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Berengaria of Navarre

Berengaria of Navarre was queen of England as the wife of Richard I of England. She was the eldest daughter of Sancho VI of Sancha of Castile; as is the case with many of the medieval English queens little is known of her life. Traditionally known as "the only English queen never to set foot in the country", she may in fact have visited the country after her husband's death, but did not do so before, nor did she see much of him during her marriage, childless, she did accompany him on the start of the Third Crusade, but lived in his French possessions, where she gave generously to the church, despite difficulties in collecting the pension she was due from Richard's brother and successor John after she became a widow. In 1185, Berengaria was given the fief of Monreal by her father. Eleanor of Aquitaine promoted the engagement of Berengaria to Richard the Lionheart. An alliance with Navarre meant protection for the southern borders of Eleanor's Duchy of Aquitaine, helped create better relations with neighbouring Castile whose queen was Eleanor, a sister of Richard.

Navarre had assimilated the troubadour culture of Aquitaine and Berengaria's reputation was unbesmirched. It seems that Berengaria and Richard did in fact meet once, years before their marriage, writers have claimed that there was an attraction between them at that time. In 1190, Eleanor met Sancho in Pamplona and he hosted a banquet in the Royal Palace of Olite in her honour; the betrothal could not be celebrated for Richard had been betrothed for many years to Alys, half-sister of King Philip II of France. Richard terminated his betrothal to Alys in 1190 while at Messina, it has been suggested that Alys had become the mistress of Richard's own father, Henry II of England, the mother of an illegitimate child. Richard had Berengaria brought to him by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine; because Richard was on the Third Crusade, having wasted no time in setting off after his coronation, the two women had a long and difficult journey to catch up with him. They arrived at Messina in Sicily during Lent in 1191 and were joined by Richard's sister Joan, the widowed queen of Sicily.

The two women became Berengaria was left in Joan's custody. En route to the Holy Land, the ship carrying Berengaria and Joan ran aground off the coast of Cyprus, they were threatened by the island's ruler, Isaac Comnenus. Richard came to their rescue, captured the island, overthrew Comnenus. Berengaria married Richard the Lionheart on 12 May 1191, in the Chapel of St. George at Limassol on Cyprus, was crowned the same day by the Archbishop of Bordeaux and Bishops of Évreux and Bayonne. Whether the marriage was even consummated is a matter for conjecture. In any case, Richard took his new wife with him for the first part of the Third Crusade; this was unusual, although Richard's mother and Berengaria's predecessor, Eleanor of Aquitaine, when queen of France, been with her husband throughout the Second Crusade, though the stresses and disputes of the unsuccessful campaign did serious damage to their relationship. Berengaria returned well. Berengaria remained in Europe, based at Beaufort-en-Vallée, attempting to raise money for his ransom.

After his release, Richard was not joined by his wife. When Richard returned to England, he had to regain all the territory that had either been lost by his brother John or taken by King Philip of France, his focus was on his kingdom, not his queen. King Richard was ordered by Pope Celestine III to reunite with Queen Berengaria and to show fidelity to her in the future. Richard, now spending his time in France and took Berengaria to church every week thereafter; when he died in 1199, she was distressed more so at deliberately being overlooked as queen of England and Cyprus. Some historians believe that Berengaria loved her husband, Richard's feelings for her were formal because the marriage was a political rather than a romantic union. Berengaria never visited England during King Richard's lifetime. There is evidence, that she may have done so in the years following his death; the traditional description of her as "the only English queen never to set foot in the country" still would be true because she did not visit England during the time she was Richard's consort.

She sent envoys to England several times to inquire about the pension she was due as dowager queen and Richard's widow, which King John failed to pay. Although Queen Eleanor intervened and Pope Innocent III threatened him with an interdict if he did not pay Berengaria what was due, King John still owed her more than £4000 when he died. During the reign of his son Henry III of England, her payments were made. Berengaria settled in Le Mans, one of her dower properties, she was a benefactress of L'Épau Abbey in Le Mans, entered the conventual life, was buried in the abbey. In 1240, Archbishop Rodrigo Jimenez de Rada of Toledo wrote of Berengaria that she lived, "as a most praiseworthy widow and stayed for the most part in the city of Le Mans, which she held as part of her marriage dower, devoting herself to almsgiving and good works, witnessing as an example to all women of chastity and religion and in the same city she came to the end of her days

Aldershot Stadium

Aldershot Stadium was a greyhound racing, stock car racing and speedway stadium on Oxenden Road in Tongham, near Farnham, Surrey The stadium was constructed on land west of the Oxenden Road and east of the Blackwater River. Greyhound racing first took place in 1941 and the racing was independent, it was known as a flapping track, the nickname given to independent tracks. During the 1950s and 1960s racing was held on Friday evenings at 7.30 pm. The track had a circumference of 400 yards with an'Inside Sumner' hare system and race distances of 275, 500, 675 and 900 yards. Facilities included tea bar and hot dog bar and totalisator; the track was sanded bends. During the 1980s the facilities were listed as three stands (one glass fronted and two covered. Race distances were now 254, 462, 626 and 842 metres and the main races were the Smokey Joe Stakes and the March Hare Stakes. Speedway took place from 1950 until 1960. During 1973 the stadium was taken over by Spedeworth International Ltd and Stock car racing was a regular fixture.

There was a weekly Sunday market. The stadium closed on 30 October 1992 making way for the new A331 road; the loss of the stadium was seen as a blow to Independent racing because it was one of the more professional tracks in this type of racing

Colin Nixon

Colin Nixon is a retired footballer from Northern Ireland and former manager of Ards. Son of Alice and Hugh Nixon, Colin has three children, his family are synonymous with the local game. Nixon is the son of Hugh and Alice Nixon, has five siblings and three children. Colin played for Glentoran for all of his professional career, he has played at right back but can play centre back. He is a Glentoran supporter, a fan's favourite.'Nicky' is Glentoran's record appearance holder with over 700 appearances, the 700th coming in November 2010 against Portadown at Shamrock Park. At the end of the 2012/13 Danske Bank Premiership season, Nixon was informed that he would not have his contract renewed. In his last game at The Oval, after making 792 appearances and scoring on 87 occasions - Nicky added one to each of those stats, replacing Jay Magee in the second half and scoring a spectacular acrobatic equaliser after 88 minutes to the delight of every fan in attendance. Nixon received a standing ovation before and after the game as the Glentoran fans paid tribute to a true club legend.

Colin Nixon came on for Glentoran in his final match, the 2013 Irish Cup Final which Glentoran won 3-1. He lifted the cup alongside goalkeeper Elliott Morris, Glentoran Captain for the day. Nixon is no longer the manager of NIFL Premiership side Ards. GlentoranIFA Premiership: 1998–99, 2002–03, 2004–05, 2008–09 Irish Cup: 1996, 1998, 2000, 2001, 2004 2013 Irish League Cup: 2001,2003, 2005, 2007, 2010 County Antrim Shield: 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2008, 2011 Colin Nixon at Footballdatabase


Clevidipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker indicated for the reduction of blood pressure when oral therapy is not feasible or not desirable. It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration on August 1, 2008. Clevidipine is a dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel blocker selective for vascular, as opposed to myocardial, smooth muscle and, has little or no effect on myocardial contractility or cardiac conduction, it reduces mean arterial blood pressure by decreasing systemic vascular resistance. Clevidipine does not reduce cardiac filling pressure, confirming lack of effects on the venous capacitance vessels. No increase in myocardial lactate production in coronary sinus blood has been seen, confirming the absence of myocardial ischemia due to coronary steal. Clevidipine is metabolized by esterases in the blood and extravascular tissues. Therefore, its elimination is unlikely to be affected by renal dysfunction. Clevidipine does not accumulate in the body, its clearance is independent of body weight.

The initial phase half-life is 1 minute and the terminal half-life is 15 minutes. Clevidipine will still be metabolized in pseudocholinesterase-deficient patients. Clevidipine is formulated as a lipid emulsion in 20% soybean oil and contains 0.2 g of fat per mL. Clevidipine contains glycerin, purified egg yolk phospholipids, sodium hydroxide to adjust pH. Clevidipine has a pH of 6.0–8.0 In the perioperative patient population Clevidipine produces a 4–5% reduction in systolic blood pressure within 2–4 minutes after starting a 1–2 mg/hour IV infusion. In studies up to 72 hours of continuous infusion, there was no evidence of tolerance. In most patients, full recovery of blood pressure is achieved in 5–15 minutes after the infusion is stopped. Clevidipine consists of two enantiomers; this is a racemate, ie a 1: 1 mixture of – and the - form: Aseptic technique should be used when handling Cleviprex since it contains phospholipids and can support microbial growth. Cleviprex is administered intravenously and should be titrated to achieve the desired blood pressure reduction.

Blood pressure and heart rate should be monitored continually during infusion. Cleviprex is a single use product that should not be diluted and should not be administered in the same line as other medications. Once the stopper is punctured, Cleviprex should be used within 12 hours and any unused portion remaining in the vial should be discarded. Change IV lines in accordance with hospital protocol. An IV infusion at 1–2 mg/hour is recommended for initiation and should be titrated by doubling the dose every 90 seconds; as the blood pressure approaches goal, the infusion rate should be increased in smaller increments and titrated less frequently. The maximum infusion rate for Cleviprex is 32 mg/hour. Most patients in clinical trials were treated with doses of less; because of lipid load restrictions, no more than 1000 mL of Cleviprex infusion is recommended per 24 hours. In clinical studies, no significant changes occurred in serum triglyceride levels in the Cleviprex treated patients. There is little experience with infusion durations beyond 72 hours at any dose.

The infusion can be reduced or discontinued to achieve desired blood pressure while appropriate oral therapy is established. Cleviprex is intended for intravenous use. Titrate drug depending on the response of the individual patient to achieve the desired blood pressure reduction. Monitor blood pressure and heart rate continually during infusion, until vital signs are stable. Patients who receive prolonged Cleviprex infusions and are not transitioned to other antihypertensive therapies should be monitored for the possibility of rebound hypertension for at least 8 hours after the infusion is stopped. In clinical trials, the safety profile of clevidipine was similar to sodium nitroprusside, nitroglycerin, or nicardipine in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Cleviprex is contraindicated in patients with allergies to soybeans, soy products, eggs, or egg products. Hypotension and reflex tachycardia are potential consequences of rapid upward titration of Cleviprex. In clinical trials, a similar increase in heart rate was observed in both Cleviprex and comparator arms.

Dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers can produce negative inotropic effects and exacerbate heart failure. Heart failure patients should be monitored carefully. Cleviprex gives no protection against the effects of abrupt beta-blocker withdrawal. Most common adverse reactions are headache and vomiting. Cleviprex should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Maintain aseptic technique while handling Cleviprex. Cleviprex can support microbial growth. Do not use if contamination is suspected. Once the stopper is punctured, use or discard within 12 hours. No clinical drug interaction studies were conducted. Cleviprex does not have the potential for inducing any CYP enzymes. Cleviprex is available in ready-to-use 50- and 100-mL glass vials at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL of clevidipine butyrate. Vials should be refrigerated at 2-8oC. Cleviprex can be stored to controlled room temperature for up to 2 months. Cleviprex is photosensitive and storage in cartons protects against photodegradation.


Avraham Gombiner

Abraham Abele Gombiner, known as the Magen Avraham, born in Gąbin, was a rabbi, Talmudist and a leading religious authority in the Jewish community of Kalisz, Poland during the seventeenth century. His full name is Avraham Abele ben Chaim HaLevi from the town of Gombin. There are texts. After his parents were killed in the Chmielnicki massacres of 1648, he moved to live and study with his relative in Leszno, Jacob Isaac Gombiner, he is known to scholars of Judaism for his Magen Avraham commentary on the Orach Chayim section of Rabbi Joseph Karo's Shulchan Aruch, which he began writing in 1665 and finished in 1671. His brother Yehudah traveled in 1673 to Amsterdam to print the work, but did not have the needed funds, died on the journey, it was not published until 1692 by Shabbethai Bass in Dyhernfurth after Rabbi Gombiner's death. His son Chaim wrote in the preface to the work that his father was sick and suffered pain and discomfort, his most important work was a commentary on Shulchan Aruch, Orach Hayyim.

It is not to be confused with works by the same title by Abraham Farissol and Avraham the magid of Trisk. He wrote Zayit Ra'anan, a commentary on the popular midrashic collection Yalkut Shimoni, he authored a commentary to the works of the Tosefta on the section of Nezikin in the Talmud, published by his grandson together with the work by R. Abraham's son-in-law Moshe Yekutiel Kaufman, Lehem Hapanim, he wrote a commentary on the Torah entitled Shemen Sason. Gombiner's son Chaim named the book Magen Avraham, his father's students mentioned to him that they asked his father how he will name his book and he answered Ner Yisrael. Because of humility he did not want to integrate his name in the book. However, his son wanted to perpetuate his father's name in the title by linking it to the commentary of the Taz - Magen David, so he published his father's work under the title Magen Avraham. Aaron Worms criticized him for titling the book with a traditional title for God and referencing the closing of the first blessing in the Amidah.

However, Chaim Michael states that there is no basis for its all empty talk. Gombiner's innovative approach to commenting on the Shulchan Aruch was to incorporate the customs of his contemporary Poland; the work is terse and difficult and needed explanation by commentators. His lasting effect on halakhah was the incorporation of the Kabbalistic customs of Safed those found in Rabbi Isaiah Horowitz's Shene Luhot Haberit, he taught. In the case of the blessing of "giving strength to the weary" he writes that one does not undo an old custom, believed that opponents like Rabbi Yosef Karo repented of changing minhag at the end of his life. Dealing with the widespread practice of hiring gentiles to work for the community on the Sabbath, he wrote, "they allow themselves to hire a Gentile under contract to remove the garbage from the streets, the Gentile does the work on the Sabbath." He assumed that a prior rabbi had approved the action "and we must conclude that a great rabbi handed down this ruling" for the sake of the community.

Regarding the universal practice of not giving people who claim to be Kohanim priority in many cases he said it is most because modern-day Kohanim do not have any proper proof of their pedigree. He taught that aliyot should be given based on events in congregants' lives, such as marriage and death, rather than always giving it to the scholars, he taught that "women are exempt from counting the omer, since it is a positive time-bound commandment". Nonetheless, they have made it obligatory upon themselves."He held that children can count for a minyan for the Torah reading. Some modern rabbis wish to extrapolate from this opinion to include counting women for a minyan in a Partnership Minyan, while others disagree; this controversial point is discussed in recent responsa. While giving his imprimatur to local customs, in the case of the custom to donate firecrackers and fireworks to the synagogue in honour of Simchat Torah, Rabbi Gombiner believed it proof of the effect of allowing boorish commoners to celebrate a scholars' holiday.

The Magen Avraham was the subject of a commentary by Samuel Neta HaLevi of Kolin, entitled Mahatsit ha-shekel, another by David Solomon Eibenschutz, entitled Levushei Serad. R. Yechiel Michel Epstein’s Aruch HaShulchan and R. Yisrael Meir Kagan’s Mishnah Berurah relied on Gombiner for their acceptance of Kabbalistic practices. There is a major dispute in the 17-18th century as to. One approach reckons the day from dawn until nightfall; the other approach reckons the day from sunrise to sunset. For rituals, which are prescribed in the morning, Magen Avraham's calculations will always be earlier than that of the Vilna Gaon. For rituals, which are prescribed in the afternoon or evening, Magen Avraham's calculations will always be than that of the Vilna Gaon. Jacob, Katz The "Shabbes Goy": A Study in Halakhic Flexibility Jewish Publication Society, 1989 Chayyim Tchernowitz, Toldot Haposkim 3: 164-172. J. Wrescher, Introduction to Shemen Sason. Jewish Encyclopedia entry his work on Tosefte, Amsterdam 1732

Richard Stagg

Sir Richard Stagg is a retired British diplomat, ambassador to Bulgaria, high commissioner to India and ambassador to Afghanistan. Charles Richard Vernon Stagg was educated at Winchester College and Oriel College, Oxford where he read history. On joining the British Foreign Office, Stagg worked in the Department responsible for Hong Kong – on his second day the Hong Kong Police mutinied, adding to the challenge of managing Britain’s last major overseas territory, he spent three years in Bulgaria, a further three years in the Netherlands at a time when the country was in uproar over the planned deployment of US missiles. Stagg was seconded to the Secretariat of the European Council to help establish a new organisation designed to coordinate more the foreign policy of the members of the European Union, he returned to London to work on policy towards the Soviet Union in the three years leading up to its collapse and the liberation of Eastern Europe – the goal of British policy for the previous four decades.

After two years as British Press Spokesman in Brussels during the Maastricht negotiations, he became a Private Secretary to the British Foreign Secretary Douglas Hurd. From 1996–1998 Stagg was head of the Foreign Office Department responsible for the Enlargement of the EU – negotiations with 10 candidate countries were started in early 1998 under the UK’s Presidency of the Council of the EU. Sir Richard was appointed British Ambassador to Bulgaria in 1998 and served there for three years during the war over the future of Kosovo. Between 2001 and 2007 Stagg was responsible for the Foreign Office’s global consular and information work, he was a member of the Foreign Office's management board from 2002 to 2007. Stagg was British High Commissioner to India from 2007 to 2011, Ambassador to Afghanistan from April 2012 until he retired in early 2015. In September 2019 he took up the post of Warden of Winchester College, chairing its board of governors. Sir Richard is married with five children aged between 14 and 27.

This article incorporates text published under the British Open Government Licence v2.0: British Ambassador to Afghanistan: Sir Richard Stagg at the Wayback Machine STAGG, Sir Richard, Who's Who 2012, A & C Black, 2012.