public space for the leading journalists of our time. Long-term projects include coverage of the banking and credit union industries, illegal immigration and the administration's enforcement policies; the Workshop collaborates with other media outlets as publishing partners, those include The Washington Post, NBCNews.com, The Philadelphia Inquirer, National Journal, The Daily Beast, New America Media and McClatchy Newspapers, among others.
The nonprofit was founded by American University professors Charles Lewis, a national investigative journalist for more than 30 years, Wendell Cochran, a longtime business reporter and editor, in the spring of 2008. Lewis, a former producer for "60 Minutes,” founded four nonprofits in Washington, including the Center for Public Integrity, has written six books, including “The Buying of the President 2004,” and is a MacArthur Fellow, he is executive editor. In 2018, Lewis won the I. F. Stone Medal for Journalistic Independence. Cochran, who retired, was a business reporter and journalism faculty member. Lynne Perri, former deputy managing editor for graphics and photography at USA TODAY and a former reporter and editor at The Tampa Tribune, is managing editor. Lewis and Cochran are tenured faculty members in the School of Communication at American University, she teaches journalism ethics and visual journalism. John Sullivan, a Pulitzer Prize winner from The Philadelphia Inquirer, is a senior editor.
Sullivan is a reporter on The Washington Post's Investigations team and teaches an investigative practicum at the graduate level. Sullivan spearheaded a new partnership between The Washington Post. Jennifer LaFleur, former senior editor for the award-winning Reveal from the Center for Investigative Reporting, is data editor. LaFleur is a data journalist-in-residence at American University. LaFleur teaches data journalism and has won numerous journalism awards, including for her coverage of disability and open government issues. Kris Higgins, who holds a MFA in Film & Media Arts from the School of Communication at American University, is the operating producer, he spent more than a decade overseeing programs at various nonprofit organizations. Nancy Sturm joined the Investigative Reporting Workshop as development director in 2018. Sturm led development departments and programs at various organizations, including the national League of Women Voters, Common Cause and the National Endowment for the Humanities, among others.
The model for the Workshop is the Children's Television Workshop, created to produce “Sesame Street,” but became an incubator and innovator for much of educational television. The Workshop Advisory Board consists of 13 journalists from five continents; the Workshop published "The Boy on the Bus" on April 4, 2018. The story, about how sex offender registries can fail and how difficult it can be to put convicted child molesters on national lists, was co-published with IowaWatch.org. On April 2, 2018, the Workshop published "Stockman and the Donors," an investigation into former Texas Congressman Steve Stockman and a GOP contribution of $450,000 that may have been related to gun lobbyists; the story, "At Trump’s big-city hotels, business dropped as his political star rose, internal documents show,", by the Workshop's Morgan Krakow and the Post's David A. Fahrenthold and Jonathan O’Connell, is about how business at Trump properties fell as his political ambitions rose; the investigation reveals.
One of their key findings: “Between 2015 and 2017, revenue from room rentals at the New York hotel declined 14 percent … At Trump’s hotel in Chicago, a document a similar drop-off. Bookings fell 8 percent from 2015 to 2016, this year’s figures are still lower than the pace in 2016.” The online and on-air stories, "Caught between gun violence and aggressive policing", document the D. C. police department's aggressive focus on getting illegal guns off the streets. The Workshop combined forces with the NPR affiliate in Washington. Founding Executive Editor Charles Lewis authored an editorial article examining the watchdog status of the media in post-Trump America; the article was co-published with The Nation Magazine. This investigation looks at the struggles of refugees attempting to make a home in San Diego; this series is a collaboration with inewsource and KPBS in San Diego. The most recent story, "Trauma and transitions: How San Diego grapples with educating refugees," was published in August 2017.
Since 2013, The Workshop has partnered with the Washington Post. In the last two years, many of the stories focused on maintaining a nationwide database of fatal shootings by police; the most recent installment in the series was published in July 2017. The online, multimedia project, Investigating Power showcases more than 50 hours of interviews with distinguished journalists; this project documents “moments of truth” in contemporary U. S. history and the
Ganjingzi District is one of the seven districts of Dalian, Liaoning province, People's Republic of China, forming part of the urban core. Its area is 451.52 square kilometres and its permanent population as of 2010 is 1,321,778 and postal code 116033. There are 15 subdistricts in the district. Subdistricts: The following secondary schools are within Ganjingzi District: Dalian No. 11 High School Dalian No. 20 High School Dalian No. 23 High School Dalian No. 76 Middle School Dalian No. 80 Middle School High School Attached to Dalian University of Technology Dalian Hongqi Senior High SchoolThe following universities are within Ganjingzi District: Dalian University of Technology Dalian Maritime University Dalian Polytechnic University Dalian Neusoft University of Information Official Website of the Ganjingzi District Government
Witchelina is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located about 32 kilometres to the north-west of the town of Leigh Creek and about 487 kilometres north of the Adelaide city centre. The locality was established on 26 April 2013 in respect to “the long established local name.” Its name is derived from the former pastoral lease of the same name. Witchelina is located within the federal Division of Grey, the state electoral district of Stuart, the Pastoral Unincorporated Area of South Australia and the state’s Far North region; the land use within Witchelina is concerned with the use of the former pastoral lease as a private protected area known as Witchelina which has occupied its extent as of 2010. List of cities and towns in South Australia